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ter from the surface, has been the increased unhealthiness of the country, and the more extended range of the malaria. (Arnold's History of Rome, vol. 1, p. 501, seqq.) Italica, I. the capital of the Peligni in Italy. (Wid. Corfinium.)—II. A city of Spain, north of Hispalis, and situate on the western side of the river Baetis. (Strabo, 141.-Oros., 5, 23.) It was founded by Publius Scipio in the second Punic war, who placed here the old soldiers whom age had incapacitated from the performance of military service. (Appian, B. Hisp., c. 38–Caes., B. Civ., 2, 20.) It was the birthplace of the Emperor Trajan, and is supposed to correspond with Sevilla la Vieja, about a league distant from the city of Seville. (Surita, ad It. Ant., p. 413, 432.— Florez, Esp. S. F., 12, p. 227.—Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, É. 372.) talicus, a poet. (Wid. Silius Italicus.) It ilus, a sabled monarch of early Italy. (Consult remarks under the article Italia, page 693, col. 1.) Ithaca, a celebrated island in the Ionian Sea, northeast of Cephallenia. It lies directly south of Leucadia, from which it is distant about six miles. The extent of this celebrated island, as given by ancient authorities, does not correspond with modern computation. Dicaearchus describes it as narrow, and measuring eighty stadia, meaning probably in length (Graec. Stat., v. 51), but Strabo (455) affirms, in circumference, which is very wide of the truth, since it is not less than thirty miles in circuit, or, according to Pliny (4,12), twenty-five. Its length is nearly seventeen miles, but its breadth not more than four. Ithaca is well known as the native island of Ulysses. Eustathius asserts (ad ll., 2, 632) that it derived its name from the hero Ithacus, who is mentioned by Homer (Od., 17, 207). That it was throughout rugged and mountainous we learn from more than one passage of the Odyssey, but especially from the fourth book, v. 605, seqq.—It is evident, from several passages of the same poem, that there was also a city named Ithaca, robably the capital of the island, and the residence of lysses (3,80). Its ruins are generally identified with those crowning the summit of the hill of Aito. (Dodwell, vol. 1, p. 66.) “The Venetian geographers,” observes Sir William Gell, “have in a great degree contributed to raise doubts concerning the identity of the modern with the ancient Ithaca, by giving in their charts the name of Val di Compare to this island. That name, however, is totally unknown in the country, where the isle is invariably called Ithaca by the upper ranks, and Theaki by the vulgar. It has been asserted in the north of Europe, that Ithaca is too inconsiderable a rock to have produced any contingent of ships which could entitle its king to so much consideration among the neighbouring isles; yet the unrivalled excellence of its port has in modern times created a fleet of 50 vessels of all denominations, which trade to every part of the Mediterranean, and from which four might be selected capable of transporting the whole army of Ulysses to the shores of Asia.” The same writer makes the population of the island 8000. It is said to contain sixty-six square miles. (Gell's Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca, p. 30.) Ithacesiæ, I. three islands opposite Wibo, on the coast of Bruttium. They are thought to answer to the modern Braces, Praca, and Torricella. (Bischoff und Müller, Worterb. der Geogr., p. 651.)—II. Baiae is called by Silius Italicus “sedes Ithacesia Baii,” because founded by Baius, the pilot of Ulysses, according to the poetic legends of antiquity. (Sil. Ital, 8, 539.-Compare Lycophron, Cassand, 694.—Tzetzes, ad loc.) Ithome, I. a town of Thessaly, in the vicinity of Metropolis. It is conceived by some modern travellers to have been situated on one of the summits now occupied by the singular convents of Meteora. (Hol
land's Travels, vol. 1,349. — Pouqueville, vol. 3, p. 334.) Cramer, however, thinks it ought to be looked for to the north of the Peneus, near Ardam and Petchouri.-II. A fortress of Messenia, on a mountain of the same name. It was celebrated for the long and obstinate defence (ten years) which the Messenians there made against the Spartans in their last revolt. The mountain was said to have derived its name from Ithome, one of the nymphs that nourished Jupiter. On the summit was the temple of Jupiter Ithomatas, to whom the mountain was especially dedicated. Strabo compares the Messenian Acropolis to Acrocorinthus, being situated, like that citadel, on a lofty and steep mountain, enclosed by sortified lines which connected it with the town. Hence they were justly deemed the two strongest places in the Peloponnesus. When Philip, the son of Demetrius, was planning the conquest of the peninsula with Demetrius of Pharos, the latter advised him to seize first the horns of the heifer, which would secure to him possession of the animal. By these enigmatical