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Pylus, the grandson of this Lelex, is said to have led a colony of Megarian Leleges into Messenia, where he founded the city of Pylus. (Pausan., 4, 36, 1.) The Lacedæmonian traditions, on the contrary, represent the Leleges as the original inhabitants of Laconia. (Pausan., 3, 1, 1.)—It can scarcely be doubted, from the numerous traditions on the subject, that the Leleges were in some manner closely connected with the Carians. (Vid. Caria.) The most probable supposition is, that the Leleges were a people of Pelasgian race, a portion of whom emigrated at a very early period from the continent of Greece to the islands of the AEgean Sea, where they became connected with the Carians (who were a portion, probably, of the same great family), and subsequently joined them in their descent upon Asia Minor. (Thirlwall's History of Greece, vol. 1, p. 44.—Philological Museum, No. 1, s. p. Ancaeus.--Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 13, p. 417.) Lelex, an Egyptian, said to have come with a colony to Megara, and to have attained to kingly power there. (Pausan., 1, 39, 4:—Wid. Leleges.) LEMANIs Portus, or Lymne, a harbour of Britain, a little below Dover, where Caesar is thought to have landed on his first expedition to that island, having set out from the Portus Itius in Gaul, a little south of Calais. (Wid. Itius Portus.) LEMANNUs Lacus, a lake of Gaul, in the southwest angle of the territory of the Helvetii, and separating them in this quarter from the Allobroges. It is now the Lake of Geneva. This is a most beautiful expanse of water in the form of a crescent, the concave side of which is upward of 45 miles long. Its greatest breadth is about 12 miles. It never wholly freezes over in the severest winters, and it rises about ten feet in summer, by the melting of the snows on the Alps. Besides the Rhone, which traverses its whole length, it receives the waters of forty other streams. (Lucan, 1,396,-Mela, 2, 5–Caes., B. G., 1,2..—Id. ib., 1, 8.—ld. ib., 3, 1.) LEMNos, an island in the Ægean Sea, between Tenedos, Imbros, and Samothrace. According to Pliny (4, 12) it was 87 miles from Mount Athos; but there must be an error in the MSS. of that author, for the distance is not forty miles from the extreme point of the Acrothoan Cape to the nearest headland of Lemnos. (Compare remarks under the article Athos.) Lemnos is known in ancient mythology as the spot on which Vulcan fell, after being hurled down from heaven, and where he established his forges. A volcano, which once was o; on the island, may have afforded ground for the fable. A story is also recorded by Herodotus and other ancient writers of the women of Lemnos having murdered all the men. (Vid. Hypsipyle.) Homer states that the earliest inhabitants of this island were the Sintians, a Thracian tribe (Il., 1,593.—Strabo, Erc., 7, p. 331), whence Apollonius Rhodius terms it Xuwtjióa Ajuvov (1, 608. —Compare Schol. Thucyd., 2,98. — Steph. Byz., s. v. Añuvoc.) To these succeeded the Tyrrhenian Pelasgi, who had been driven out of Attica. They are said to have afterward stolen some Athenian women from Brauron, and carried them to Lemnos; and it is also said, that the children of these women having despised their half-brethren, born of Pelasgian women, the Pelasgi took the resolution of murdering both the Athenian women and their offspring. In consequence of these atrocities, Lemnos had a bad name among the ancient Greeks. (Consult Erasm., Chil. col., 297, s. v. Añuvtov Raków.) Lemnos was still in the possession of these Pelasgi when it was invaded and conquered by Otanes, a Persian general. (Herod., 5, 26.) But on his death it is probable that the island again recovered its independence; for we know that, subsequent to this event, Miltiades conquered it for Athens, and expelled those Pelasgi who refused to submit to his authority. (Herod., 6, 140.) During

the Peloponnesian war Lemnos remained in the possession of Athens, and furnished that state with its best light-armed troops. (Thucyd., 4, 28.-Id, 7,57.) Pliny speaks of a remarkable labyrinth which existed in this island, and of which some vestiges were still to be seen in his time. He says it had inassive gates, so well poised that a child could throw them open, and one hundred and fifty columns, and was adorned with numerous statues, being even more extensive and splendid than those of Crete or Egypt (36, 13). Modern travellers have in vain attempted to discover any trace of this great work. Dr. Hunt says (1, p. 61), “we could only hear a confused account of a subterranean staircase in an uninhabited part of the island called Pouniah.” This spot the Dr. visited; but he was of opinion that those ruins have no relation to the labyrinth mentioned by Pliny. He conceives them rather to belong to Hephæstia.