Obrazy na stronie

had no land, like ther people, on the produce of which to support themselves, but were compelled to depend for subsistence on the remains of the sacrifices. Determined to be revenged on him, they concealed a consecrated cup amid his baggage, and, when he was some distance from their city, pursued and arrested him. The production of the cup sealed his fate, and he was thrown from the rock Hyampea, as already mentioned. As they were leading him away to execution, he is said to have recited to them the fable of the eagle and beetle, but without producing any effect. The memory of AEsop was highly honoured throughout Greece, and the Athenians erected a statue to him (Phaedrus, 2, Epil., 2, seqq.), the work of the celebrated Lysippus, which was placed opposite those of the seven sages. It must be candidly confessed, however, that little, if anything, is known with certainty respecting the life of the fabulist, and what we have thus detailed of him appears to rest on little more than mere tradition, and the life which Planudes, a monk of the fourteenth century, is supposed to have iven to the world; a piece of biography possessing ew intrinsic claims to our belief. Hence some writers have doubted whether such an individual as AEsop ever existed. (Compare Wisconti, Iconografia Greca, vol. 1, p. 154, where the common opinion is advocated.) But, whatever we may think on this head, one point at least is certain, that none of the fables which at present go under the name of Æsop were ever written by him. They appear to have been preserved for a long time in oral tradition, and only collected and reduced to writing at a comparatively late period. Plato (Phaedon.—Op., pt. 2, vol. 3, p. 9, ed. Bekker) informs us, that Socrates amused himself in prison, towards the close of his life, with versifying some of these fables. (Compare Plut. de Aud. Poet., p. 16, c., and Wyttenbach, ad loc.) . His example found numerous imitators. A collection of the fables of AEsop, as they were called, was also made by Demetrius Phalereus (Diog. Laert., 5, 80), and another, between 150 and 50 B.C., by a certain Babrius. (Compare Tyrwhitt, Dissert. de Babrio, Lond, 1776, 8vo.) The former of these was probably in prose; the latter was in choliambic verse (vid. Babrius). But the bad taste of the grammarians, in a subsequent age, destroyed the metrical form of the fables of Babrius, and reduced them to prose. To them we owe the loss of a large portion of this collection. Various collections of Æsoian fables have reached our times, among which six #. attained to a certain degree of celebrity. Of these the most ancient is not older than the thirteenth century; the author is unknown. It is called the collection of Florence, and contains one hundred and ninety-nine fables, together with a puerile life of the fabulist by Planudes, a Greek monk of the fourteenth century. The second collection was made by an unknown hand in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The monk Planudes formed the third collection. The fourth, called the Heidelberg collection, together with the fifth and sixth, styled, the former the Augsburg collection, the latter that of the Vatican, are the work of anonymous compilers. These last three contain many of the fables of Babrius, reduced to bad prose. Besides the collections which have just been enumerated, we possess one of a character, totally distinct from the rest. It is a Greek translation, executed in the fifteenth century by Michael. Andredpulus, from a Syriac original, which would appear itself to have been nothing more than a translation from the Greek, by a Persian named Syntifa. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr., vol. 1, p. 253.)—As regards the question, whether the sables of the Arabian Lokman have served as a prototype for those of Æsop, or otherwise, it may be remarked, that, in the opinion of De Sacy (Biographie Universelle, vol. 24, p. 631, s. v. Lokman), the apologues of the Arabian fabulist are nothing more than

an imitation of some of those ascribed to Æsop, and that they in no respect bear the marks of an Arabian invention. (Compare the observations of Erpenius, in the preface to his edition of Lokman, 1615.)—With respect to the person of AEsop, it has been generally supposed that the statement of Planudes, which makes him to have been exceedingly deformed, his head of a conical shape, his belly protuberant, his limbs distorted, &c., was unworthy of credit. Wisconti, however, supports the assertions of Planudes in this particular, from the remains of ancient sculpture. (Iconografia Greca, vol. 1, p. 155.)—The best editions of AEsop are the following: that of Heusinger, Lips., 1741, 8vo; that of Ernesti, Lips., 1781, 8vo; that of Coray, Paris, 1810, 8vo; and that of De Furia, Lips., 1810, 8vo.