expressions he designated the Peloponnesus, and the two bulwarks above mentioned. (Strab., 361. — Polyb., 7, 11.) Scylax says Ithome was eighty stadia from the sea. (Peripl., p. 16.) Itius Portus, a harbour of Gaul, whence Caesar set sail for Britain. Caesar describes it no farther than by saying, that from it there was the most convenient passage to Britain, the distance being about 30 miles. (B. G., 5, 2.) Calais, Boulogne, and Etaples have each their respective advocates for the honour of being the Itius Portus of antiquity. The weight of authority, however, is in favour of Witsand or Vissan; and with this opinion D'Anville coincides. Caesar landed at Portus Lemanis or Lymne, a little below Dover. For a long time this was the principal crossing-place. In a later age, however, the preference was given to Gessoriacum or Boulogne in Gaul, and Rutupiae or Richborough in Britain. Lemaire, however, is in favour of making the Itius Portus identical with Gessoriacum, as others had been before him. (Ind. Geogr. ad Caes., B. G., p. 291.) ITüNAE, AEstuarium, now Solway Firth, in Scotland. IturAEA, a country of Palestine, so called from Itur or Jetur, one of the sons of Ishmael, who settled in it; but whose posterity were either driven out or subdued by the Amorites, when it is supposed to have formed part of the kingdom of Bashan, and subsequently of the half tribe of Manasseh east of Jordan ; but, as it was situated beyond the southern border of Mount Hermon, called the Djebel Heish, this is doubtful. It lay on the northeastern side of the land of Israel, between it and the territory of Damascus or Syria; and is supposed to have been the same country at present known by the name of Djedour, on the east of the Djebel H. between Damascus and the Lake of Tiberias. The Itureans being subdued by Aristobulus, the high-priest and governor of the Jews, B.C. 106, were É. by him to embrace the Jewish religion, and were at the same time incorporated into the state. Philip, one of the sons of Herod the Great, was tetrarch or governor of this country when John the Baptist commenced his ministry. (Plin., 5, 23.-Joseph., Ant. Jud., 13, 19. — Epiphan., Haeres., 19. – Luke, 3, 1.) Itys, son of Tereus, king of Thrace, by Procne, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens. He was killed by his mother when he was about six years old, and served up before his father. He was changed, according to one account, into a pheasant, his mother into a swallow, and his father into an owl. (Vid. Philomela. —Ovid, Met, 6, 620. – Amor, 2, 14, 29. – Horat., Od., 4, 12.) Juba, I. a son of Hiempsal, king of Numidia, succeeded his father about 50 B.C. He was a warm supporter of the senatorial party and Foy, being
moved, it is said, to this course by a gross insult which, in his youth, he had received from Caesar. He gained, B.C. 49, a great victory over Curio, Caesar's lieutenant in Africa. After the battle of Pharsalia and the death of Pompey, he continued steady to his cause; and when Caesar invaded Africa, B.C. 46, he supported Scipio and Cato with all his power, and in the first instance reduced the dictator to much difficulty. The battle of Thapsus, however, turned the scale in Caesar's favour. Juba fled, and, finding that his subjects would not receive him, put an end to his life in despair, along with Petreius. (Vid. Petreius.) His conmexion with Cato has suggested the underplot of Addison's tragedy. (Plut., Vit. Pomp.–Id., Vit. Cats. — Flor., 4, 12. — Sueton., Wit. Jul., 35. — Lucan, 4, 690.-Paterc., 2, 54.)—II. The second of the name, was son of the preceding. He was carried to Rome by Caesar, kindly treated, and well and learnedly educated. He gained the friendship, and fought in the cause, of Augustus, who gave him the kingdom of Mauritania, his paternal kingdom of Numidia having been erected into a Roman province. Juba cultivated diligently the arts of peace, was beloved by his subjects, and had a high reputation for learning. He wrote, in Greck, of Arabia, with observations on its natural history; of Assyria; of Rome; of painting and painters; of theatres; of the qualities of animals; on the source of the Nile, &c., all which are now lost. Juba married Cleopatra, the daughter of Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Strabo, in his sixth book, speaks of Juba as living, and in his seventeenth and last book as then just dead. This would probably fix his death about A.D. 17. (Clinton, Fast. Hellen, vol. 2, p. 551, in molis.-Phot., Cod., 161.