-Lemnos contained a remarkable volcano, called Mosychlus, from which fire was seen to blaze forth, according to a fragment of the poet Antimachus, preserved by the scholiast on Nicander (ad. Ther., 472). This volcanic appearance will account for the ancient name of AEthalia, which Lemnos is said to have borne in distant ages. (Polyb., ap. Steph. Byz., s. v. Attaxo.) “The whole island,” says Dr. Hunt, “bears the strongest marks of the appearance of volcanic fire; the rocks in many parts are like burned and vitrified scoriae of furmaces.” (Walpole's Memoirs, vol. 1, p. 59.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 338.) Sonnini, also, before this, remarked respecting this island, that internal fires were very probably still burning there, for he met with a spring of hot water which had been brought to supply baths, and with another of aluminous water. The priests of Lemnos were reckoned famous for the cure of wounds, and the efficacy of their skill depended, it is said, upon the quality of a . species of red earth sound in the island, called Lemnian earth. This the ancients thought a sovereign remedy against poisons and the bites of serpents, but it is now held in little or no csteem in Europe, although the Greeks and Turks still believe it to possess . medicinal properties. It is dug out of a hill in the island with great ceremony and at particular times, in presence of the Turkish sandjack or governor, and of the Greek clergy, and is shaped into little balls and stamped with the governor's seal, whence it has derived the name of terra sigilluta (“sealed earth”). The governor makes a traffic of it, and sends it to Constantinople and other places. It is also used for tanning leather. The modern name of Lemnos is Stalimene. (Cramer's Anc..Greece, vol. 1, p. 338.) LeMovices, I. a people of Celtic Gaul, subsequently incorporated into Aquitania. They were situated to the south of the Bituriges Cubi and to the west of the Arverni. Their capital was Augustoritum, afterward called Lemovices, now Limoges, in the department de la Haute-Vienne. (Cas., B. G., 7, 4.) —II. A people of Gaul, forming part of the Armoric nations, and lying to the east and northeast of the Osismii. (Caes., B. G., 7, 75.) Some scholars, however, with great probability, suppose that the text of Caesar, where mention is made of them, requires correction, and that for Lemovices we ought to read Leonices. (Consult Lemaire, Ind. Geogr., ad Caes., p. 295.) Lemūres, a name given by the Romans to the spirits of the departed, also called Manes. If be: neficent, they were termed Lares; if hurtful, Larra. (Vid. Lares, p. 721, col. 2, near the end.)— Solemn rites were celebrated in honour of the Le: mures, called Lemuria. They o on the night of the 9th May, and were continued for three nights; not successively, but alternately during six days. Mid

night was the time for their celebration. The master

of the house then arose, and went barefoot, through the darkness, to a fountain, where he washed his hands. He proceeded to it in silence, making merely a slight noise with his fingers, to drive away the shades that might be gathering around. After he had washed his hands three times, he returned, casting behind him at the same time some black figs which he carried in his mouth, and uttering in a low tone the following words: “With these figs do I ransom myself and my family.” He repeated these same words nine times, with the same formalities, and without looking behind. Then, after a short interval of silence, he exclaimed with a loud voice, striking at the same time on a brazen vessel, “Paternal Manes, Lemures, deities of the lower world, depart from this abode.” Fires were immediately kindled in every part of the mansion, and the ceremony ended. During the time for celebrating these rites the temples were closed, and no one could be united in marriage. (Ovid, Fast., 5, 421, seqq.—Pers., Sat., 5, 185. – Horat., Epist., 2, 2, 209.) LENAEus, a surname of Bacchus, from Amwós, a wine-press. (Vid. Bacchus, and also Theatrum, $ 2, Dramatic Contests.) LENTülus, a family name of one of the most ancient and distinguished branches of the Gens Cornelia. The appellation is said to have been derived from the circumstance of one of the line having been born with a wart on his visage, shaped like a lentil (lens, gen. lentis). It is more probable, however, that the appellation arose from some peculiar skill displayed by the founder of the family in the culture of the lentil.—The most eminent or best known of the Lentuli were the following : I. L. Cornelius, was consul A.U.C. 427, B.C. 327, and cleared Umbria of the brigands that infested it. He was present, six years afterward, at the disastrous affair of the Furcae Caudinae, and was one of those who exhorted the Roman consuls to submit to the humiliating conditions offered by the Samnites, in order to save the whole army. (Liv., 8, 22, seqq. —Id., 9, 4.)