—II. An eminent Roman tragedian, and the most formidable rival of the celebrated Roscius, though in a different line. Hence Quintilian (11, 3) remarks, “Roscius citatior, Æsopus gravior fuit, quod ille coma dias, hic tragardias egit.” His surname was Clodius, probably from his being a sreedman ol the Clodian or Claudian family. He is supposed to have been born in the first half of the seventh century of Rome, since Cicero, in a letter written A.U.C. 699 (Ep. ad Fam., 7, 1), speaks of him as advanced in rears. Some idea of the energy with which he acted #. parts on the stage may be formed from the anecdote related by Plutarch (Wit. Cic., 5), who informs us, that on one occasion, as AEsopus was performing the part of Atreus, at the moment when he is meditating vengeance, he gave so violent a blow with his sceptre to a slave who approached, as to strike him lifeless to the earth. A circumstance mentioned by Valerius Maximus (8, 10, 2), shows with what care AEsopus and Roscius studied the characters which they represented on the stage. Whenever a cause of any importance was to be tried, and an orator of any eminence was to plead therein, these two actors were accustomed to mix with the spectators, and carefully observe the movements of the speakers as well as the expression of their countenances. Æsopus, like Roscius, lived in great intimacy with Cicero, as may be seen in various passages in the correspondence of the latter. He appeared for the last time in public on the day when the theatre of Pompey was dedicated, A.U.C. 699, but his physical powers were unequal to the effort, and his voice failed him at the very beginning of an adjuration, “Si sciens fallo.” (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 7, 1.) He amassed a very large fortune, which his son squandered in a career of the most ridiculous extravagance. It is this son of whom Horace (Sut., 2, 3,239) relates, that he dissolved a costly pearl in vinegar, and drank it off. Compare the statement of Pliny (9, 59).-III. An engraver, most probably of Sigaeum. The time when he lived is uncertain. In connexion with some brother-artist, he made a large cup, with a stand and strainer, dedicated by Phanodicus, son of Hermocrates, in the Prytaneum at Sigaeum. (Consult the remarks of Hermann, itber Böckh's Behandlung der Griech. Inschrift., p. 216– 219.) AEstít, a nation of Germany, dwelling along the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Hence the origin of their name, srom the Teutonic Est, “east,” as indicating a community dwelling in the eastern part of Germany. (Compare the English Essex, i. e., AEstseria.) They carried on a traffic in amber, which was sound in great abundance along their shores. This circumstance alone would lead us to place them in a part of modern Prussia, in the country probably beyond Dantzic. Tacitus calls their position “the right side of the Suevic” or Baltic “Sea.” It is incorrect to assign them to modern Esthonia. Either this last is a general name sor any country lying to the east, or else the Esthians of Esthonia came originally from what is now Prussia. The AEstii worshipped,

according to Tacitus, the mother of the gods, Hertha, and the symbol of her worship was a wild boar. Now, as this animal was sacred to Freya, the Scandinavian Venus, and as Freya is often confounded with Frigga, the mother of the gods in the Scandinavian mythology, Tacitus evidently sell into a similar error, and misunderstood his informers. (Tacit., M. G., 45.-Pinkerton, Diss. on Scythians, &c., p. 168.) AEstila, a town of Latium, the site of which remains undiscovered. Horace (0d., 3, 29, 6) speaks of it in the same line with Tibur, whence it is naturally supposed to have stood in the vicinity of that place. Pliny (3, 5) enumerates AEsula among the Latin towns, which no longer existed in his time. Welleius Paterculus (1, 14) calls the place Æsulum, and reckons it among the colonies of Rome. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, . 66.) P AEsyires, a Trojan prince, supposed by some to have been the parent of Antenor and Ucalegon, while others make him to have been descended from a more ancient Ucalegon, who had married Ilios, the daughter of Laomedon. Homer (Il., 13,427) mentions Alcathous as the son of Æsyetes, and the son-in-law of Anchises, who had given him his eldest daughter Hippodamia in marriage. o: ad Il., 2, 793.) The tomb of Æsyetes is alluded to by Homer (Il., 2, 793), and is said by Strabo (599) to have been five stadia distant from Troy, and on the road leading to Alexandrea Troas. It afforded a very convenient post of observation in the Trojan war. Dr. Clarke gives the following account of it (Travels, &c., vol. 3, p. 92, seqq., Eng. ed.): “Coming opposite to the bay, which has been considered as the naval station used by the Greeks during the Trojan war, and which is situate on the eastern side of the embouchure of the Mender, the eye of the spectator is attracted by an object predominating over every other, and admirably adapted, by the singularity of its form, as well as by the peculiarity of its situation, to overlook that station, together with the whole of the low coast near the mouth of the river. This object is a conical mound, rising from a line of elevated territory behind the bay and the mouth of the river. It has, therefore, been pointed out as the tomb of Æsyetes, and is now called Udjek Tépe. If we had never heard or read a single syllable concerning the war of Troy, or the works of Homer, it would have been impossible not to notice the remarkable appearance presented by this tumulus, so peculiarly placed as a post of observation commanding all approach to the harbour and river.”