-Athenaeus, 8, p. 343, e. — Plut., Mor., p. 269, c., &c. — Consult the dissertation of the Abbé Sevin, Sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Juba, in the Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., &c., vol. 4, p. 457, scqq.) JUDAFA, a province of Palestine, forming the southern division. It did not assume the name of Judaea until after the return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity ; though it had been denominated, long before, the kingdom of Judaea, in opposition to that of Israel. After the return, the tribe of Judah settled first at Jerusalem; but afterward, spreading gradually over the whole country, they gave it the name of Judaea. Judaea, being the seat of religion and government, claimed many privileges. It was not lawful to intercalate the year out of Judaea, while they might do it in that country. Nor was the sheaf of first-fruits of the barley to be brought from any other district than Judaea, and as near as possible to Jerusalem. The extent of this remarkable country has varied at different times, according to the nature of the government which it has enjoyed or been compelled to acknowledge. When it was first occupied by the Israelites, the land of Canaan, properly so called, was confined between the shores of the Mediterranean and the western bank of the Jordan; the breadth at no part exceeding fifty miles, while the length hardly amounted to three times that space. At a later period, the arms of David and of his immediate successor carried the boundaries of the kingdom to the Euphrates and Orontes on the one hand, and in an opposite direction to the remotest confines of Edom and Moab. The population, as might be expected, has undergone a similar variation. It is true, that no particular in ancient history is liable to a better founded suspicion, than the numerical statements which respect nations and armies; for pride and fear have in their turn contributed not a little to exaggerate in rival countries the amount of persons capable of taking a share in the field of battle. Proceeding on the usual grounds of calculation, we must infer, from the number of warriors whom Moses conducted through the desert, that the Hebrew people, when they crossed the * o not fall short of two millions; while, 9
from the facts recorded in the book of Samuel, we may conclude with greater confidence that the enrolment made under the direction of Joab must have returned a gross population of five millions and a half. The present aspect of Palestine, under an administration where everything decays and nothing is renewed, can afford no just criterion of the accuracy of such statements. Hasty observers have indeed pronounced, that a hilly country, destitute of great rivers, could not, even under the most skilful management, supply food for so many Inouths. But this precipitate conclusion has been vigorously combated by the most competent judges, who have taken pains to estimate the produce of a soil, under the fertilizing influence of a sun which may be regarded as almost tropical, and of a wellregulated irrigation, which the §o: knew how to practise with the greatest success. Canaan, it must be admitted, could not be compared to Egypt in respect to corn. There is no Nile to scatter the riches of an inexhaustible fecundity over its valleys and plains. Still it was not without reason that Moses described it as “a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig-trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil-olive and honey; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness; thou shalt not lack anything in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass.” (Deuteron., 8, 7, seqq.) The reports of the latest travellers confirm the accuracy of the picture drawn by this divine legislator. Near Jericho the wild olives continue to bear berries of a large size, which give the finest oil. In places subjected to irrigation, the same field, after a crop of wheat in May, produces pulse in autumn. Several of the trees are continually bearing flowers and fruit at the same time, in all their stages. The mulberry, planted in straight rows in the open field, is festooned by the tendrils of the vine. # this vegetation seems to languish or become extinct during the extreme heats—if in the mountains it is at all seasons detached and interrupted—such exceptions to the general luxuriance are not to be ascribed simply to the general character of all hot climates, but also to the state of barbarism in which the great mass of the present population is immersed. Even in our day, some remains are to be found of the walls which the ancient cultivators built to support the soil on the declivities of the mountains; the form of the cisterns in which they collected the rain-water; and traces of the canals by which this water was distributed over the fields. These labours necessarily created a prodigious fertility under an ardent sun, where a little moisture was the only requisite to revive the vegetable world. The accounts given by native writers respecting the productive qualities of Judaea are not in any degree opposed even by the present aspect of the country. he case is exactly the same with some islands in the Archipelago; a tract from which a hundred individuals can hardly draw a scanty subsistence, formerly maintained thousands in affluence. Moses might justly say that Canaan abounded in milk and honey. The flocks of the Arabs still find in it a luxuriant pasture, while the bees deposite in the holes of the rocks their delicious stores, which are sometimes seen flowing down the surface. The opinions just stated in regard to the fertility of ancient Palestine, receive an ample confirmation from the Roman historians, to whom, as a part of their extensive empire, it was intimately known. Tacitus especially (Hist., 5, 6), in language which he appears to have formed for his own use, describes its natural qualities with the utmost precision, and, as is his manner, suggests rather than specifies a cata: logue of productions, the accuracy of which is verified by the latest observations. The soil is rich, and the