—II. P. Cornelius, surnamed Sura, a Roman nobleman, grandson of P. Cornelius Lentulus, who had been Princeps Senatus. He married Julia, sister of L. Julius Caesar, after the death of her first husband, M. Antonius Creticus, to whom she had borne M. Antonius the triumvir. Lentulus was a man of talents, but extremely corrupt in his private character. The interest of his family and the affability of his manners, proceeding from a love of popularity, raised him through the usual gradations of public honours to the office of consul, which he obtained B.C. 73, in conjunction with Cn. Aufidius Orestis. Exelled subsequently from the senate on account of his immoral conduct, he had procured the praetorship, the usual step for being restored to that body, when Catiline formed his design of subverting the government. Poverty, the natural consequence of excessive dissipation, added to immoderate vanity and extravagant ambition, induced him to join in the conspiracy. The soothsayers easily persuaded him that he was the third member of the Cornelian house, destined by the Fates to enjoy the supreme power at Rome, Cinna and Sylla having both attained to that elevation. His schemes, however, all proved abortive: he was arrested, along with others of the conspirators, by the orders of Cicero, who was then in the consulship, and having been brought before a full senate, was condemned to death, and strangled in prison. Plutarch informs us that he received the name of Sura from the following circumstance. He had wasted a large sum of money in his quaestorship under Sylla, and the latter, enraged at his conduct, demanded a statement of his accounts in the senate. Lentulus, thereupon, with the utmost indifference, declared he had no accounts to produce, and contemptuously presented the calf (sura) of his leg. Among the Romans, and particularly among

the boys, the player at tennis who missed his stroke presented the calf of his leg, to receive as a punishment a certain number of blows upon it. Lentulus, in allusion to that game, acted in this manner, which accounts for the surname, or, rather, nickname of Sura. (Sall., Bell. Cat.—Plut., Vit. Cic.)—III. P. Cornelius, surnamed Spinther, held the office of curule aedile B.C. 65, when Cicero and Antonius were consuls. His great wealth enabled him to display a magnificence in the celebration of the games which surpassed what had ever before been seen at Rome. In the year 59 B.C. he was propraetor of Hispania Citerior. He was elected consul with Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos, and procured, with others, the recall of Cicero from banishment. In the civil war he attached himself to the side of Pompey, and, having been taken prisoner, was brought before Caesar at Corfinium, and set at liberty. He fought in the battle of Pharsalia, and fled to Rhodes; but the Rhodians refused him protection. Nothing farther is known respecting him. According to Valerius Maximus, he received the surname of Spinther from his resemblance to a comedian of that name. (Wal. Max., 9, 14, 4.— Cic., Off., 2, 16.—Id., ad Quir. post. Red., 5.—Id., Ep. ad Fam, 13, 48, &c.)—IV. Cn. Gaetulicus, was consul A.D. 26, and was put to death by Caligula on a charge of conspiracy. (Dio Cass., 59,22.—Sueton., Vit. Claud., 9.) He was distinguished as an historical and a poetical writer. (Voss., Hist. Lat., 1, 25. – Crus. ad Sueton., Vit. Calig., 8.) Leo, I. a philosopher or astronomer of Constantino. in the first half of the ninth century. He is spoen of in high terms by the Byzantine writers. One of his numerous pupils having been taken prisoner by the Arabians and conducted to Bagdad, astonished, it is said, the Caliph Al-Mamoun by the extent of his astronomical knowledge. The surprise of the Mussulman prince was, however, greatly increased when he learned that his captive was merely a scholar; but it reached its height when he was informed that the preceptor from whom he imbibed his learning was living in obscurity at Constantinople. The caliph immediately invited Leo to leave a country where his merits found no reward, and come to a court where the sciences were honoured. Leo dared not, however, leave the capital of the East for such a purpose, without first obtaining the permission of the reigning emperor. The monarch, who was Theophilus, refused to give his assent, but bestowed many appointments on the hitherto neglected astronomer, and gave him the use of a church for his public lectures, which had before been delivered in a mere hut. The caliph then addressed a remarkable letter to Theophilus, requesting him to allow Leo to spend only a short time with him, and promising him, in return, a *f; sum of money, and a lasting peace and alliance. Theophilus persisted in his refusal, but opened, at the same time, a public school for Leo in one of the imperial palaces, assigned to him the instruction of the youth of the capital, and loaded him with honours and privileges. He was subsequently appointed to the archbishopric of Thessalonica; but, being a decided enemy to images, was compelled to abandon his see when the heresy of the “Iconoclasts was condemned, A.D. 849. He returned upon this to Constantinople, and resumed his former station of professor of astronomy. As he has left no work behind him, we can form no opinion of his scientific merits; for the reputation which his pupil gained at the court of Bagdad, and the eulogiums bestowed on Leo himself by the Byzantine writers, ought not to carry any very great weight with them. It should be remarked, however, that Caesar Bardas, wishing to revive the sciences at Constantinople, allowed himself to be directed in this enterprise by the advice of Leo. (Le Beau, Histoire du Bas-Empire, vol. 7, p. 69, seqq.