. In another part (p. i88), the same intelligent traveller observes: “The tumulus of Æsyetes is, of all others, the spot most remarkably adapted for viewing the Plain of Troy, and it is visible in almost all parts of Troas. From its top may be traced the course of the Scamander; the whole chain of Ida, stretching towards Lectum; the snowy heights of Gargarus, and all the shores of the Hellespont near the mouth of the river, with Sigeum, and the other tumuli upon the coast.” Bryant endeavours to show, that what the Greeks regarded as the tombs of princes and warriors, were not so in reality, but were, for the most part, connected with old religious rites and customs, and used for religious purposes. (Mythology, vol. 2, p. 167, seqq.) Lechevalier, however, successfully refutes this. (Beschreibung der Ebene von Troja, &c., German transl. by Heyne, p. 129, seqq.) AErhalíA. vid. Ilva. AErhalides, a son of Mercury, and herald of the Argonauts, who obtained from his father the privilege of being among the dead and the living at stated times. Hence he was called ěrepfluepot kāpuš, from his spending one day in Hades, and the next upon earth, alternately. It is said also that his soul underwent various transmigrations, and that he appeared successively as Euphorbus, son of Panthas, Pyrus the Cretan, an Elean whose name is not known, and Pythagoras. (Schol.

ad Apollon, Arg, 1,644, ex cod. Paris-Vol.2, p. 51, ed. Brunck.) AEthicks, a Thessalian tribe of uncertain but ancient origin, since they are mentioned by Homer (Il., 2,744), who states that the Centaurs, expelled by Pirithous from Mount Pelion, withdrew to the AEthices. Strabo (327 and 434) says, that they inhabited the Thessalian side of Pindus, near the sources of the Peneus, but that their possession of the latter was disputed by the Tymphaei, who were contiguous to them on the Epirotic side of the mountain. Marsyas, a writer cited by Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. Aibukia), described the AEthices as a most daring race of barbarians, whose sole object was robbery and plunder. , Lycophron (v. 802) calls Polysperchon Aiffikov trpóuor. Scarcely any trace of this people remained in the time of Strabo. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 352.) AEthiopia, an extensive country of Africa, to the south of Egypt, lying along the Sinus Arabicus and Mare Erythraeum, and extending also far inland. An idea of its actual limits will best be formed from a view of the gradual progress of Grecian discovery in relation to this region. Æthiops (Aithiop) was the expression used by the Greeks for everything which had contracted a dark or swarthy colour from exposure to the heat of the sun (alto, “to burn,” and drift, “the visage”). The term was applied also to men of a dark complexion, and the early Greeks named all of such a colour AEthiopes, and their country AEthiopia, wherever situated. It is more than probable that the Greeks obtained their knowledge of the existence of such a race of men from the Phoenicians and Egyptians, and that this knowledge, founded originally on mere report, was subsequently confirmed by actual inspection, when the Greek colomists along the shores of Asia Minor, in their commercial intercourse with Sidon and Egypt, beheld there the caravans which had come in from Southern Africa. Homer makes express mention of the AEthiopians in many parts of his poems, and speaks of two divisions of them, the Eastern and Western. The explanation given by Eustathius and other Greek writers respecting these two classes of men, as described by the poet, cannot be the true one. They make the Nile to have been the dividing line (Eustath., p. 1386, ad Hom,0d., 1, 23); but this is too refined for Homer's geographical acquaintance with the interior of Africa. ; the Eastern AEthiopians he means merely the imbrowned natives of Southern Arabia, who brought their wares to Sidon, and who were believed to dwell in the immediate vicinity of the rising sun. The Egyptians were acquainted with another dark-coloured nation, the Libyans. These, although the poet carefully distinguishes their country from that of the AEthiopians (Od., 4,84), still become, in opposition to the Eastern, the poet's Western AEthiopians, the more especially as it remained unknown how far the latter extended to the west and south. This idea, originating thus in early antiquity, respecting the