Obrazy na stronie

Troia –II. Novum, a city of the Troad, the site of whicn is not to be confounded with that of Troy. Whatever traces might remain of the ruins of the city of Priam, after it had been sacked and burned by the Greeks, these soon disappeared, as Strabo assures us, by their being employed in the construction of Sigaeum, and other towns founded by the Æolians, who came from Lesbos, and occupied nearly the whole of Troas. The first attempt made to restore the town of Troy was by some Astypalaeans, who, having first settled at Rhaeteum, built, near the Simois, a town which they called Polium, but which subsisted only a short time; the spot, however, still retained the name of Polisma when Strabo wrote. Some time after, a more advantageous site was selected in the neighbourhood, and a town, consisting at first of a few habitations and a temple, was built under the protection of the kings of Lydia, the then sovereigns of the country. This became a rising place; and, in order to ensure the prosperity of the colony, and to enhance its celebrity, the inhabitants boldly affirmed that their town actually stood on the site of ancient Troy, that city having never been actually destroyed by the Greeks. There were not wanting writers who propagated this falsehood, in order to flatter the vanity of the citizens (Strabo, 601); and when Xerxes passed through Troas on his way to the Hellespont, the pretensions of New Ilium were so firmly established, that the Persian monarch, when he visited their acropolis, and offered there an immense sacrifice to Minerva, actually thought that he had seen and honoured the farfamed city of Priam. (Herod., 7, 42.) In the treaty made with the successor of Xerxes, Ilium was recognised as a Greek city, and its independence was secured; but the peace of Antalcidas restored it again to Persia. On the arrival of Alexander in Asia Minor (Arrian, Erp. Al., 1, 11, 12), or, as some say, aster the battle of the Granicus (Strab., 593), that prince visited Ilium, and, after offering a sacrifice to Minerva in the citadel, deposited his arms there, and received others, said to have been preserved in the temple from the time of the siege of Troy. He farther granted several rights and privileges to the Ilienses, and promised to erect a more splendid edifice, and to institute games in honour of Minerva; but his death prevented the execution of these designs. (Arrian, l.c.—Strab., l. c.) Lysimachus, however, to whose share Troas fell on the division of Alexander's empire, undertook to execute what had been planned by the deceased monarch. He enclosed the city within a wall, which was forty stadia in circumference; he also increased the population by removing thither the inhabitants of several neighbouring towns. (Strabo, 593.) At a subsequent period Ilium farther experienced the favour and protection of the kings of Pergamus; and the Romans, on achieving the conquest of Asia Minor, sought to extend their popularity, by securing the independence of a city from which they pretended to derive their origin, and added to its territory the towns of Rhoeteum and Gergitha. (Liry, 37, 37–1d., 38, 29.) And yet it would appear, that at that time Ilium was far from being a flourishing city, since Demetrius of Scepsis, who visited it about the same period, af. firmed that it was in a ruinous state, many of the houses having fallen into decay for want of tiling (an

Strab., l.c.). During the civil wars between Sylla and Cinna, Ilium was besieged and taken by assault by Fimbria, a partisan of the latter. This general gave it up to plunder, butchered the inhabitants, and finally destroyed it by fire. Not long after, however, Sylla arrived in Asia, defeated Fimbria, who sell by his own hand, restored Ilium to the surviving inhabitants, reinstated them in their possessions, and restored the walls and public edifices. (Appian, Bell. Mithr., c. 53–Plut. Wit. Syll.—Strab., 594.) After the battle of Pharsalia, Ilium was visited by Julius