—Vol. 7, p. *-ol. Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 58.)—II. An historical writer, sur. named the Carian, who published a continuation of Theophanes. His work, which extends from A.D. 813 to 949, is entitled Xpovoypaspia răv véov Baat?&ov reptérovaa, “Chronicle of the late emperors.” We have an edition of this work by Combesis, Paris, 1655, fol. —III. Surnamed the Deacon (Ataxovos), born about A.D. 950, at Caelae, a village of Ionia at the foot of Mount Tmolus. He was attached, by virtue of his office of Atakovoc, to the court of the Greek emperors, which is nearly all that we know of his personal history. He wrote, in ten books, a history of the emperors Romanus II. the younger, Nicephorus Phocas, and John Zimisces, that is, of the years included between 959 and 975. His object in composing this work was to give a histoire raisonnée of the events which took place under his own eyes. Such an undertaking, however, was beyond his strength. His style is neither elegant nor clear, and we are often startled at the introduction of Latin words in a Greek garb. His work abounds with specimens of false eloquence and bad taste: occasionally, however, we meet with agreeable and pleasing details. The best edition at present is that of Hase, Paris, 1819, folio. The work will form a part, however, of the new edition of Byzantine writers now in a course of publication.—IV. Magentenus or Magentinus, a metropolitan of Mytilene, flourished about 1340 A.D. He wrote commentaries on the works of Aristotle “On Interpretation,” and the “first Analytics.” The first of these commentaries is given in the Aldine collection of the Peripatetic writers, 1503; the second at the end of the Venice edition (1536) of John Philoponus. —W. The First, surnamed the Great, an emperor of the East, born in Thrace of an obscure family, and who owed his advancement through the various gradations of the Roman army to the powerful favour of Aspar, a Gothic chief who commanded the auxiliaries, and his son Ardaburius. Leo was in command of a body of troops encamped at Selymbria, when his ambitious protectors made him ascend the throne left vacant by the death of the virtuous Marcian. The senate confirmed this choice; and Leo was acknowledged as emperor at the head of the forces, Feb. 7, A.D. 457, and crowned by Anatolius, patriarch of Constantinople. It is believed to have been the first example given of this sacred sanction in the elewation of a monarch to the throne. Aspar soon perceived that Leo would not long support the yoke imposed upon him. A quarrel arose between them relative to the party of the Eutychians who had massacred their bishop and appointed another in his stead. Aspar espoused the cause of the latter, but Leo drove him from his see, and nominated an orthodox prelate to the vacant place. Leo had already before this obtained some signal successes over the barbarians, and had restored peace to the empire of the East. He wished also to put an end to the troubles of the Western Empire, torn by the ambition and fury of Ricimer, desolated by Genseric, and governed by mere phantoms of emperors. Genseric braved the menaces of Leo. The latter, whose armies had just repelled the Huns, and slain one of the sons of Attila, united all his forces, and sent them into Africa against the Wandal prince; but the inexperience, or, according to Procopius, the treachery of Basiliscus saved Genseric, and the Roman army returned ingloriously home. Aspar and his son were suspected of having contributed by their intrigues to bring about these reverses, and Leo, wearied out with their audacity, determined to put an end to it. Afraid, however, of their power, he spread a snare for them unworthy of a monarch; he flattered Aspar with the hope of a union between Patricola, a son of the latter, and Ariadne, daughter of the emperor. A report of this intended match, purposely circulated abroad, excited the indignation of the