existence of two distinct classes of }. coloured men, gained new strength at a later period. In the immense army of Xerxes were to be seen men of a swarthy complexion from the Persian provinces in the vicinity of India, and others again, of similar visage, from the countries lying to the south of Egypt. With the exception of colour, they had nothing in common with each other. Their language, manners, physical make, armour, &c., were entirely different. Notwithstanding this, however, they were both regarded as AEthiopians. (Compare Herodotus, 7, 69, seqq., and 3, 94, seqq.) The AEthiopians of the farther east disappeared gradually from remembrance, while a more intimate intercourse with Egypt brought the AEthiopians of Africa more frequently into view, and it is to these, therefore, that we now turn our attention.—AEthiopia, according to Herodotus, includes the countries above Egypt, the present Nubia and Abyssinia. Immediately above Syene and Elephantine, *; this writer I

(2,29), the AEthiopian races begin. As far as the town and island of Tachompso, seventy or eighty miles above Syene, these are mixed with Egyptians, and higher up dwell AEthiopians alone. The AEthiopians he distinishes into the inhabitants of Meroë and the Macrobii. fj Pliny (6,29) we find other tribes and towns referred to, but the most careful division is that by Agatharchides, whose work on the Red Sea is unfortunately lost, with the exception of some fragments. Agatharchides divides them according to their way of life. Some carried on agriculture, cultivating the millet; others were herdsmen; while some lived by the chase and on vegetables, and others, again, along the sea-shore, on fish and marine animals. The rude tribes who lived on the coast and fed on fish are called by Agatharchides the Ichthyophigi. . Along both banks of the Astaboras dwelt another nation, who lived on the roots of reeds growing in the neighbouring swamps: these roots they cut to pieces with stones, formed them into a tenacious mass, and dried them in the sun. Close to these dwelt the Hylophâgi, who lived on the fruits of trees, vegetables growing in the valleys, &c. To the west of these were the hunting nations, who sed on wild beasts, which they killed with the arrow. There were also other tribes, who lived on the flesh of the elephant and the ostrich, the Elephantophāgi and Struthophāgi. Besides these, he mentions another and less populous tribe, who fed on locusts, which came in swarms from the southern and unknown districts. (Agatharch., de Rubr. Mar.—Geograph. Gr. Min., ed. Hudson, vol. 1, p. 37, seqq.) The accuracy with which Agatharchides so pointed out the situation of these tribes, does not occasion much difficulty in assimilating them to the modern inhabitants of AEthiopia. According to him, they dwelt along the banks of the Astaboras, which separated them from Meroë ; this river is the Atbar, or, as it is also called, the Tacazze; they must, consequently, have dwelt in the present Shangalla. The mode of life with these people has not in the least varied for 2000 years; although cultivated nations are situate around them, they have made no progress in improvement themselves. Their land being unfavourable both to *. and the rearing of cattle, they are compelled to remain mere hunters. Most of the different tribes mentioned by Agatharchides subsist in a similar manner. The Dobenahs, the most powerful tribe . the Shangallas, still live on the elephant and the rhinoceros. The Baasa, in the plains of Sire, yet eat the flesh of the lion, the wild hog, and even serpents: and farther to the west dwells a tribe, who subsist in the summer on the locust, and at other seasons on the crocodile, hippopotamus, and fish. Diodorus Siculus (3,28) remarks, that almost all these people die of verminous diseases produced by this food; and Bruce (Travels, 3d ed., vol. 5, p. 83) makes the same observation with respect to the Waito, on the Lake Dambea, who live on crocodiles and other Nile animals. Besides these inhabitants of the plains, AEthiopia was peopled by a more powerful, and somewhat more ...; shepherd-nation, who dwelt in the caves of the neighbouring mpuntains, namely, the Troglodyta. A chain of high mountains runs along the African shore of the Arabian Gulf, which in Egypt are composed of granite, marble, and alabaster, but farther south of a softer kind of stone. At the foot of the gulf these mountains turn inward, and bound the southern portion of Abyssinia. This chain was, in the most ancient times, inhabited by these Troglodytar, in the holes and grottoes formed by nature but enlarged by human labour. These people were not hunters; they were herdsmen, and had their chiefs or princes of the race. Remains of the Troglodyta still exist in the Shipo, Hazorta, &c., mentioned by Bruce (vol. 4, p. 266). A still more celebrated Æthiopian nation, and one which has been particularly described to us by Herodotus (3, 17, seqq.), was the Macrobii, for an account of