Caesar, who explored, if we may believe Lucan, all the monuments and localities which claimed any interest from their connexion with the poem of Homer. (Phars., 9,961.) Caesar, in consequence of his visit, and his pretended descent from Iulus, conceded fresh grants to the Ilienses; he also instituted those games to which Virgil has alluded in the AEneid, and which the Romans called “Ludi Trojani.” (AEm., 5, 602. —Suet., Wit. Caes., c. 39.-Dio Cass., 43,23.) We trace the history of this place also during the times of the emperors. It preserved its privileges and freedom under Trajan, as we learn from Pliny, who styles it, “Ilium immune, unde omnis claritas” (5, 30). It subsisted under Dioclesian, and it is even said that Constantine had entertained, at one time, serious thoughts of transferring thither the seat of empire. (Sozom, Hist. Eccles., 2, 3.-Zosim..., 2, 34.) The last records we have of its existence are derived from Hierocles (Synecd., p. 663), the Itineraries, and the notices of Greek bishops under the Byzantine empire. It became afterward exposed to the ravages of the Saracens and other barbarians, who depopulated the Hellespont and Troad; it sunk beneath their repeated attacks, and became a heap of ruins. The surrounding villages are yet filled with inscriptions, and fragments of buildings and monuments, which attest its former splendour and magnificence. According to the account of a modern traveller, who has minutely explored the whole of Troas, New Ilium occupied a gently rising hill about seventy feet high, above the adjacent plain, in which the waters of the Tumbrek-tehai and Ramar-sou form some marshes. The Turks call the site of New Ilium Hissardnck, or Eski Kalafatli. (Choiseul Gouffier, vol. 2, pt. 3, p. 381.—Barker Webb, Osservazioni intorno l'Argo Trojano, Bibl. Ital, No. 67, Luglio, 1821.) New Ilium was twenty-one miles form Abydus, and about eleven miles from Dardanus. (Strab., 591.-Itin., Anton., p. 334.) —We must be careful, as has already been remarked, not to confound the site of New Ilium with that of the city of Priam, an error into which many care. less travellers have fallen. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 104, seqq.) Illibéris or Elibéri, a city of Gallia Narbonensis, south of Ruscino, and in the territory of the Sardones, the same probably with the Volca Tectosages. It was a flourishing place when Hannibal passed through on his march into Italy, and here he established a garrison. It sunk in importance afterward, until Constantine almost rebuilt it, and called it, in memory of his mother Helena, Helenensis ciritas. In this place Magnentius slew Constans, and here Constantine died in a castle built by himself. It is now Elne. (Mela, 2, 5.) Illicis, a city of the Contestani in Spain, northeast of Carthago Nova. Now Elche. (Mela, 2, 6–Plin., 3, 3.) IllicitäNus Sinus, a bay on the southeast coast of Spain, extending from Carthago Nova to the Dianium Promontorium. It is now the bay of Alicante. (Mela, 2, 6.) Illiturgis, Iditurgis, or Iliturgi, a city of Spain, not far from Castulo and Mentesa, and five days' march from Carthago Nova. It was situate near the Paetis, on a steep and rugged rock, and was called in Roman times Forum Iullum. Appian calls it Ilurgia (Bell. Hisp., c. 32), and it is the same also, no doubt; with the Ilurgis of Ptolemy (2, 4), and the Ilurgea of Stephanus of Byzantium. The place was destroyed by Scipio B.C. 210 (Lit., 28, 19), but was soon asterward repeopled. The site of the ancient place is near the modern Andujar, where the church of St Potenciana stands. (Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 380.) Illyricum, Illyris, and Illyria, a country bor dering on the Adriatic Sea, opposite Italy. The name of Illyrians, however, appears to have been commor to the numerous tribes which were anciently in possession of the countries situated to the west of Macedonia, and which extended along the coast of the Adriatic from the confines of Italy and Istria to the borders of Epirus. Still farther north, and more inland, we find them occupying the great valleys of the Saave and Drave, which were only terminated by the junction of those streams with the Danube. This large tract of country, under the Roman emperors, constituted the provinces of Illyricum and Pannonia.--Antiquity has thrown but little light on the origin of the Illyrians; nor are we acquainted with the language and customs of the barbarous hordes of which the great body of the nation was composed. Their warlike habits, however,and the peculiar practice of puncturing their bodies, which is mentioned by Strabo as being also in use among the Thracians, might lead us to connect them with that widely-extended people. (Strabo,315.) It appears evident, that they were a totally different race from the Celts, as Strabo carefully distinguishes them from the Gallic tribes which were incorporated with them. (Strabo, 313.) Appian, indeed, seems to ascribe a common origin to the Illyrians and Celts, for he states that Illyrius and Celtus were two brothers, sons of Polyphemus and Galatea, who migrated from Sicily, and became the progenitors of the two nations which bore their names (Bell. Illyr., 2); but this account is evidently too fabulous to be relied on. It is not unlikely that the Illyrians contributed to the early population of Italy. The Liburni, who were undoubtedly a part of this nation, had sormed settlements on the Italian shore of the Adriatic at a very remote period. The Veneti, moreover, were, according to the most probable account, Illyrians. But, though so widely dispersed, this great nation is but little noticed in history until the Romans made war upon it, in consequence of some acts of piracy committed on their traders. Previous to that time, we hear occasionally of the Illyrians as connected with the affairs of Macedonia; for instance, in the expedition undertaken by Perdiccas, in conjunction with Brasidas, against the Lyncesta, which failed principally from the support afforded to the latter by a powerful body of Illyrian troops. (Thucyd., 4, 125.) They were frequently engaged in hostilities with the princes of Macedonia, to whom their warlike spirit rendered them formidable neighbours. This was the case more especially while under the government of Bardylis, who is known to have been a powerful and renowned chief, though we are not positively acquainted with the extent of his dominions, nor over what tribes he presided. Philip at length gained a decisive victory over this king, who lost his life in the action, and thus a check was given to the rising power of the Illyrians. Alexander was likewise successful in a war he waged against Clytus, the son of Bardylis, and Glaucias, king of the Taulantii. The Illyrians, however, still asserted their independence i. the kings of Macedon, and were not subdued till they were involved in the common fate of nations by the victorious arms of the Romans. The conquest of Illyria led the way to the first interference of Rome in the affairs of Greece; and Polybius, from that circumstance, has entered at some length into the account of the events which then took place. He informs us, that about this period, 520 A.U.C., the Illyrians on the coast had become formidable from their maritime power and the extent of their depredations. They were governed by Agron, son of Pleurastus, whose forces had obtained several victories over the AEtolians, Epirots, and Achaeans. On his death, the empire devolved upon his queen Teuta, a woman of an active and daring mind, who openly sanctioned, and even encouraged the acts of violence committed by her subjects. Among those who suffered by these lawless pirates were some traders of Italy, on whose account satisfaction was demanded by the Roman sen