atmosphere dry; the country yields all the fruits
which are known in Italy, besides balm and dates. like the waves of the ocean in the wind. Bothin, or But it has never been denied that there is a remarka-' Batanea, on the other hand, contains nothing except
ble difference between the two sides of the ridge which forms the central chain of Judaea. On the western acclivity, the soil rises from the sea towards the elevated ground in four distinct terraces, which are covered with an unfading verdure. The shore is lined with mastic-trees, palms, and prickly pears. Higher up, the vines, the olives, and the sycamores amply repay the labour of the cultivator; natural groves arise, consisting of evergreen oaks, cypresses, andrachnes, and turpentines. The face of the earth is embellished with the rosemary, the cytisus, and the hyacinth. In a word, the vegetation of these mountains has been compared to that of Crete. European visiters have dined under the shade of a lemon-tree as large as one of our strongest oaks, and have seen sycamores, the foliage of which was sufficient to cover thirty persons, along with their horses and camels. On the eastern side, however, the scanty coating of mould yields a less magnificent crop. From the summit of the hills a desert stretches along to the Lake Asphaltites, presenting nothing but stones and ashes, and a few thorny shrubs. The sides of the mountains enlarge, and assume an aspect at once more grand and more barren. By little and little, the scanty vegetation languishes and dies; even mosses disappear, and a red, burning hue succeeds to the whiteness of the rocks. In the centre of this amphitheatre there is an arid basin, enclosed on all sides with summits scattered over with a yellow-coloured pebble, and affording a single aperture to the east, through which the surface of the Dead Sea and the distant hills of Arabia present themselves to the eye. In the midst of this country of stones, encircled by a wall, we perceive extensive ruins, stunted cypresses, bushes of the aloe and prickly pear, while some huts of the meanest order, resembling whitewashed sepulchres, are spread over the desolated mass. This spot is Jerusalem. (Belon, Observations, &c., p. 140.—Hasselguist, Travels, p. 56—Shultze’s Travels, vol. 2, p. 86.)—This melancholy delineation, which was suggested by the state of the Jewish metropolis in the third century, is not quite inapplicable at the present hour. The scenery of external nature is the same, and the general aspect of the venerable city is very little changed. But as beauty is strictly a relative term, and is everywhere greatly affected by association, we must not be surprised when we read in the works of Eastern authors the high encomiums which are lavished upon the wicinity of the holy capital. , Abulseda, for example, maintains, not only that Palestine is the most fertile part of Syria, but also that the neighbourhood of Jerusalem is one of the most fertile districts of Palestine. In his eye, the vines, the fig-trees, and the olivegroves, with which the limestone cliffs of Judaea were once covered, identified themselves with the richest returns of agricultural wealth, and more than compensated for the absence of those spreading fields, waving with corn, which are necessary to convey to the mind of a European the ideas of fruitfulness, comfort, and abundance.—Following the enlightened narrative of Malte-Brun, the reader will find that southward of Damascus, the point where the modern Palestine may be said to begin, are the countries called by the Romans Auranitis and Gaulonitis, consisting of one extensive and noble plain, bounded on the north by Hermon or Djibel-el-Sheik, on the southwest by Djibel-Edjlan, and on the east by Haouran. In all these countries there is not a single stream which retains its water in summer. The most of the villages have their pond or reservoir, which they fill from one of the wadi or brooks during the rainy season. Of all these districts, Haouran is the most celebrated for the culture of wheat. Nothing can exceed in grandeur the extensive undulations of their fields, moving 4