whom, and of the state and city of Meroë, the student is referred to these articles respectively. Under the latter of these heads some remarks will also be offered respecting the trade of Æthiopia—The early and curious belief respecting the Æthiopian race, that they stood highest in the favour of the gods, and that the deities of Olympus, at stated seasons, enjoyed among them the festive hospitality of the banquet, would seem to have arisen from the peculiar relation in which Meroë stood to the adjacent countries as the parent city of civilization and religion. Piety and rectitude were the first virtues with a nation whose dominion was founded on religion and commerce, not on oppression. The active imagination, however, of the early Greeks, gave a different turn to this feature in the AEthiopian character, and, losing sight of the true cause, or, perhaps, never having been acquainted with it, they supposed that a race of men, who could endure such intense heat as they were thought to encounter, must be a nobler order of beings than the human family in general; and that they who dwelt so near the rising and setting of the orb of day, could not but be in closer union than the rest of their species with the inhabitants of the skies. (Compare Mannert, 10, 103.)--The AEthiopians were intimately connected with the Egyptians in the early ages of their monarchy, and Æthiopian princes, and whole dynasties, occupied the throne of the Pharaohs at various times, even to a late period before the Persian conquest. The AEthiopians had the same religion, the same sacerdotal order, the same hieroglyphic writing, the same rites of sepulture and ceremonies as the Egyptians. Religious pomps and processions were celebrated in common between the two nations. The images of the gods were at certain times conveyed up the Nile, from their Egyptian temples to others in AEthiopia; and, after the conclusion of a festival, were brought back again into Egypt. (Diod. Sic., 1, 33.-Eustath., ad Îl., 1,423.) The ruins of temples found of late in the countries above Egypt (vid. Meroë), and which are quite in the Egyptian style, confirm these accounts; they were, doubtless, the temples of the ancient AEthiopians. It is nowhere asserted that the Æthiopians and Egyptians used the same language, but this seems to be implied, and is extremely probable. We learn from Diodorus, that the AEthiopians claimed the first invention of the arts and philosophy of Egypt, and even pretended to have planted the first colonies in Egypt, soon after that country had emerged from the waters of the Nile, or rather of the Mediterranean, by which it was traditionally reported to have been covered. The AEthiopians, in later times, had political relations with the Ptolemies, and Diodorus saw ambassadors of this nation in Egypt in the time of Caesar, or Augustus. An AEthiopian queen, named Candace, made a treaty with Augustus, and a princess of the same name is mentioned by St. Luke in the Acts of the Apostles. How far the dominion of the AEthiopian princes extended is unknown, but they probably . at one period possessions on the coast of the Red Sea, and relations with Arabia. After this we find no farther mention of the ancient AEthiopian empire. Other names occur in the countries intervening between Egypt and Abyssinia; and when the term AEthiopian is again met with in a later age, it is found to have been transferred to the princes and people of Habesh. Such is the history of Æthiopia among the profane writers. By the Hebrews the same people are mentioned frequently under the name of Cush, which by the Septuagint translators is always rendered Albiomec, or AEthiopians. The Hebrew term is, however, applied sometimes to nations dwelling on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, and hence a degree of ambiguity respecting its meaning in some instances. This subject has been amply discussed by Bochart and Michaëlis. Among the Hebrews of later times, the term Cush clearly belongs to

the Æthiopians. The AEthiopians, who were connected with the Egyptians by affinity and intimate political relations, are by the later Hebrew historians termed Cush. Thus Tizhakah, the Cushite invader of Judah, is evidently Tearchon the Æthiopian leader mentioned by Strabo, and the same who is termed Tarakos, and is set down by Manetho, in the wellknown tables of dynasties, as an AEthiopian king of Egypt. In the earlier ages the term Cush belonged apparently to the same nation or race; though it would appear that the Cush or Æthiopians of those times occupied both sides of the Red Sea. The Cush mentioned by Moses are pointed out by him to be a nation as kindred origin with the Egyptians. In the Toldoth Beni Noach, or Archives of the sons of Noah, which Michaelis (Spicileg. Geogr. Hebr. Ext.) has proved to contain a digest of the historical and geographical knowledge of the ancient world, it is said, that the Cush and the Misraim were brothers, which