ate. So far, however, from making any concessions, Teuta proceeded to a still greater outrage, by causing one of the Roman deputies to be put to death. The senate was not slow in avenging these injuries; a powerful armament was fitted out, under the command of two consuls, who speedily reduced the principal fortress held by Teuta, and compelled that haughty queen to sue for peace. (Polyb., 2, 12–Appian, Bell. Illyr., 7.) At a still later period, the Illyrians, under their king Gentius, were again engaged in a war with the Romans, if the act of taking possession of an unresisting country may be so called. Gentius had been accused of favouring the cause of Perseus of Macedon, and of being secretly in league with him. His territory was therefore invaded by the praetor Anicius, and in thirty days it was subjugated by the Roman army. Gentius himself, with all his family, fell into the hands of the enemy, and was sent to Rome to grace the praetor's triumph. (Liv., 44, 31.-Appian, Bell. Illyr., 9.) Illyria then became a Roman province, and was divided into three portions; but it received afterward a considerable accession of territory on the reduction of the Dalmatians, Iapydes, and other petty nations by Augustus, these being included from that period within its boundaries. So widely, indeed, were the frontiers of Illyricum extended under the Roman emperors, that they were made to comprise the great districts of Noricum, Pannonia, and Moesia. (Appian, Bell. Illyr., 6–Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 29.) Ilus, the fourth king of Troy, was the son of Tros and of Callirhoe, the daughter of the Scamander. He married Eurydice, the daughter of Adrastus, king of Argos, and became by her the father of Themis (the grandmother of Æneas) and of Laomedon, the prede: cessor of Priam. Ilus embellished Troy, which had been so called from his father Tros, and gave to it the name of Ilium. According to tradition, it was he who received from Jupiter the Palladium, and who, in the wars which had been excited by the animosity of Tantalus and Tros, made an attempt to rescue this statue from the flames, in which the temple of Minerva was wrapped, although he was aware that the city would be impregnable as long as it remained within the walls. For this misplaced zeal, he was, at the moment, struck with blindness by the goddess, but was subsequently restored to sight. (Apollod., 3, 12, 3.) IMKus, the name of a large chain of mountains, which in a part of its course divided, according to the ancients, the vast region of Scythia into Scythia intra Imaum and Scythia extra Imaum. It is, in fact, merely a continuation of the great Tauric range. That part of the range over which Alexander crossed, and whence the Indus springs, was called Paropamisus. Farther on were the Emodi Montes, giving rise to the Ganges; and still farther to the east the range of Imaus, extending to the Eastern Ocean. Imaus is generally thought to answer to the Himalaya Mountains of Thibet; strictly speaking, however, this name belongs to the Emodi Montes; and Imaus, in the early part of its course, is the modern Mustag, or the chain which branches off to the northwest from the centre of the Himalaya range. The word Himalaya is Sanscrit, and is compounded of hima, “ snow,” and alaya, “an abode.” (Wilson's Sanscrit Dict.) Tho former of these Sanscrit roots gives rise also to the name Imaus and Emodus among the ancients, and it also brings to mind the Hamus of Thrace, the Hymettus of Attica, the Mons Imarus of Italy, and the different mountains called Himmel in Saxony, Jutland, and other countries. It is the radix, also, of the German word himmel, denoting heaven.—As the chain of Imaus proceeds on to the east, it ceases to be charac: terized as snowy, and, in separating the region of Scythia into its two divisions, answers to the modern range of Altai. It is only of late *; height of the Himalaya Mountains on the north of India has been appreciated. In 1802, Col. Crawford made some measurements, which gave a much greater altitude to these mountains than had ever besore been suspected; and Col. Colebrook, srom the plains of Rhohilcund, made a series of observations which gave a height of 22,000 feet. Lieut. Webb, in his journey to the source of the Ganges, executed measurements on the peak of Iamunavatari, which gave upward of 25,000 feet. The same officer, in a subsequent journey, confirmed his former observations. This conclusion was objected to, on account of a difference of opinion respecting the allowance which ought to be made, for the deviation of the light from a straight direction, on which all conclusions drawn from the measurement of angles must depend. In a subsequent journey, however, this same officer confirmed his conclusions by additional measurements, and by observing the fall of the mercury in the barometer at those heights which he himself visited. It was found by these last observations that the line of perpetual snow does not begin till at least 17,000 feet above the level of the sea, and that the banks of the Setledge, at an elevation of nearly 15,000 feet, afforded pasturage for cattle, and yielded excellent crops of mountain-wheat. This mild temperature, however, at so great a height, is confined to the northern side of the chain. This probably depends on the greater height of the whole territory on the northern side, in consequence of which, the heat which the earth receives from the solar rays, and which warms the air immediately superincumbent, is not so much expanded by the time the ascending air reaches these greater elevations, as in that which has ascended from a much lower country. Mr. Frazer, in a later journey, inferred that the loftiest peaks of the Himalaya range varied from 18,000 to 23,000 feet; but he had no instruments for measuring altitudes, and no barometer, and he probably did not make the due allowance for the extraordinary height of the snow-line. The point, however, is now at last settled. The Himalaya Mountains far exceed the Andes in elevation ; Chimborazo, the highest of the latter, being only 21,470 feet above the level of the sea, while Ghosa Cote, in the Dhawalaghiri range, attains to an elevation of 28,000 feet, and is the highest known land on the surface of the globe. Imbracides, a patronymic given to Asius, as son of Imbracus. (Virg., AEn., 10, 123.) IMB RAsides, a patronymic given to Glaucus and Lades, as sons of Imbrasus. (Virg., AEn., 12, 343.) Imbros, an island of the Ægean, 22 miles east of Lemnos, according to Pliny (4, 12), and now called Imbro. Like Lemnos, it was at an early period the seat of the Pelasgi, who worshipped the Cabiri and Mercury by the name of Imbramus. (Steph. Byz., s. p. "Iubpoc.) Imbros is generally mentioned by Homer in conjunction with Lemnos. (Hymn. in Apoll., 36.-Ib., 13, 32.) It was first conquered by the Persians (Herod., 5, 27), and afterward by the Athenians, who derived from thence excellent darters and targeteers. (Thucyd., 4, 28.) There was a town probably of the same name with the island, the ruins of which are to be seen at a place called Castro. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p 342.) IN achid AE, the name of the first eight successors of Inachus on the throne of Argos. IN achides, a patronymic of Epaphus, as grandson of Inachus. (Ovid, Met, 1,704.) INXchis, a patronymic of Io, as daughter of Inachus. (Orid, Fast., 1,454.) INKchus, I. a son of Oceanus and Tethys, father of Io. He was said to have founded the kingdom of Argos, and was succeeded by his son Phoroneus, B.C. 1807. Inachus is said, in the old legend, to have iven his name to the principal river of Argolis. #. probably he was described as the son of Oce