calcareous mountains, where there are vast caverns, in which the Arabian shepherds live like the ancient Troglodytes. Here a modern traveller, Dr. Seetzen, discovered, in the year 1816, the magnificent ruins of Gerasa, now called Djerash, where three temples, two superb amphitheatres of marble, and hundreds of columns still remain, among other monuments of Roman power. But by far the finest thing that he saw was a long street, bordered on each side with a splendid colonnade of Corinthian architecture, and terminating in an open space of a semicircular form, surrounded with sixty Ionic pillars. In the same neighbourhood, the ancient Gilead is distinguished by a forest of stately oaks, which supply wealth and employment to the inhabitants. Peraea presents on its numerous terraces a mixture of vines, olives, and pomegranates. Karak-Moab, the capital of a district corresponding to that of the primitive Moabites, still meets the eye, but is not to be confounded with another town of a similar name in the Stony Arabia. (Seetzen.—Annales des Voyages, vol. 1, p. 398–Correspondence de M. Zach, p. 425.)—The countries now described lie on the eastern side of the river Jordan. But the same stream, in the upper part of its course, forms the boundary between Gaulonitis and the fertile Galilee, which is identical with the modern district of Szaffad. This town, which is remarkable for the beauty of its situation amid groves of myrtle, is supposed to be the ancient Bethulia, which was besieged by Holofernes. Tabaria, an insignificant place, occupies the site of Tiberias, which gave its name to the lake more generally known by that of Genesareth, or the Sea of Galilee; but industry has now deserted its borders, and the fisherman with his skiff and his nets no longer animates the surface of its waters. Nazareth still retains some portion of its former consequence. Six miles farther south stands the hill of Thabor, sometimes denominated Itabyrius, presenting a pyramid of verdure crowned with olives and sycamores. From the top of this mountain, the reputed scene of the transfiguration, we look down on the river Jordan, the Lake of Genesareth, and the Mediterranean Sea. (Maundrell, p. 60.)—Galilee, says Chateaubriand (Itin., 2, 132), would be a paradise were it inhabited by an industrious people under an enlightened government. Vine-stocks are to be seen here a foot and a half in diameter, forming, by their twining branches, vast arches and extensive ceilings of verdure. A cluster of grapes, two or three feet in length, will give an abundant supper to a whole family. The plains of Esdraelon are occupied by Arab tribes, around whose brown tents the sheep and lambs gambol to the sound of the reed, which at nightfall calls them home. —Proceeding from Galilee towards the metropolis, we enter the land of Samaria, comprehending the modern districts of Areta and Nablous. In the former we find the remains of Cesarea; and on the Gulf of St. Jean d'Acre stands the town of Caypha, where there is a good anchorage for ships. On the southwest of this gulf extends a chain of mountains, which terminates in the promontory of Carmel, a name famous in the annals of our religion. There Elijah proved by miracles the divinity of his mission; and there, in the middle ages of the church, resided thousands of Christian devotees, who sought a refuge for their piety in the caves of the rocks. Then the mountain was wholly covered with chapels and gardens, whereas at the present day nothing is to be seen but scattered ruins amid forests of oak and olives, the bright verdure being only relieved by the whiteness of the calcareous cliffs over which they are suspended. The heights of Carmel, it has been frequently remarked, enjoy a pure and enlivening atmosphere, while the lower grounds of Samaria and Galileo, obscured
by the densest fogs—The Shechem of the Scriptures, successively known by the names of Neapolis and Nahlous, still contains a considerable population, although its dwellings are mean and its inhabitants poor. The ruins of Samaria itself are now covered with orchards ; and the people of the district, who have forgotten their native dialect, as well, perhaps, as their angry disputes with the Jews, continue to worship the Deity on the verdant slopes of Gerizim-Palestine, agreeably to the modern acceptation of the term, embraces the country of the ancient Philistines, the most formidable enemies of the Hebrew tribes prior to the reign of David. Besides Gaza, the chief town, we recognise the celebrated port of Jaffa or Yaffa, corresponding to the Joppa mentioned in the sacred writings. Repeatedly fortified and dismantled, this famous harbour has presented such a variety of appearances, that the description given of it in one age has hardly ever been found to apply to its condition in the very next. Bethlehem, where the divine Messias was born, is a large village inhabited promiscuously by Christians and Mussulmans, who agree in nothing but their detestation of the tyranny by which they are both unmercisully oppressed. The locality of the sacred manger is occupied by an elegant church, ornamented by the pious offerings of all the nations of Europe. It is not our intention to enter into a more minute discussion of those old traditions, by which the particular places rendered sacred by the Redeemer's presence are still marked out for the veneration of the faithful. They present much vagueness, mingled with no small portion of unquestionable truth. At all events, we must not regard them in the same light in which we are compelled to view the story that claims for Hebron the possession of Abraham's tomb, and attracts on this account the veneration both of Nazarenes and Moslems.