means, as it is rally allowed, nations nearly allied by kindred. fog probable, that the first people who settled in Arabia were Cushite nations, who were afterward exo: or succeeded by the Beni Yoktan or true Arabs. the enumeration of the descendants of Cush in the Toldoth Beni Noach, several tribes or settlements are mentioned in Arabia, as Saba and Havila. When the author afterward proceeds to the descendants of Yoktan, the very same places are enumerated among their settlements. That the Cush had in remote times ions in Asia, is evident from the history of Nimrod, a Cushite chieftain, who is said to have possessed several cities of the Assyrians, among which was Babel, or Babylon, in Shinar. Long after their departure the name of the Cush remained behind them on the coast of the Red Sea. It is probable that the name of Cush continued to be given to tribes which had succeeded the genuine Cushites in the possession of their ancient territories in Arabia, after the whole of that e had passed into Africa, just as the English are termed Britons, and the Dutch race of modern times Belgians. In this way it happened, that people, remote in race from the family of Ham, are yet named Cush, as the Midianites, who were descended from Abraham. The daughter of Jethro, the Midianite, is termed a £ushite woman. Even in this instance, the correspondence of Cush and Æthiopia has been preserved. We find the word rendered Æthiopissa by the Septuagint translators, and in the verses of Ezekiel, the Jewish Hellenistic poet, Jethro is placed in Africa, and his people are termed Æthiopians. On the whole, it may be considered as clearly established, that the C. are the genuine AEthiopian race, and that the country of the Cush is generally in Scripture that part of Africa which lies above Egypt. In support of these positions may be cited, not only the authority of the Septuagint, and the writers already mentioned, but the concurring testimony of the Vulgate, and all other ancient versions, with that of Philo, Josephus, Eupolemus, and all the Jewish commentators and Christian fathers. There is only one writer of antiquity on the other side, and he was probably misled by the facts which we have already considered. This single dissentient is the writer of Jonathan's Targum, .# on this authority the learned Bochart, supported by some doubtful passages, maintains that the land of Cush was situated on the eastern side of the Arabian Gulf. It has been satisfactorily shown, however, by the authors of the Universal History, and by Michaëlis, that many of these passages require a different version, and prove that the land of Cush was AEthiopia. (Prichard's Physical History of Man, 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 289, seqq.)—As regards the physical character of the ancient AEthiopians, it may be remarked, that the Greeks commonly used the term AEthiopian nearly as we use that of negro: they constantly spoke of the AEthiopians, as we speak : the negroes, as if they were the blackest

people known in the world. “Towash the AEthiopian white,” was a proverbial expression applied to a hopeless attempt. It may be thought that o term AEthiopian was perhaps used vaguely, to signify all or many Af. rican nations of dark colour, and that the genuine AEthiopians may not have been quite so black as others. But it must be observed, that though other black nations may be called by that name when taken in a wider sense, this can only have happened in consequence of their resemblance to those from whom the term originated. It is improbable that the AEthiopians were destitute of a particular character, the possession of which was the very reason why other nations participated in their name, and came to be consounded with them. And the most accurate writers, as Strabo, for example, apply the term AEthiopian in the same way, Strabo, in the 15th book (686), cites the opinion of Theodectes, who attributed to the vicinity of the sun the black colour and woolly hair of the AEthiopians. Herodotus expressly affirms (7,70), that the Æthiopians of the west, that is, of Africa, have the most woolly hair of all nations: in this respect, he says, they dif. sered from the Indians and Eastern AEthiopians, who were likewise black, but had straight hair. Moreover, the Hebrews, who, in consequence of their intercourse with Egypt under the Pharaohs, could not sail to know the proper application of the national term Cush, seem to have had a proverbial expression similar to that of the Greeks, “Can the Cush change his colour, or the leopard his spots?” (Jeremiah, 13, 23.) This is sufficient to prove. that the AEthiopian was the darkest race of people known to the Greeks, and, in earlier times, to the Hebrews. The only way of avoiding the inference, that the Æthiopians were genuine negroes, must be by the supposition, that the ancients, among whom the foregoing expressions were current, were not acquainted with any people exactly resembling