populace, who hated the family of Aspar on account of their Arian principles. ... A sedition ensued. Aspar and his sons were compelled to fly for refuge to the church of St. Euphemia, and were only induced to quit this asylum on the urgent invitations of Leo, confirmed by oaths, for them to come to the royal palace. The moment they arrived there, Aspar and Ardaburius were beheaded. The Arians, enraged at the loss of their protector, incited Ricimer to trouble anew the repose of the West, and prevailed upon the Goths to attack Constantinople. The environs of the capital were in consequence laid waste for the space of two years by these barbarian invaders, until Leo succeeded in driving them off and concluding a peace. He died A.D. 474, leaving the empire to the young Leo, the son of his daughter Ariadne and of Zeno, an Isaurian, whom he had made a patrician and captain of his guards, in order to balance the power of Aspar. He had first vainly endeavoured to fix the succession upon Zeno himself. Leo has preserved the reputation of an active, enlightened, and vigilant monarch, who neglected nothing that had a tendency to promote the welfare of his subjects. He promulgated wise laws, and gave the example of moderation and economy which had been so long needed in the state. He is not exempt, however, from the charge of avarice, and of weakness also, in allowing the ambition of Aspar to go so long unpunished. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 24, p. 135.) — VI. The second, called also the Younger, grandson of Leo I., and son of Ariadne and Zeno. He was declared Augustus at the moment of his grandfather's death. Although scarcely four years old at the period of his elevation, this choice was, notwithstanding, very agreeable to the people, who detested Zeno on account of his Arian tenets and his Isaurian origin. Werina, however, the widow of the deceased emperor, and Ariadne, the wife of Zeno, neglected neither intrigues nor seductive arts to conciliate for Zeno the favour of the populace. When all difficultics were believed to be removed, Ariadne conducted the young Leo to the hippodrome, and placed him on an elevated throne. There the child, a feeble tool in the hands of two ambitious females, called Zeno to him, and, placing the crown on the head of the latter, named him his colleague in the empire. I.eo died soon after, having been poisoned, as was supposed, by Zeno, his own father, after a reign of about ten months. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 24, p. 136.) —VII. The third, surnamed the Isaurian, born in Isauria of a mean family, and originally a dealer in cattle. His true name was Conon. A prediction made to him by some Jews, who declared that his fortune would be a brilliant one if he changed his name and took up the profession of arms, induced him to enter on a new career. He served at first as a private soldier in the army of Justinian II. Here his zeal, and some services which he had rendered, attracted the notice of the emperor, who received him into his guards, and raised him rapidly to the highest stations. Justinian having at length begun to entertain fears of his ambition, sent him on a dangerous expedition against the tribes of Caucasus. After having signal: ized his valour and military skill in the execution of this order, Leo returned to Constantinople, and Anastasius, who was now on the throne, appointed him to the command of the troops in Asia. On receiving intelligence of the deposition of Anastasius, Leo refused to acknowledge Theodosius III., whom the revolted fleet had proclaimed emperor. The Saracens, who were then ravaging the empire, excited Leo to seize upon the sceptre, having promised to aid him with all their forces. He had great need of prudence and address for managing these dangerous allies. Obliged alternately to deceive and to intimidate them, he found at last a fit moment for marching on Constantinople, where Theodosius yielded up the throne to him with scarcely any resistance. Leo was crowned emperor March 25, A.D. 717. The Saracens, whom he had amused by false pretences, now advanced to the capital, and besieged it by sea and land. In this extremity Leo redoubled his exertions and courage, and, after long and obstinate conflicts, he succeeded in repelling his ão assailants. In 719, an attempt on the part of Anastasius to regain the throne failed through the activity of Leo, and the unsuccessful aspi: rant lost his head. He sustained also, with varied success, the repeated attacks of the Saracens in Sicily, Italy, and Sardinia. So many services rendered to the empire would have placed Leo in the rank of great monarchs, had not his fondness for theological quarrels, too common in those ages of ignorance, involved him in long and dangerous collisions. He espoused the cause of the Iconoclasts, and his severity drove many of the inhabitants into open rebellion. After a stormy conflict, marked by the most cruel persecutions, Leo died, A.D. 741, leaving the throne to his son Constantine Copronymus. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 24, p. 136, seqq.)—VIII. The fourth, an emperor of the east, the son of Constantine Copronymus. He ascended the throne A.D. 775, and died A.D. 780, after an unimportant reign.—IX. The fifth, surnamed the Armenian, an emperor of the East, who rose from an obscure station to the throne. He succeeded the emperor Michael Rhangabe, whom the soldiers rejected in a mutiny secretly fomented by the ambitious Leo. His reign continued for seven years and a half, and was remarkable for the rigid military disciline introduced by him into the civil government, }. was an Iconoclast, but his religious inconstancy obtained for him, in fact, the name of Chameleon. He was slain by a band of conspirators at the very foot of the altar, during the morning celebration of the festival of Christmas. (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, c. 48.)