—To the northeast of Jerusalem, in the large and fertile valley called El-Gaur, and watered by the Jordan, we find the village of Rieha, near the ancient Jericho, denominated by Moses the City of Palms. This is a name to which it is still entitled; but the groves of opobalsamum, or balm of Mecca, have long disap: peared; nor is the neighbourhood any longer adorned with those singular flowers known among the Crusaders by the familiar appellation of Jericho roses. A little farther south two rough and barren chains of hills encompass with their dark steeps a long basin formed in a clay soil mixed with bitumen and rocksalt. The water contained in this hollow is impregnated with a solution of different saline substances, having lime, magnesia, and soda for their base, partially neutralized with muriatic and sulphuric acid. The salt which it yields by evaporation is about one fourth of its weight. The bituminous matter rises from time to time from the bottom of the lake, floats on the surface, and is thrown out on the shores, where it is gathered for various purposes. (Vid. Mare Mortuum.)—This brief outline of the geographical limits and physical character of the Holy Land must suffice here. Details much more ample are to be found in numerous works, whose authors, fascinated by the interesting recollections which almost every object in Palestine is fitted to suggest, have endeavoured to transfer to the minds of their readers the profound impressions which they themselves experienced from a personal review of ancient scenes and monuments. But we purposely refrain from the minute description to which the subject so naturally invites us, because, by pursuing such a course as this, we would be unavoidably led into a train of local particularities, while setting forth the actual condition of the country and of its venerable remains. However, we supply, in the following table, the means of comparing the division or distribution of Canaan among the twelve tribes, with that which was afterward adopted by the Romans,
Ancient Canaanitish Division. Israelitish Division. Roman Division.
Sidonians, Too (in
In a pastoral country, such as that beyond the river Jordan especially, where the desert in most parts bordered upon the cultivated soil, the limits of the several possessions could not at all times be distinctly marked. It is well known, besides, that the native inhabitants were never entirely expelled by the victorious Hebrews, but that they retained, in some instances by force, and in others by treaty, a considerable portion of land within the borders of all the tribes: a fact which is connected with many of the defections and troubles into which the Israelites subsequently fell. (Russell's Palestine, p. 26, seqq.) Jugurtha, the illegitimate son of Manastabal, by a concubine, and grandson of Masinissa. He was brought up under the care of his uncle Micipsa, king of Numidia, who educated him along with his two sons. As, however, Jugurtha was of an ambitious and aspiring disposition, Micipsa, sent him, when grown up, with a body of troops, to join Scipio AEmilianus in his war against Numantia in Spain, hoping to lose, by the chances of war, a youth who might otherwise, at some subsequent period, threaten the tranquillity of his children. His hopes, however, were frustrated. Jugurtha so distinguished himself as to become a great favourite with Scipio, who, at the conclusion of the war, sent him back to Africa with strong recommendations to Micipsa. Micipsa then adopted him, and declared him joint heir with his own two sons Adherbal and Hiempsal. After Micipsa's death (B.C. 118), Jugurtha, aspiring to the undivided possession of the kingdom, effected the murder of Hiempsal, and obliged Adherbal to escape to Rome, where he appealed to the senate. Jugurtha, however, sound means to bribe many of the senators, and a commission was sent to Africa, in order to divide Numidia between the two princes. The commission gave the best portion to Jugurtha, who, not long after their departure, invaded the territory of his cousin, defeated him, besieged him in Cirta, and, having obliged him to surrender, put him to a cruel death; and this almost under the eyes of Scaurus and others, whom the Roman senate had sent as umpires between the two rivals (B.C. 112). This news caused great irritation at Rome, and war was declared against Jugurtha. After some fighting, however, he obtained from the consul Calpurnius,
under the most savourable, conditions, the quiet pos- above two years.