the people of Guinea, and therefore applied the terms woolly-haired, flat-nosed, &c., to nations who had these characters in a much less degree than those people whom we now term negroes. It seems possible, that the people termed AEthiopians by the Greeks, and Cush by the Hebrew writers, may either of them have been of the race of the Shangalla, Shilluk, or other negro tribes, who now inhabit the countries bordering on the Nile, to the southward of Sennaar: or they may have been the ancestors of the present Nouba or Barabra, or of people resembling them in description. The chief obstacle to our adopting the supposition that these AEthiopians were of the Shangalla race, or of any stock resembling them, is the circumstance, that so near a connexion appears to have subsisted between the former and the Egyptians; and we know that the Egyptians were not genuine negroes. Perhaps, after all, however, we would be more correct in considering the Bedjas, and their descendants the Abadbé and Bisharein, as the posterity of the ancient AEthiopians. Both the Ababdé and Bisharein belong to the class of red, or copper-coloured people. The former are described by Belzoni (Travels,N. 310), and the latter by Burckhardt (Travels in Nubia, p. 372). AEthra, daughter of Pittheus, king of Troezene, and mother of Theseus by Ægeus. (Wid. AEgeus) She was betrothed, in the first instance, to Bellerophon; but this individual being compelled to fly, in consequence of having accidentally killed his brother, Æthra remained under her father's roof. When Ægeus came to consult Pittheus respecting an obscure oracle which the former had received from the Delphic shrine, Pittheus managed to intoxicate him, and give him the company of his daughter. From this intercourse sprang Theseus. (Wid. AEgeus.) Aethra was afterward taken captive by Castor and Pollux, when these two came in quest of Helen, whom Theseus had carried off, and made themselves masters of Athens. She accompa73

nied Helen to Troy when the latter was abducted by Paris, and, on the fall of Troy, she was restored to her home by Acamas and Demophoon, her grandsons, and the sons of Theseus. (Apollod., 3, 15, 4.—Id., 3, 10, 7–Heyne, ad Apollod., l.c.) Aetion, I. a famous painter, who lived in the time of Alexander the Great. He executed ..". of the nuptials of Alexander and Roxana; and the piece was so much admired at the Olympic Games, whither the artist had carried it for exhibition, that the president of the games gave him his daughter in marriage. Such is Lucian's account (Her., 5), who saw this painting in Italy. In another passage, likewise, he refers to this production of Aëtion's, and bestows the highest praises on the lips of Roxana. , (Imag., 7.) Raphael is said to have traced, from Lucian's description of this work of art, one of his most brilliant compositions—II. A sculptor, who flourished about the middle of the third century before the Christian era, and who is known from Theocritus (Epigr., 7.) At the request of Nicias, then a celebrated physician at Miletus, he made a statue of Æsculapius out of cedar. (As regards the reading 'Aeriant, for the common 'Hertovi, consult Kiessling, ad loc.)—III. An engraver on precious stones, whose age is uncertain. (Bracci, 18.-Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Aetius, I. an heresiarch of the fourth century, surnamed by his adversaries the Atheist. He was the son of a common soldier, and born at Antioch. His overty compelling him to live by the labour of his o: he commenced by being a vine-dresser, and was afterward, in succession, a coppersmith and jeweller. Being forced to abandon this latter calling, for having substituted a bracelet of gilt-copper for one of gold, he followed the trade of an empiric, or charlatan, with some success, but was at last driven from Antioch, and went to study logic at Alexandrea. As he never attained any great skill in this latter science, and was, at the same time, but little versed in the sacred writings, he easily sell into the new religious errors of the day, to which he added many others of his own. Epiphanius has preserved forty-seven erroneous propositions, selected from his works, which contained more than three hundred. The principal ones consisted in teaching, that the Son of God was not like the Father; in pretending to know God by himself; in regarding the most culpable actions as the wants of nature; in rejecting the authority of the prophets and apostles; in rebaptizing in the name of the uncreated God, and of the Holy Spirit procreated by the created Son; in asserting that faith is sufficient without works, &c. His other errors were nothing more than mere sophisms founded on verbal equivocations. He was ordained deacon by Leontius, an Arian bishop, who was soon compelled to forbid him the exercise of his ministerial sunctions. After a succession of stormy conflicts, he was exiled by Constantius to Cilicia. Julian recalled him, and assigned him lands near Mytilene, in the island of Lesbos. He was even ordained bishop; and, having escaped punishment, which he was afterward on the point of undergoing for his attachment to the cause of the Emperor Valens, he died at Constantinople A.D. 366, and was honoured with a splendid funeral. (S. Athanas, de Synod—Socrat, Hist. Eccles., 1, 28.