Obrazy na stronie

of seamen previous to the contest with Sextus Pompeius. (Sueton., Wit. Aug., 16. — Well. Paterc., 2, 79–Compare Virgil, Georg., 2, 161.—Horat., Ep. ad Pis., 63.) The woods, also, which surrounded Avernus in particular, were cut down, and, the stagnant vapour being thus dissipated, the vicinity was rendered healthy. By this operation much land was reclaimed, which before had been covered by these lakes, an outlet being afforded to their waters into the sea. The shores of the Lucrine lake were famous for oysters. In the year 1538, an earthquake formed a hill, called Monte Nuovo, near two miles in circumference, and 200 feet high, consisting of lava, burned stones, scoria, &c., which left no appearance of a a lake, but a morass, filled with grass and rushes. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 159.) Lucullus, Lucius Licinius, descended from a distinguished Roman family, was born about B.C. 1 15, and served under Sylla in the Marsian war. Sylla had a very high opinion of the talents and integrity of Lucullus, and employed him, though he was very young, in many important enterprises. While the former was besieging Athens (B.C. 87), Lucullus was sent into Egypt and Africa to collect a fleet; and, after the conclusion of the war with Mithradates, he was left in Asia to collect the money which Sylla had imposed upon the conquered states. So great, indeed, was the regard which Sylla had for him, that he dedicated his commentaries to him, and, in his last will, made him guardian to his son. In B.C. 74 Lucullus was elected consul, and was appointed to the command of the war against Mithradates. During the following eight years he was entirely engaged in conducting this war; and, in a series of brilliant campaigns, completely defeated Mithradates, and his powerful son-in-law Tigranes. In B.C. 73 he overcame Mithradates at Cyzicus, on the Propontis; and in the following year again conquered him at Cabiri, on the borders of Pontus and Armenia. In B.C. 69 he marched into Armenia against Tigranes, who had espoused the cause of his father-in-law, and completely defeated his forces near Tigranocerta. He followed up his victory by the capture of this place, and in the following year took also Nisibis, in the northern part of Mesopotamia; but he was not able to derive all the advantage he might have done from his victories, in consequence of the mutinous disposition of his soldiers. Lucullus never appears to have been a favourite with his troops; and their disaffection was increased by the acts of Clodius, whose sister Lucullus had married. The popular party at home were not slow in attacking a general who had been the personal friend of Sylla, and who was known to be a powerful supporter of the patrician party. They accused him of protracting the war, on account of the facilities, it afforded him of acquiring wealth; and eventually carried a measure by which he was removed from the command, and succeeded by Pompey, B.C. 66.-The senate, according to Plutarch, had looked forward to Lucullus as likely to prove a most powerful supporter of the patrician order: but in this they were disappointed; for, on his return to Rome, he took no part in public affairs, but passed the remainder of his life in retirement. The immense fortune which he had amassed during his command in Asia he employed in the erection of most magnificent villas near Naples and Tusculum: and he lived in a style of magnificence and luxury which appears to have astonished even the most wealthy of his contemraries. Lucullus was a man of refined taste and iberal education: he wrote in his youth the history of the Marsian war in Greek (Plut., Wit. Lucull, c. 1.-Compare Cic., Ep. ad Att., 1, 12), and was a warm supporter of learning and the arts. His houses were decorated with the most costly paintings and statues, and his library, which he had collected at an

immense expense, was open to all learned men. He lived on intimate terms with Cicero, who has highly praised his learning, and has inscribed one of his books with the name of his friend, namely, the 4th book of his “Academic Questions,” in which he makes Lucullus define the philosophical opinions of the Old Academy.—It is said that, during the latter years of his life, Lucullus lost his senses, and that his brother had the care of his estate. He died in his 67th or 68th year. We have a life of him by Plutarch. (Plut., Wit. Lucull.—Appian, Bell. Muthrad.—Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 192.) Lucis Mo, the title applied to the hereditary chiefs who ruled over each of the twelve independent tribes of the Etrurian nation. It would seem also to have been given to the eldest sons of noble families, who, by their right of primogeniture, would have a fairer claim to public offices and the honours of the state. (Muller, Etrusker, vol. 1, p. 356.) The original Etrurian term was Lauchme, and hence among the Latin writers we sometimes meet with the form Lucmo, as in Propertius (4, 1, 29). Niebuhr thinks that the words Lucumo and Luceres may be both referred in etymology to Luger, the old German for “a seer,” and may have had reference originally to divining by auspices, a privilege reserved for the rulers of the state and the heads of houses. (Rom. Hist, vol. 1, p. 242, Walter's transl.) Ludi, I. Apollinares, games in honour of Apollo, celebrated annually at Rome on the fifth of July, and for several days thereafter. They were instituted during the second Punic war, for the purpose of propitiating success, and at first had no fixed time of celebration, until this was determined by a law which P. Licinius Varus, the city praetor, had passed. After this they were held, as above mentioned, in July. (Lit., 25, 12. —Id., 27, 23. — Manut, ad Cic., Ep. ad Att., 1, 16.)—II. Cereales, called also simply Cerealia, a festival in honour of Ceres, accompanied with public games in the circus, at which the people sat arrayed in white, and during and immediately before which the greatest abstemiousness was enjoined. The injunction was removed at nightfall. The celebration took place on the 9th of April. (Aul. Gell., 18, 2, seqq.—Plaut., Aulul., 2, 6, 5.)—ll I. Magni or Romani, celebrated in honour of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. They were the most famous of the Roman games. (Cic. in Verr., 7, 14.)—IV. Megalenses, called also simply Megalesia, celebrated in honour of Cybele, or the great mother of the gods. Hence the name from usyážn (fem. of uéyao), “great,” an epithet applied to Cybele (ueyážm untmp, “great mother"). They were instituted towards the end of the second Punic war, when the statue of the goddess was brought from Pessinus to Rome. (Liv., 29, 14.) Ovid makes the time of celebration the 4th of April, (Fast., 4, 179); but Livy mentions the 12th of the same month. (Liv., 29, 14.) The statement of Ovid is generally considered the more correct. Lugdu.NENsis Gallia, a part of Gaul, which received its name from Lugdunum, the capital city of the province. (Consult the article Gallia, p. 530, col. 2, near the end.) Lugdu NUM, I. a city of Gaul, situate near the confluence of the Rhodanus or Rhome, and the Arar or Saône. (Plin., 4, 18.) It was one of the places conquered by Caesar, and, a short time after his death, Munatius Plancus received orders from the Roman senate to re-assemble at Lugdunum the inhabitants of Vienna or Vienne, who had been driven out of their city by the Allobroges. (Dio Cass., 46, 50.) In a little while it became very powerful, so that Strabo (192) says, it was not inferior to Narbo or Narbonne with respect to the number of inhabitants. The ancient city did not occupy exactly the same spot as the modern one, but lay on the west side %* Rhone and Saône, while the chief part of modern Lyons is on the east side, at the very confluence of the two streams. At the extremity of the point of land formed by the two streams, and, of course, precisely corresponding with the southern extremity of the modern city, stood the famous altar erected by sixty Gallic nations in honour of Augustus. (Liv., Epit., 137.-Strabo, l.c.) At Lugdunum was established the gold and silver coinage of the province, and from this city, as a centre, the main roads diverged to all parts of Gaul. (Strab., l. c.) In the third century it declined in importance, on account of the vicinity and rapid growth of Arelate and Narbo. Lugdunum is said by Strabo to have been situate at the foot of a hill. In Celtic, dun signifies “a hill,” and from this comes the Latin termination dunum. The earlier name is said by Dio Cassius (l.c.) to have been Lugudunum (Aovyotodovyov). Plutarch (de Fluviis, p. 1151.-Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 10, p. 732) derives the name from Aoûyoc, the Celtic, according to him, for “a raven,” and Öojvoc, “a hill,” and explains this etymology by the tradition of a flock of ravens having appeared to the first settlers Momorus and Atepomarus, when building on a hill in obedience to an oracle. (Compare Reimar, ad Dion. Cass., l. c.—Reiske, ad Plut., l. c.—For other etymologies of the name of this city, consult Merula, Cosmogr., p. 2, 1, 3, c. 24.—Vossius, Hist. Graec., p. 346.)—II. A city of the Batavi, in Germania Inferior, now Leyden. The modern name is said to be derived from that of Leithis, which it took in the middle ages. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 241.) LüNA, I. (the Moon). Vid. Selene.