anus, the common parent of all rivers. They who make Inachus to have come into Greece from beyond the sea, regard his name as a Greek form for the Oriental term Enak, denoting “great” or “powerful,” and this last as the root of the Greek ávaš, “a king.” The foreign origin of Inachus, however, or, rather, his actual existence, is very problematical.—According to the mythological writers, Inachus became the father of Io by his sister, the ocean-nymph Melia. (Apollod, 2, 1, 1–Heyne, ad loc.)—II. A river of Argolis, flowing at the foot of the Acropolis of Argos, and emptying into the bay of Nauplia. Its real source was in Mount Lyrcelus, on the confines of Arcadia; but the poets, who delighted in fiction, imagined it to be a branch of the Inachus of Amphilochia, which, after mingling with the Achelous, passed under ground, and reappeared in Argolis. (Strabo, 271.-Id.,370.) According to Dodwell (vol. 2, p. 223), the bed of this river is a short way to the northeast of Argos. It is usually dry, but supplied with casual floods after hard rains, and the melting of snow on the surrounding mountains. It rises about ten miles from Argos, at a place called Mushi, in the way to Tripolitza in Arcadia. In the winter it sometimes descends from the mountains in a rolling mass, when it does considerable damage to the town. It is now called Xeria, which means dry. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol 3, p. 246.) —III. A river of the Amphilochian district in Acarnania. There were phenomena connected with the description given by ancient geographers of its course, which have led to a doubt of its real existence. It is from Strabo more especially that we collect this information. Speaking of the submarine passage of the Alpheus, and its pretended junction with the waters of Arethusa, he says a similar sable was related of the Inachus, which, flowing from Mount Lacmon, in the chain of Pindus, united its waters with the Achelous, and, passing under the sea, finally reached Argos, in the Peloponnesus. Such was the account of Sophocles, as appears from the passage quoted by the geographer, probably from the play of Inachus. (Compare Oxford Strabo, vol. 1, p. 391, in notis.) Strabe, however, regards this as an invention of the poets, and says that Hecataeus was better informed on the subject, when he affirmed that the Inachus of the Amphilochians was a different river from that of the Peloponnesian Argos. According to this ancient geo