above one year, and those who had been consuls not It also ordained that Achaia, Thes
session of the usurped kingdom. But this treaty was saly, Athens, and, in fact, all Greece, should be free,
not ratified at Rome; Calpurnius was recalled, and and should use their own laws.
the new consul Posthumius Albinus was appointed to Id. in Pis., 16.—Dio Cass., 43, 25.)—V. Another the command in Africa. Meanwhile Jugurtha, being by the same, de Judicibus, ordering the Judices to be summoned, appeared at Rome; but as he then suc- chosen from the senators and equites, and not from
ceeded in bribing several of the senators, and also the tribuni arrarii.
Baebius, a tribune of the people, no judgment was given. Imboldened by this success, he thereupon caused Massiva, son of his uncle Gulussa, whom he suspected of aiming at the kingdom, to be assassinated in the Roman capital. The crime was fixed upon him ; but as he was under the public guarantee, the senate, instead of bringing him to trial, ordered him to leave Rome immediately. It was while departing from the city on this occasion that he is said to have uttered those memorable words against the corruption of the Roman capital which are recorded in the pages of Sallust: “Ah, penal city, and destined quickly to perish, if it could but find a purchaser " . Posthumius was now sent to his province in Africa, to prosecute the war; but he soon returned to Rome without having effected anything, leaving the army under the command of his brother Aulus Posthumius, who allowed himself to be surprised in his camp by Jugurtha, to whom he surrendered; and his troops, having passed under the yoke, evacuated Numidia. The new consul Metellus, arriving soon after with fresh troops, carried on the war with great vigour, and, being himself above temptation, reduced Jugurtha to the last extremity. Caius Marius was serving as lieutenant to Metellus, and in the year B.C. 107, supplanted him in the command. Jugurtha, meantime, having allied himself with Bocchus, king of Mauritania, gave full employment to the Romans. Marius took the town of Capsa, and in a hard-contested battle defeated the two kings. Bocchus now made offers of peace, and Marius sent to him his quaestor Sylla, who, after much negotiation, induced the Mauritanian king to give up Jugurtha into the hands of the Romans, as the price of his own peace and security. Jugurtha followed in chains with his two sons, the triumph of Marius, after which he was thrown into a subterraneous dungeon, where he was starved to death, or, according to others, was strangled. His sons were sent to Venusia, where they lived in obscurity. The war against Jugurtha lasted five years; it ended B.C. 106, and has been immortalized by the pen of Sallust. (Sall., Bell. Jug.—Plut., Vit. Mar.) “It is said,” observes Plutarch, “that when Jugurtha was led before the car of the conqueror, he lost his senses. After the triumph he was thrown into prison, where, in their haste to strip him, some tore his robe off his back, and others, catching eagerly at his pendants, pulled off the tips of his ears along with them. When he was thrust down naked into the dungeon, all confused, he said, with a frantic smile, 'Heavens' how cold is this bath of yours' There, having struggled for six days with extreme hunger, and to the last hour labouring for the preservation of life, he came to such an end as his crimes deserved.” (Plut., Wit. Mar.) Julia Lex, I. Agraria, proposed by Julius Caesar in his first consulship, A.U.C. 694. Its object was to distribute the lands of Campania and Stella to 20,000 poor citizens, who had three children or more. (Cic., Ep. ad Att., 2, 16–Well, Paterc., 2, 44.)—II. Another by the same, entitled de Publicanis, about remitting to the farmers-general a third part of what they had stipulated to pay. (Cic., pro Planc., 16.— Suet., Vit. Jul., 20.)—III. Another by the same, for the ratification of all Pompey's acts in Asia. (Suet., l. c.)—IV. Another by the same, de Provinciis ordinandis. This was an improvement on the Cornelian law about the provinces, and ordained that those who bad been practors should not command a province