—II. A city of Etruria, in the northwestern angle of the country, situate on the coast, and remarkable for its beautiful and capacious harbour. The modern name of this harbour is Golfo di Spazzia. Before the new division under Augustus, Luna had formed part of Liguria; and its harbour, situate on the north side of the Macra, certainly was in that province. Cluverius contends that this ancient city occupied the site of the modern Lerici; especially as Strabo (222) and Mela (2, 4) seem to place it on that bank of the Macra; but the ruins which now bear the name of Luni, a little below Sarzana, and the denomination of Lunigiana applied to the adjacent district, together with the authority of Ptolemy (p. 61) and Pliny (3, 5), leave no doubt as to the true position of Luna. The harbour of Luna was chiefly resorted to by the Romans as a rendezvous for the fleets which they sent to Spain. (Liv., 34, 8, —Id., 39, 21.) Strabo says it contained, in fact, several ports, and was worthy of a nation which so long ruled the sea. The town itself was deserted in the time of Lucan (1, 586). Luna was very famous for its white marbles, which now take their name from the neighbouring town of Carrara. (Strab., l.c.—Plin., 36, 5.) Pliny speaks of the wine and cheese made in the neighbourhood of Luna (14, 16); the latter were sometimes so large as to weigh one thousand pounds. (Id., 11, 42.-Martial, Epigr., 13, 27.) Inscriptions give Luna the title of a Roman municipium. (Cramer's Italy, vol. 1, p. 171, seqq.) Lupa (a she-wolf), an animal held in great veneration at Rome, because Romulus and Remus were fabled to have been suckled by one. (Wid. Romulus.) Lupercal, a cave at the foot of the Palatine Hill, consecrated by Evander to the god Pan, who was surnamed Lupercus by the Latins, as protecting the flocks from wolves (lupos arcens). Such at least is the common derivation of the name. (Arnob., 4, 3– Serv., ad AEn., 8, 343.-Justin, 43, 1.) Others, however, deduced the term, according to Quintilian, from luo and capra, by a transposition of letters in the case of the latter word, because they sacrificed in the cave above mentioned a goat (caprum luebant), and purified the city with the skin of the animal cut into thongs. (Quint., 1, 5, sub fin.-Wid. Lupercalia.)

Lupercalia, a yearly festival, observed at Rome the 15th of February, in honour of the god Pan, and said to have been instituted by Evander. (Wid. Luperci.) Luperci, the priests of Pan. (Wid. Lupercal.) On the festival of this god, which was termed Lupercalia, a goat was sacrificed, and the skin of the victim was cut up into thongs. Thereupon the Luperci, in a state of nudity, except having a girdle of goat's skin around their loins, and holding these thongs in their hands, ran up and down the city, striking with the thongs all whom they met, particularly married women, who were thence supposed to be rendered prolific. (Serp., ad Virg., AEn., 8, 343.-Ovid, Fast., 2, 427–Id. ib., 5, 101.) There were three companies of Luperci ; two of ancient date, called Fabiani and Quintuluani, from Fabius and Quintilius, who had been at one time at their head; and a third order called Julu, instituted in honour of Julius Caesar, at the head of which was Antony; and therefore, as the leader of this, he went, on the festival of the Lupercalia, although consul, almost naked into the Forum Julium, attended by his lictors, and having made a harangue before the people, he, according to concert, as it is believed, presented a royal diadem to Caesar, who was sitting there arrayed in his triumphal robes. A murmur ran throughout the multitude, but it was instantly changed into loud applause when Caesar rejected the proffered ornament, and persisted in his refusal, although Antony threw himself at his feet, imploring him, in the name of the Roman people, to accept it. (Cic., Phil., 2, 31, 43.−Dio Cass., 45, 31–Id., 46, 5.-Sueton, Wit. Jul., 79.-Plut., Wit. Caes.) Lupercus, or Sulpicius Lupercus Servastus Junior, a poet, who appears to have lived during the latter periods of the western empire. He has left an elegy “on Cupidity,” and a sapphic ode “on Old Age.” (Wernsdorff, Poet. Lat. Min., vol. 3, p. 235.) He is supposed by some to have been also the author of a small poem “on the Advantages of a Private Life,” sound in the Anthology of Burmann (vol. 1, p. 508). Lupia or Lippia, I. a small river in Germany, falling into the Rhine, now the Lippe. It is in modern Westphalia. (Mela, 3, 3.- Well. Paterc., 2, 105.)— II. A town of Italy, southwest of Brundisium, now Lecce, the modern capital of the territory of Otranto. (Plin., 3, 11.-Mela, 2, 4.) Lupus, I. a native of Messana in Sicily, who wrote a poem on the return of Menelaus and Helen to Sparta. He is mentioned by Ovid (ex Pont., 4, 16.Compare Mongitor., Bibl. Sicul, 1, p. 24).-II. P. Rutilius Lupus, a powerful but unprincipled Roman nobleman, lashed by Lucilius in his satires. (Pers., Sat., 1, 115.-Compare Liv., Epit, 73.