raphical writer, the former stream flowed from Mount

acmus; whence also the AEas, or Aoûs, derived its source, and fell into the Achelous, having, like the Amphilochian Argos, received its appellation from Amphilochus. (Strab., 271.) This account is sufficiently intelligible: and, in order to identify the Hnachus of Hecataeus with the modern river which corresponds with it, we have only to search in modern maps for a stream which rises close to the Aous or Voioussa, and, flowing south, joins the Achelotis in the territory of the ancient Amphilochi. Now this description answers precisely to that of a river which is commonly looked upon as the Achelous itself, but which would seem, in fact, to be the Inachus, since it agrees so well with the account given by Hecataeus; and it should be observed, that Thucydides places the source of the Achelous in that part of Pindus which belonged to the Dolopes, a Thessalian people, who occupied the southeastern portion of the chain. (Thucyd., 3, 102.) Modern maps, indeed, point out a river coming from this direction, and uniting with the Inachus, which, though a more considerable stream, was not regarded as the main branch of the river. Strabo elsewhere repeats what he has said of the junction of the Inachus and Achelous. (Strak, 327.) Iłut in another passage he quotes a writer whose report of the }... differed materially, since he represented it as traversing the district of Amphilochia, and falling into the gulf. This was the statement

madeby Ephorus (ap. Strab., 326), and it has led some modern geographers and critics, in order to reconcile these two contradictory accounts, to suppose that there was a stream which, branching off from the Achelous, fell into the Ambracian Gulf near Argos. This is more particularly the hypothesis of D'Anville; but modern travellers assure us that there is no such river near the ruins of Argos (Holland's Travels, vol. 2, p. 225); and, in fact, it is impossible that any stream should there separate from the Achelous, on account of the Amphilochian Mountains, which divide the valley of that river from the Gulf of Arta. Mannert considers the small river Krikeli to be the representative of the Inachus (Geogr., vol. 8, p.65), but this is a mere torrent, which descends from the mountains above the gulf, and can have no connexion with Mount Lacmus or the Achelous. All ancient anthorities agree in deriving the Inachus from the chain of Pindus. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 40, seqq.)