—X. The sixth, surnamed the Philosopher, an emperor of the East. He was the son of Eudoxia, wife of Basil I. The irregularities of his mother have left some doubt relative to his legitimacy; he was acknowledged, however, by Basil, as his son and successor. Already at the age of 19 years, the young prince had made himself beloved by all the empire. Santabaren, however, the favourite of Basil, an artful and dangerous man, irritated at the contempt and hatred which Leo testified for him, sought every means to destroy him, and at last ...; in having him cast into prison on suspicion of plotting against his father's life. A cruel punishment at first threatened him; but the o relented, and his son, being allowed to justify his conduct, was restored to all his former honours. A little while after, the death of Basil left Leo master of the Eastern empire. He ascended the throne with his brother Alexander in 886; but the latter, given up to his pleasures, abandoned to Leo the whole care of the government. Perhaps the effeminacy and licentiousness of Alexander obtained for Leo, by the mere force of flattering comparison, the title of Philosopher, which his life in no degree stified. Scarcely had he ascended the throne when e deposed Photius, the celebrated patriarch, who was secretly connected with Santabaren in the plot for his destruction. Santabaren himself underwent a cruel punishment, and was then driven into exile. Leo reigned weakly, and the ill success of his generals against the Bulgarians obliged him to submit to such terms of peace as those barbarians pleased to prose. A total defeat of his fleet by the Saracens also took place a short time before his death, which happened A.D. 911, after a reign of 25 years. “The name of Leo VI. has been dignified,” observes Gibbon, “with the title of Philosopher, and the union of the prince and the sage, of the active and the speculative virtues, would indeed constitute the perfection of human nature. But the claims of Leo are far short

of this ideal excellence. Did he reduce his passions and appetites under the dominion of reason? His life was spent in the pomp of the palace, in the society of his wives and concubines: and even the clemency which he showed, and the peace which he strove to preserve, must be imputed to the softness and indolence of his character. Did he subdue his prejudices and those of his subjects? His mind was tinged with the most puerile superstition; the influence of the clergy, and the errors of the people, were consecrated by his laws, and the oracles of Leo, which reveal, in prophetic style, the fates of the empire, are founded on the arts of astrology and divination. If we still inquire the reason of his sage appellation, it can only be replied, that the son of Basil was less ignorant than the greater part of his contemporaries in church and state; that his education had been directed by the learned Photius; and that several books of profane and ecclesiastical science were composed by the pen or in the name of the imperial philosopher. But the reputation of his philosophy and religion was overthrown by a domestic vice, the repetition of his nuptials.” (Decline and Fall, c. 48.) He was four times married, and had a son by each of these unions, but he lost three of his children successively at an early age. He left the empire to Constantine, his son by Zoe, his fourth wife.—We have remaining seventeen predictions or oracles of this pretended prophet, written in iambic verse. Rutgersius published the first sixteen, to which Leunclavius added the seventeenth, up to that time unedited. Leo also retouched and reduced to a better form the body of law commenced by Basil, and which took the name of Baat?urai Öuarášew, “Imperial Constitutions” or “Basilica..” He also promulgated various new ordinances, 'Em avopfforukai katápaeus, in which he corrected and modified the Justinian code. Of these 1 13 remain. We owe to his orders, likewise, the composition of an 'Exãoyń, or abridgment of Roman law, promulgated in his name and that of Constantine his son, who was then associated with him in the empire. Leo's principal work is that on Military Tactics, containing the elements of this branch of the military art: Töv kv troAéuoto takriköv at vropoc trapéðogic, or IIoàeuköv trapaakeväv duárašic. It is a compilation from the works of Arrian, AElian, and especially Onesander, and contains some curious illustrations of the state of military knowledge in his day. The best edition is that of Meursius, Lugd. Bat., 1612, 4to. It was translated into French by Maizeroi, Paris, 1771, 2 vols. 8vo. The libraries of Florence and of the Vatican are thought to contain many other military, and likewise some religious works, of this same emperor. (Biographie Universelle, vol. 24, p. 141, seqq.) onio, an Athenian statuary and sculptor, mentioned by Pliny (34, 8, 19) as having flourished in the 102d Olympiad. He built the Mausoleum, in connexion with Scopas, Bryaxes, and Timotheus, to whom some add Praxiteles. (Plin., 36, 5, 4.