−Jul., Obsequens, 115.) Lusitania, a part of ancient Hispania, on the Atlantic coast. The name must be taken in two senses. All the old writers, whom Strabo also follows, understood by the term merely the territories of the Lusitami, and these were comprehended between the Durius and the Tagus, and extended in breadth from the ocean to the most eastern limits of the modern kingdom of Portugal. (Strabo, 152.) The Lusitani in time intermingled with the Spanish tribes in their vicinity, as, for example, with the Vettones, Calliaci, &c., on which account the name of Lusitania was extended to the territories of these tribes, and, finally, under this name became also included some tracts of country south of the Tagus. This is the first sense in which the term Lusitania must be taken, comprising, namely, the ter: ritories of the Lusitani, the Calliaci, the Vettones, and some lands south of the Tagus. The Romans, after the conquest of the country, made a new arrangement of the several tribes. The territories of the Calliaci, lying north of the Durius, they included in Hispania Tarraconensis, but, as equivalent, they added to Lusitania all the country south of the Tagus, and west of the lower part of the Anas, as far as the sea. According to this arrangement, Lusitania was bounded on the south by a part of the Atlantic, from the mouth of the Anas to the Sacrum Promontorium or Cape St. Vincent; on the west by the Atlantic ; on the north by the Durius; and on the east by a line drawn from the latter river, a little west of the modern city of Toro, in a southeastern direction to the Anas, touching it about eight miles west of Merida, the ancient Emerita Augusta. The modern kingdom of Portugal, therefore, is in length larger than ancient Ilusitania, since it comprehends two provinces beyond the Durius, Entre Douro y Minho and Tras los Montes, and since it has the Minius or Munho for its northern boundary, but from west to east it is much smaller than Lusitania. The latter embraced also Salamanca, the greater part of Estremadura, and the western extremity of Toledo. The most southern part of Lusitania was called Cuneus, or the wedge (vid. Cuneus), and is now termed Algarve, from the Arabic Al-garb, or the west. Its extreme promontory was called Sacrum. (Vid. Sacrum Promontorium.— Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 327.) Lutetia, a town of Belgic Gaul, on an island in the Sequana or Seine, and the capital of the Parisii. Hence it is often called Lutetia Parisiorum. (Cas., B. G., 7, 7.) It was at first a place of little consequence, but under the emperors it became a city of importance, and the Notitia Imperii (c. 65) speaks of it as the gathering-place for the seamen on the river. In this passage, too, the name Parisii, as applied to the city itself, first appears. At Lutetia, Julian the Apostate was saluted emperor by his soldiers. He had here his usual winter-quarters. The city began to increase in importance under the first French kings, and was extended to the two banks of the river, the island being connected with them by bridges. It is now Paris, the capital of France.—The ancient name of the place is variously written. Thus we have Lotitia Parisiorum (Ann. Prudent. Trcc., ann. 842), and Loticia Parisiorum (Ann. 1, ann. 845), &c. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 168.) Lyrus, a surname of Bacchus, as loosing from care (Avaioc, from Žio, “to loosen” or “free.”—Wid. Liber). Lycabettus, a mountain near Athens. Plato says (in Crit.) that it was opposite the Pnyx; and Antigonus Carystius relates a fabulous story, which would lead us to imagine that it was close to the Acropolis. (Hist. Mirab., 12.) Statius alludes to its olive plantations. (Theb., 631. — Leake's Topogr., p. 70. Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 335.) LycAEA, I. festivals in Arcadia in honour of Pan, or the Lycaean Jove. They were the same in origin as the Lupercalia of the Romans.—II. A festival at Argos in honour of Apollo Lycaeus, who delivered the Af. from wolves. yc+us, a mountain in the southwestern angle of Arcadia, deriving great celebrity from the worship of Jupiter, who, as the Arcadians contended, was born on its summit. Here an altar had been erected to the #. and sacrifices were performed in the open air. he temenus was inaccessible to living creatures, since, if any entered within its precincts, they died within the space of a year. It was also said, that within this hallowed spot no shadows were projected from the bodies of animals. Pausanias affirms, that nearly the whole of Peloponnesus might be seen from this elevated point. (Pausan., 8, 28.-Compare Strab., 388.) Mount Lycaeus was also sacred to Pan, whose temple was surrounded by a thick grove. Contiguous to this were the stadium and hippodrome in which the Lycaean games were performed. (Pausan., l.c.—Theocr., Idyl., 1, 123.—Virgil, Georg., 1, 16.) Mr. Dodwell, who gives an animated description of the view he be