(Sueton., Wit. Jul., 41.-Cic., Phil., 1, 9.)—VI. Another by the same, de Repetundis, very severe against extortion. It is said to have contained above 100 heads. (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 8, 7.-Suet., Wit. Jul., 43.)—VII. Another by the same, de liberis proscriptorum, that the children of those proscribed by Sylla should be admitted to enjoy preferments, (Sueton., Wit. Jul., 41.)—VIII. Another by the same. This was a sumptuary law. It allowed an expenditure of 200 sesterces on the dies profesti, 300 on the Calends, nones, ides, and some other festivals; 1000 at marriage feasts, and similar extraordinary entertainments. Gellius ascribes this law to Augustus, but it seems to have been enacted in succession by both Casar and him. By an edict of Augustus or Tiberius, the allowance for an entertainment was raised, in proportion to its solemnity, from 300 to 2000 sesterces. (Aulus Gellius, 2, 24.—Dio Cass., 54, 2.)—IX. Another by Augustus, concerning marriage, entitled de Maritandis Ordinibus. (Wid. Papia-Poppaea Lex.)—X. Another by the same, de adulteriis, punishing adultery.—XI. Another, de tutoribus, by the same. It enacted that guardians should be appointed for orphans in the provinces, as at Rome, by the Atilian Law. (Just, Inst. Atil. Tut.)
Julia, I. a daughter of Julius Caesar by Cornelia, celebrated for her beauty and the virtues of her character. She had been affianced to Servilius Caepio, and was on the point of being given to him in marriage, when her father bestowed her upon Pompey. (Plut., Vit. Pomp., 47–Appian, Bel Civ., 1, 14.) Julia possessed great influence both over her father and husband, and, as long as she lived, prevented any outbreak between them. Her sudden death, however, in childbed, severed the tie that had in some degree bound Pompey to his father-in-law, and no private considerations any longer existed to allay the jealousies and animosities which political disputes might enkinble between them. The amiable character of Julia, and her constant affection for her husband, gained for her the general regard of the people; and this they testified by insisting on celebrating her funeral in the Campus Martius, a compliment scarcely ever paid to any woman before. It is said that Pompey had always loved her tenderly, and the purity and happiness of his domestic life is one of the most delightful points in his character. (Sueton., Wit. Jul., 21.-Id. ib., 26.—Id. ib., 84.)—II. The sister of Julius Caesar. She married M. Attius Balbus, and became by him the mother of Octavia Minor and Augustus. (Sueton., Wit. Jul., 74.—Id., Wit. Aug., 4.—Id. ib., 8.) —III. The aunt of Julius Caesar. At her decease, her nephew pronounced an eulogy over her remains from . rostra. (Sueton, Wit. Jul., 6.)—IV. The daughter of Augustus by his first wife Scribonia. As he had no children by Livia, whom he had subsequently espoused, Julia remained sole heiress of the emperor, and the choice of her husband became a matter of great importance. She was first married to her cousin Claudius Marcellus, the nephew of Augustus by his sister Octavia (Tacit., Ann., 1, 3.—Sueton., Wit. Aug., 63), and the individual celebrated by Virgil in those famous lines of the sixth AEneid, for which Octavia so largely rewarded him. But Marcellus dying young and without children, Augustus selected for the second husband of his daughter his oldest friend and most useful adherent, M. Vipsanius Agrippa. This marriage seemed to answer all the wishes of Augustus, for Julia became the mother of five culou, Lu