—Vitruv., VII., Praef, s. 13.) A list of his works is given by Sillig, from ancient authorities. (Dict. Art., s. v.) Leonātus, one of the generals of Alexander. On the death of that monarch he was appointed to the charge of Phrygia Minor, which lay along the Hellespont. Not long after, on being directed by Perdiccas to establish Eumenes in the kingdom of Capadocia, he communicated to the latter a plan which . had in view of seizing upon Macedonia. Eumenes immediately divulged this to Perdiccas. The plan thus formed by Leonatus was based upon his assisting Antipater in the Lamian war. Accordingly, though both Eumenes and Perdiccas knew his real instructions, he crossed over with a body of forces into Europe, and brought succour to Antipater against the consederate Greeks; but his ambitious designs were frustrated by his being slain in battle. (Plut., Wit. Alez.-Id., Wit. Phoc.—Id., Wit. Eum.) LEoNiDAs, I. a celebrated king of Lacedæmon, of the family of the Eurysphonidae, sent by his countrymen to maintain the pass of formopylae against the invading army of Xerxes, Bo. 480. A full narrative of the whole affair, together with an examination of the ancient statements on this subject, will be found under the article Thermopylae.—II. Son of Cleonymus, of the line of the Agidae, succeeded Areus II. on the throne of Sparta, B.C. 257. Agis, his colleague in the sovereignty, having resolved to restore the institutions of Lycurgus to their former vigour, Leonidas opposed his views, and became the main support of those who were inclined to a relaxation of ancient strictness. He was convicted, however, of having transgressed the laws, and was obliged to yield the supreme power to Cleombrotus, his son-in-law. Not long after he was re-established on the Spartan throne, and avenged the affront which he had received at the hands of Agis, by impeaching him and effecting his condemnation. (Pausan., 2, 9–Id., 3, 6.)—III. A native of Alexandrea, who flourished at Rome as a grammarian towards the close of the first century of the Christian era. He wrote, among other things, epigrams denominated loopmoa, arranged in such a manner, that the numerical value of all the letters composing any one distich is equal to that of the letters of any other. He was very probably the inventor of this learned species of trifling. (Schöll, Hist. Lit., vol. 4, p. 50.-Compare Jacobs, Catal. Poet. Epigramm., s. v.)—IV. A native of Tarentum, who flourished about 275 B.C. He has left behind a hundred epigrams in the Doric dialect, and which belong to the best of those that have been preserved for us. (Jacobs, Catal. Poet. Epigramm., s. v.) Leontini, a town of Sicily, situate about five miles from the seashore, on the south of Catana, between two small streams, the Lissus and Terias. The place is sometimes called by modern writers Leontium ; this, however, is not only a deviation from Thucydides, who always uses the form Aeovtivot, but, in fact, is employed by no ancient author except Ptolemy; and Cluverius there suspects the reading to be a corruption for Aeovrivov, (Bloomfield, ad Thucyd., 6, 3.) It was founded by a colony of Chalcideans from Euboea, who had come to the island but six years before, and had then settled Naxos, near Mount Taurus, where Tauromenium was afterward founded. That they should have settled Leontini only six years after their own colonization may indeed seem strange; but it may be accounted for from the superior fertility of the plain of Leontini, which has ever been accounted the richest tract in Sicily; for the very same reason they soon afterward settled Catana. (Thucyd., l. c.— Bloomf, ad loc.) The Siculi were in possession of the territory where Leontini was founded prior to the arrival of the colony, and were driven out by force of arms. Leontini for a time continued flourishing and powerful, but eventually sank under the superior power and prosperity of Syracuse. Its quarrel with this last-mentioned city led to the unfortunate expedition of the Athenians, whose aid Leontini had solicited. The city ultimately fell under the Syracusan power. The celebrated Gorgias was a native of this place. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 301, seqq.) Leontium, an Athenian female, originally an hetaerist, although afterward, as Gassendi maintains, the wife of Metrodorus, the most eminent friend and disciple of Epicurus. Many slanders were circulated respect. ing her intercourse with the philosopher and his followers. She herself composed works on philosophy. (Diog. Laert., 10, 7–Plut., non posse suav. v. Sec. Epic., 4, 16–Cic., N. D., 1, 33.) A detailed biography of Leontium may be sound in the Biographie Universelle (vol. 24, p. 170. Compare Ritter, Hist.