held from Mount Lycaeus, states that the modern name is Tetragi. The remains of the altar of Jupiter are yet visible on the summit. (Classical Tour, vol. 2, p. 392–Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 336.) LycaMBEs, the father of Neobule. He promised his daughter in marriage to the poet Archilochus, but afterward refused to fulfil his engagement when she had been courted by a man whose opulence had more influence than tae fortune of the poet. This irritated Archilochus; he wrote a bitter invective against Lycambes and his daughter, who hung themselves in despair. (Horat., Epod., 6, 13. —Ovid, ib., 52.) Such is the common account. The story, however, appears to have been invented after the days of Archilochus; and one of the scholiasts on Horace remarks, that Neobule did not destroy herself on account of any injurious verses on the part of Archilochus, but out of despair at the death of her father. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 201.) Lyckon, an early king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus. He built Lycosura, on Mount Lycaeus, and established the Lycaean festival in honour of Jove. Pausanias makes him contemporary with Cecrops (8, 2). His whole history, however, appears to be mythic, as will presently appear. According to the legend given by Apollodorus (3, 8, 1), Lycaon became, by different wives, the father of fifty sons; and, according to another account, mentioned by the same writer, the parent of one daughter, Callisto. Both Lycaon and . sons were notorious for their cruel and impious conduct, and Jupiter, in order to satisfy himself of the truth of the reports that reached him, disguised himself as a poor man and sought their hospitality. To entertain the stranger they slaughtered a boy, and, mingling his flesh with that of the victims, set it before their guest. The god, in indignation and horror at the barbarous act, overturned the table (whence the place derived its future name of Trapezus), and struck with lightning the godless father and sons, with the exception of Nyctimus, whom Earth, raising her hands and grasping the right hand of Jupiter, saved from the wrath of the avenging deity. According to another account, Jupiter destroyed the dwelling of Lycaon with lightning, and turned its master into a wolf. The deluge of Deucalion, which shortly afterward occurred, is ascribed to the impiety of the sons of Lycaon. (Apollod., l.c.—Ovid, Met., 1, 216, scqq.— Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 4.—Id., Fab., 176-Tzetz., ad Lycophr., 481.)—It has been conjectured, that Jupiter Lycaeus was in Arcadia what Apollo Lycius was elsewhere; and that the true root in both cases was AYKH (lur), “light.” The similarity of sound most probably gave occasion to the legends of wolves, of which animal there were many in Arcadia. In this case Lycaon would be only another name for Jupiter, to whom he raised an altar, and he could not therefore have been described as impious in the primitive legend. The opposition between his name and that of Nyctimus strongly confirms this hypothesis. It may indeed be said, that Jupiter derived his appellation from the mountain; but against this it is to be observed, that there was an eminence in the territory of Cyrene or Barce, in Libya, dedicated to Jupiter Lycasus. (Herod., 4, 205. — Keightley's Mythglogy, P. 424, seq.—Schwenck, Andeutung, p. 40.) Lycaonia, a district of Asia Minor, forming the southeastern quarter of Phrygia. The origin of its name and of its inhabitants, the Lycaones, is lost in obscurity. The Greeks asserted that Lycaon of Arcadia, in obedience to the commands of an oracle, founded a city here, and gave his name to the nation and country; this, however, is mere fable. According to others, it derived its name from Atokoç, a wolf, the country abounding with these animals. Our first acquaintance with this region is in the relation of the expedition of the younger Cyrus. “ Th;* lying to the northward of Konia (Iconium) and Erkle (Archalla),” observes Leake, “form the district described by Strabo as the cold and naked downs of Lycaonia, which furnished pasture to numerous sheep and wild asses, and where was no water except in very deep wells. As the limits of Lycaonia are defined by Strabo (568) and by Artemidorus, whom he quotes, to have been between Philomelium and Tyriacum on the west, and Coropassus and Garsabora on the east (which last place was 960 stadia from Tyriaeum, 120 from Coropassus, and 680 from Mazaca), we have the exact extent of the Lycaonian hills intended by the geographer. Branching from the great range of Taurus, near Philomelium, and separating the plain of Laodicea from that of Iconium, they skirted the great valley which lies to the southeastward of the latter city, as far as Archalla (Erkle), comprehending a part of the mountains of Hassan Daghi. It would seem that the depopulation of this country, which rapidly followed the decline of the Roman power and the irruption of the Eastern barbarians, had left some remains of the vast flocks of Amyntas, mentioned by Strabo, in undisturbed possession of the