-August. Hazr.—Baron., Annal. Ann., 356.)—II. A celebrated Roman general, born at Dorostolus, in Moesia. His father Gaudentius, a Scythian, attained to the highest military employments, and was killed in Gaul during a mutiny of the soldiers. Aëtius, brought up . the imperial body-guards, and given at an early period as a hostage to the formidable Alaric, learned the art of war under this conqueror, and profited by his stay among the barbarians to secure the attachment of a people whom he was destined to have alternately as enemies and allies. In A.D.424, the usurper John wishing to seize the sceptre of the west,

Aëtius undertook to procure for him the assistance of the Huns. John, however, was conquered, and Aetius immediately submitted to Valentinian, who reigned in the west under the guardianship of his mother Placidia. Eagerly desirous of the imperial favours, and jealous of the credit of Count Boniface, Aëtius formed a treacherous scheme against him, the result of which was the revolt of Boniface, who invited Genseric and the Vandals into Africa. A subsequent explanation between Boniface and Placidia came too late to save Africa, but it served to expose the intrigues of Aëtius, who at this time was crushing the Franks and Burgundians in Gaul. Placidia did not dare to punish him, but she bestowed new honours upon Boniface. Rendered furious by this, Aëtius flew back to Italy with a few troops, encountered and gave battle to his rival, was conquered, but with his own hand wounded Boniface, who died shortly after, A.D. 432. Placidia was desirous of avenging his death, but Aëtius retired among the Huns, and reappeared subsequently at the head of sixty thousand barbarians to demand his pardon. Placidia restored to him his charges and honours, and Aetius returned to Gaul to serve the empire, which he defended with great valour as long as his own ambitious views permitted this to be done. His most brilliant feat in this quarter was the overthrow of Attila, who had crossed the Rhine and Seine with his Huns, and laid siege to Orleans. Aëtius marched against him with a powerful army, and met his adversary, who had raised the siege of Orleans and recrossed the Seine, in the Catalaunian plains, near the modern Châlons. The contest was bloody but decisive, and three hundred thousand men fell on both sides. Notwithstanding, however, this brilliant achievement, Aétius, in his turn, became the victim of court intrigue, and being sent for by Valentinian, and having approached him without distrust, was on a sudden stabbed to the heart by that suspicious and cowardly emperor. His death happened A.D. 454. (Procop., de Reb. Goth., 5.-Jornandes, de Regn. Success., c. 19.—Paul Diacon., Hist. Miscell., 19, 16.—Biographie Universelle, vol. 1, p. 267.)—III. A physician of Amida, in Mesopotamia, who flourished at the close of the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. The works of Aëtius are a valuable collection of medical facts and opinions, being deficient only in arrangement; since on several subjects their merit is transcendent. For example, the principles of the Materia Medica are delivered with admirable precision in the beginning of the first book. Of all the ancient treatises on fever, that contained in the fisth book of Aëtius may be instanced as being the most complete; and it would not be easy perhaps, at the present day, to point out a work so full on all points, and so correct in practice. . Of contagion, as an exciting cause of fever, he makes no mention; and as his silence, and that of the other medical authors of antiquity, has often been thought unaccountable, it may be proper to say a few words in explanation. Palladius, who has given a most comprehensive abstract of the doctrines of Galen and his successors on the subject of sever, emumerates the following exciting causes of severs: 1st. The application of a suitable material; as when things of a caleficient nature, such as pepper, mustard, and the like, are taken immoderately by a person of a hot temperament: 2d. Motion; which may be either mental or corporeal; 3d. Constriction of the pores of the skin, occasioned either by the thickness of the humours, or, the coldness and dryness of the surrounding atmosphere. (This, by-the-by, accords with Dr. Cullen's Theory of spasm of the extreme vessels): 4th. Putrefaction of the fluids: 5th. The application of heat, such as by exposure of the head to i. sun.Epidemical severs the ancients considered as being occasioned by a depraved state of the atmosphere, arising from putrid miasmata, or similar causes. With

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