Philos., vol. 3, p. 402). Of the other heterists who frequented the garden of Epicurus, it may be supposed that they were only brought to the common meals in accordance with the custom of the day. (Ritter, l.c.) LEosthéNEs, I. one of the last successful generals of Athens. He was of the party of Demosthenes, and the violence of his harangues in favour of democracy drew the well-known reproof from Phocion: “Young man, thy words are like the cypress, tall and large, but they bear no fruit.” He had, however, gained reputation enough to be chosen leader of a large body of mercenary soldiers, returned from Asia shortly before the death of Alexander, who, on that event being known, were taken openly into the pay of the republic. His first exploit was the defeat of the Boeotians near Plataea. After this he took post at Pylae, to prevent the entrance of Antipater into Greece, defeated him, and shut him up in Lamia, a town of Thessaly, to which he laid siege; and from that siege the Lamian war has its name. Leosthenes, however, was killed in the course of it; and after his death success deserted the Athenian arms. He left a high reputation: and his picture, painted by Arcesilaus, is mentioned by Pausanias (1, 1) as one of the objects in the Piraeus worthy of notice. (Diod. Sic., 18, 9.-Id., 18, 11, seqq.)—II. An Athenian commander, condemned to death, B.C. 361, for being defeated by Alexander of Pherae. (Diod. Sic., 15, 95.) Leotychides, I. a king of Sparta, son of Menares, of the line of the Proclidae. He ascended the throne B.C. 491, a few years before the invasion of Greece by the Persians, and succeeded to Demaratus. Having been appointed, along with Xanthippus the Athenian, to the command of the Grecian fleet, he gained, in conjunction with his colleague, the celebrated victory of Mycale. He afterward sailed along the coast. of Asia Minor, causing the inhabitants to revolt, and received into alliance with the Greeks the Ionians and Samians, who, in the battle of Mycale, had been the first to declare in favour of their ancient allies. Some years after this, Leotychides having been sent into Thessaly against the Aleuada, suffered himself to be influenced by their presents, and retired without having gained any advantage. He was accused on his return, and, not deeming himself safe at Lacedæmon, he took refuge at Tegea, in the temple of Minerva Alea (499 B.C.). Zeuxidamus, his son, being dead, Archidamus, his grandson, was placed on the throne. Leotychides died at Tegea 467 B.C. (Herod., 6, 65.-Id., 8, 131.-Id., 9, 197.)—II. Son of Agis, Ming of Sparta. He passed, however, most commonly for the son of Alcibiades, whom Agis had received into his abode when exiled from Athens. Although Agis had formally recognised his legitimacy, it was nevertheless disputed, and Lysander eventually succeeded in having Agesilaus his brother appointed king in his place. (Corn. Nep., Wit. Ages.—Pausam., 3, 8.) r Lepida, H. A.milia, daughter of Manius Lepidus, and wife of Drusus Caesar. She was engaged in an adulterous intercourse with Sejanus, and was suborned by that ambitious and profligate minister to become the accuser of her own husband to Tiberius. Notwithstanding her crimes, she was protected during her father's life, but, being afterward made a subject of attack by the informers of the day, she put an end to her own existence. (Tacit., Ann., 4, 20–1d., 6, 40.) —II. A Roman female, who reckoned among her ancestors Pompey and Sylla. She was accused by her husband Sulpicius of adultery, poisoning, and treasonable conduct, and was condemned to exile, notwithstanding the interest which the people testified in her behalf. (Tacit., Ann., 3, 22.)—III. Domitia, daughter of Drusus and Antonia. She was grand-niece of Augustus, and aunt of Nero, who destroyed her by poison. (Tacit, Ann., 13, 19.)—IV. Domitia, daugh

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