Lycaonian hills to a very late period: for Hadji Khalsa, who describes the want of wood and water on these hills, adds that there was a breed of wild sheep on the mountain of Fudul Baba, above Ismil, and a tomb of the saint from whom the mountain receives its name; and that sacrifices were offered at the tomb by all those who hunted the wild sheep, and who were taught to believe that they should be visited with the displeasure of heaven if they dared to kill more than two of these animals at a time. Hadji Khalsa lived in the middle of the 17th century.” (Leake's Journal, p. 67, seqq.) With respect to its physical geography, Lycaonia was, like Isauria, included in a vast basin, formed by Taurus and its branches. (Rennell, Geography of Western Asia, vol. 2, p. 99.) Towards the east, the Lycaonians bordered on Cappadocia, from which they were separated by the Halys; while towards the south they extended themselves from the frontiers of Cilicia to the country of the Pisidians. Between them and the latter people there seems to have been considerable affinity of character, and probably of blood; both nations, perhaps, being originally sprung from the ancient Solymi. Subsequently, however, they would appear to have become distinguished from one another by the various increments which each received from the nations in their immediate vicinity. Thus, while the Pisidians were intermixed with the Carians, Lycians, and Phrygians, the Lycaonians received colonists probably from Cappadocia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Phrygia, and Galatia; at the same time, both, in common with all the nations of Asia Minor, had no small proportion of Greek settlers in their principal towns. It is a curious fact, which we derive from the New Testament (Acts, 14, 11), that the Lycaonians had a peculiar dialect, which therefore must have differed from the Pisidian language; but even that, as we know from Strabo (631), was a distinct tongue from that of the ancient Solymi. It is, however, very probable, that the Lycaonian idiom was only a mixture of these and the Phrygian language. (Jablonski, de Ling. Lycaon., Opusc, vol. 3, p. 8. – Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 63.)

Lycastus, an ancient town of Crete, in the vicinity of Gnossus, by the inhabitants of which place it was destroyed. Strabo, who mentions this fact, states that in his time it had entirely disappeared. (Strab., 479.) Polybius informs us (23, 15), that the Lycastian district was afterward wrested from the Cnosians by the Gortynians, who gave it to the neighbouring town of Rhaucus. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, . 370.

*. (Aíketov), a sacred enclosure at Athens, dedicated to Apollo, where the polemarch originally


kept his court. It was decorated with fountains, plantations, and buildings, by Pisistratus, Pericles, and Lycurgus, and became the usual place of exercise for the Athenian youths who devoted themselves to military pursuits. (Pausan., 1, 19.-Men., Hipparch.-Harpocrat. et Suid, s. v.) Nor was it less frequented by philosophers, and those addicted to retirement and study. We know that it was more especially the favourite walk of Aristotle and his followers, who thence obtained the name of Peripatetics. (Cic., Acad. Quaest., 1, 4.) Here was the fountain of the hero Panops (Plat., Lys., p. 203), and a plane-tree of great size and beauty, mentioned by Theophrastus. (Hist. Pl, 1, 11. – Compare Plat., Phaedr., p. 229.) The position commonly assigned to the Lyceum is on the right bank of the Ilissus, and nearly opposite to the church of Petros Stauromenos, which is supposed to correspond with the temple of Diana Agrotera, on the other side of the river. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 340.) Lychninus, a city of Illyricum, situate in the interior, on a lake from which the Drino rises. Its foundation is ascribed by a writer in the Greek Anthology to Cadmus. (Christod., epigr. 3.) We hear of its being constantly in the occupation of the Romans during the war with Perseus, king of Macedon (Liv., 43, 9), and from its position on the frontier it must have always been a place of importance. This was more especially the case after the construction of the great Egnatian Way, which passed through it. (Polyb., ap. Strab., 327.) It appears to have been still a large and populous town under the Greek emperors. Procopius relates, that it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, which overthrew Corinth and several other cities in the reign of Justinian. (Hist, Arch., 18. —Compare Malch, Sophist. Ercerpt., p. 64.) It is the opinion of Palmerius, who has treated most fully of the history of Lychnidus in his description of ancient Greece, that this town was replaced by Achrida, once the capital of the Bulgarians; and, according to some writers of the Byzantine empire, also the native place of Justinian, and erected by him into an archbishopric, under the name of Justiniana Prima. This opinion of the learned critic has been adopted by the generality of writers on comparative geography. (Grace. Ant. Descript., p. 498.—Wesseling, ad Itin, p. 652.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 7, p. 415.) Cramer, however, shows very conclusively that the modern Ochrida (as it is now called) does not coincide with the ancient Lychnidus, but that the ruins of the latter place are still apparent near the monastery of St. Naum (Pouquerille, vol. 3, p. 49), on the eastern shore of the lake, and about fourteen miles south of Ochrida. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 71, seqq.) Lychnitis PALUs, a lake of Illyria, on which Lychnidus was situate. It was formed principally by the waters of what is now the black Drino, and was a considerable expanse of water, about 20 miles in length and 8 in breadth. Diodorus informs us, that Philip, son of Amyntas, extended his conquests in Illyria, as far as this lake (16, 8). Strabo says it abounded in fish, which were salted for the use of the inhabitants. (Strabo, 327.) He also mentions several other lakes in the vicinity which were equally productive. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 74.) Lycia, a country of Asia Minor, in the south, bounded on the northeast by Pamphylia, on the west and northwest by the Carians, and on the north by Phrygia and Pisidia. The country was first named Milwas, and its earliest inhabitants seem to have been the Solymi. Sarpedon, however, being driven from Crete by his brother Minos, came hither with a colony, and drove the Solymi into the interior, with whom, however, they had still to wage a continual warfare. (Hom., Il., 6, 180–1d. ibid., 10, 430.-Id, ibid., 12, 30.) The new-comers took the name of Termilar, as Herodotus writes it (l 173), or Tremilao, as others give it. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Tptuížat.) Afterward, Lycus, driven from Athens by his brother AEgeus, retired to the Termilao, where he was well received by Sarpedon, and gave, it is said, the appellation of Lycia to the country, and Lycii to the people, from his own name. In the Homeric poems the country is always called Lycia, and the Solymi are mentioned as a warlike people, against whom Bellerophon is sent to fight by the King of Lycia. (Il., 6, 184.) The Solymi, however, disappeared from history after Homer's time, and the name Milyas remained for ever afterward applied to the region commencing in the north of Lycia, and extending into Phrygia and Pisidia. Into this region the Solymi had been driven, and here they remained under the appellation of Milya, though the name Solymi still continued in Mount Solyma, on the northeastern coast. This mountain, called at present Takhatlu, rises to the height of 7800 feet. From this time, in fact, they were reckoned as occupying a part of Pisidia, and having nothing more to do with Lycia. On D'Anville's map, however, they retain the name of Solymi. According to the ancients, Lycia was the last maritime country within Taurus. It did not extend eastward to the inner part of the Gulf of Pamphylia, but was separated from that country and its gulf by the southern arm of Taurus, whose bold and steep descent to the shore caused it to receive the name of Climax. This southern arm of Taurus is so lofty as to be generally covered with snow, and by its course, presenting itself across the line of the navigation along shore, forms a conspicuous landmark, particularly from the eastward. From its general fertility, the natural strength of the country, and the goodness of its harbours, Lycia was one of the richest and most populous countries of Asia in proportion to its extent. The products were wine, wheat, cedar-wood, beautiful plane-trees, a sort of delicate sponge, and fine officinal chalk. It is recorded, to the honour of the inhabitants, that they never committed acts of piracy like those of Cilicia and other quarters. The Lycians appear to have possessed considerable power in early times; and were almost the only people west of the Halys who were not subdued by Croesus. (Herod., 1, 28.) They made also an obstinate resistance to Harpagus, the general of Cyrus, but were eventually conquered. (Herod., 1, 176.) They supplied Xerxes with fifty ships in his expedition against Greece. (Herod., 7, 92.) After the downfall of the Persian empire, they continued subject to the Seleucidae till the overthrow of Antiochus by the Romans, when their country, as well as Caria, was granted by the conquerors to the Rhodians; but their freedom was afterward again secured to them by the Romans (Polyb., 30, 5), who allowed them to retain their own laws and their political constitution, which is highly praised by Strabo (665), and, in his opinion, of them from falling into the piratical practices of their neighbours, the Pamphylians and Cilicians. According to this account, the government was a kind of federation, consisting of 23 cities, which sent deputies to an assembly, in which a governor was chosen for the whole of Lycia, as well as judges and other inferior magistrates. All matters relating to the government of the country were discussed in this assembly. The six principal cities, Xanthus, Patara, Pinara, Olympus, Myra, and Tlos, had three votes each, other cities two votes each, and the least important places only one each. In consequence of dissensions among the different cities, this constitution was abolished by the Emperor Claudius (Sueton., Vit. Claud., 25.—Compare Wit. Vesp.), and the country united to the province of Pamphylia. (Dio Cass., 60, 17.-Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 210.Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 242, seq.) The interior of Lycia was entirely unknown to Europeans until the visit of Mr. Fellows in 1838, who travelled over a large *:::: of it. According to this individual, the

country is erroneously represented in all the maps, and there are no mountains of any importance in the interior. The coast, however, is surrounded by losty mountains, which rise in many places to a great height. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 210.)—It was at Patara in Lycia that Apollo had a famous temple and oracle, and there he was fabled to pass the winter months, and the summer at Delos, whence the epithet hiberna applied to Lycia by Virgil (Æm., 4, 143.− Heyne, ad loc.). ycim Nia, a female alluded to by Horace, and thought by Bentley to be the same with Terentia, the wife of Maecenas. (Horat., Od., 2, 12, 13.-Bentley, ad loc.) Lycius, a surname of Apollo, given to that deity as the god of light, and derived from the old form ATKH, “light,” to which we may also trace the Latin luz. (Compare remarks under the article Lycaon.) According to the common but erroneous opinion, Apollo was called “Lycius” because worshipped with peculiar honours at Patara in Lycia. (Wid. Patara.) Lycomedes, a king of Scyros, an island in the AEgean Sea, son of Apollo and Parthenope. He was secretly intrusted with the care of young Achilles, whom his mother Thetis had disguised in female attire to prevent his going to the Trojan war, where she knew he must perish. (Vid. Achilles.) Lycomedes rendered himself infamous for his treachery to Theseus, who had implored his protection when driven from the throne of Athens by the usurper Mnestheus. Lycomedes, as it is reported, either envious of the fame of his illustrious guest, or bribed by the emissaries of Mnestheus, led Theseus to an elevated place on pretence of showing him the extent of his dominions, and perfidiously threw him down a precipice, where he was killed. According to another account, however, his fall was accidental. (Plut., Wit. Thes.—Pausan., 1, 17; 7, 4.—Apollod., 3, 13.) Lycon, an Athenian, who flourished about 405 B.C., and who, together with Anytus and Melitus, was concerned in the prosecution instituted against Socrates. (Vid. Socrates.)—II. A Peripatetic philosopher, a native of Troas, and the pupil and successor of Strato of Lampsacus. He flourished about 270 B.C., and was for forty years the head of the Peripatetic school at Athens. He succeeded Strato at the date just mentioned; and enjoyed also the friendship of Attabus and Eumenes. (Diog. Laert., 5, 66.-Athenaeus, 12, p. 546.) Lycon appears to have been the author of a treatise on the sovereign good. His eloquence induced his friends to change his name from Lycon to Glykon (yāvkoc, sweet). Cicero calls him “oratione locupletem, rebus ipis jejuniorem” (De Fin., 5, 6). Lycophron, I. a son of Periander, king of Corinth. The murder of his mother Melissa by his father had such an effect upon him, that he resolved never to speak to a man who had been so wantonly cruel to his own family. This resolution was strengthened by the advice of Procles, his maternal uncle, and Periander at last banished to Corcyra a son whose disobedience and obstinacy had rendered him odious. , Cypselus, the eldest son of Periander, being incapable of reigning, Lycophron was the only surviving old who had any claim to the crown of Corinth. But, when the infirmities of Periander obliged him to look for a successor, Lycophron refused to come to Corinth while his father was there, and he was induced to leave Corcyra only on promise that Periander would come and dwell there while he remained the master of Corinth. This exchange, however, was prevented. The Corcyreans, who were apprehensive of the tyranny of Periander, murdered Lycophron before he left that island. (Herod., 3, 51.)—II. A native of Chalcis, in Euboea, the son of Socles, and adopted by the historian Lycus of Rhegium, was a poet and grammarian at the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus from B.C. **C. 250,

« PoprzedniaDalej »