INARIMs, an island off the coast of Campania, otherwise called Ænaria and Pithecusa. Under an extinguished volcano, in the middle of this island, Jupiter was fabled to have confined the giant Typhoeus. (Consult remarks under the articles AEnaria and Arima.) Heyne thinks that some one of the early Latin poets, in translating the Iliad into the Roman tongue, misunderstood Homer's elv 'Aptuouc, and rendered it by Inarime or Inarima; and that the sable of Typhoeus, travelling westward, was assigned to Ænaria or Pithecusa as a volcanic situation. (Heyne, Ezcurs, ad Virg., AEn., 9, 715.) *

INIRus, a son of Psammeticus (Thucyd., 1, 104), king of that part of Libya which borders upon Egypt. Sallying forth from Marea, he drew over the greater part of Egypt to revolt from Artaxerxes, the Persian emperor, and, becoming himself their ruler, called in the Athenians to his assistance, who happened to be engaged in an expedition against Cyprus, with two hundred ships of their own and their allies. The enterprise at first was eminently successful, and the whole of Egypt fell under the power of the invaders and their ally. Eventually, however, the Persian arms triumphed, and Inarus, being taken by treachery, was crucified. (Thucyd., 1, 109; 1, 110.) Herodotus and Ctesias say he was crucified, or rptoi aravpoić, which might more properly be termed impalement. Bloomfield (ad Thucyd., l.c.) thinks that he was of the ancient royal family of Egypt, and descended from the Psammeticus who died B.C. 617. It is not improbable, he adds, that, on Apries being put to death by his chief minister Amasis, his son, or some near relation, established himself among the Libyans bordering on Egypt, from whom descended this Psammeticus.

INDIA, an extensive country of Asia, divided by Ptolemy and the ancient geographers into India intra Gangem, and India extra Gangem, or India on this side, and India beyond, the Ganges. The first division answers to the modern Hindustan; the latter to the Birman Empire, and the dominions of Pegu, Siam, Laos, Cambodia, Cochin China, Tonquin, and Malacca.-Commerce between India and the western nations of Asia appears to have been carried on from the earliest historical times. The spicery, which the company of Ishmaelites mentioned in Genesis (37,25) were carrying into Egypt, must in all probability have been the produce of India; and in the 30th chapter of Exodus, where an enumeration is made of various spices and perfumes, cinnamon and cassia are expressly mentioned, which must have come from India, or the islands in the Indian Archipelago. It has been thought by many, that the Egyptians must have used Indian spices in embalming their dead; and Diodorus Siculus says (1,91), that cinnamon was actually employed by this people for that purpose. The spice trade *:::to have been carried on by means of the

Arabs, who brought the produce of India from the modern Sinde, or the Malabar coast, to Hadramunt in the southwestern part of Arabia, or to Gerra on the Persian Gulf, from which place it was carried by means of caravans to Petra, where it was purchased by Phoenician merchants. A great quantity of Indian articles was also brought from the Persian Gulf up the Euphrates as far as Circesium or Thapsacus, and thence carried across the Syrian desert into Phoenicia. Europe was thus supplied with the produce of India by means of the Phoenicians ; but we cannot assent to the opinion of Robertson (Historical Disquisition on India), that Phoenician ships sailed to India; for there is no reason for believing that the Phoenicians had any harbours at the head of the Red Sea, as Robertson supposes, but, on the contrary, the Idumaans remained independent till the time of David and Solomon; and in the 27th chapter of Ezekiel, which contains a list of the nations that traded with Tyre, we can discover none of an Indian origin; but the names of the Arabian tribes are specified which supplied the Phoenicians with the products of India (v. 19, 22). The conquest of Idumaa by David gave the Jews possession of the harbour of Ezion-geber on the Red Sea, from which ships sailed to Ophir, bringing “gold and silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.” (1 Kings, 2, 28.Ib., 10, 11, 22.) Considerable variety of opinion prevails respecting Ophir ; but it is most probable that it was an emporium of the African and Indian trade in Arabia. The Arabian merchants procured the gold from Africa, and the ivory, apes, and peacocks from India. The Hebrew words in this passage appear to be derived from the Sanscrit. In the troubles which followed the death of Solomon, the trade with Ophir was probably neglected; and till the foundation of Alexandrea the trade with India was carried on by the Arabians in the way already mentioned. The produce of India was also imported into Greece by the Phoenicians in very early times. Many of the Greek names of the Indian articles are evidently derived from the Sanscrit. Thus, the Greek word for pepper (Térrept, pepperi) comes from the Sanscrit pippali ; the Greek word for emerald is cuápayóoc or usipaydor (smaragdos, maragdos), from the Sanscrit marakata ... the 8voaivn giviðv (byssiné sindån), “fine linen” or “muslin,” mentioned by Herodotus (2,86; 7, 181), seems to be derived from Sindhu, the Sanscrit name of the river Indus: the produce of the cotton-plant, called in Greek kāpiracor (karpasos), comes from the Sanscrit karpåsa, a word which we also find in the Hebrew (karpas—Esther, 1,6), and it was probably introduced into Greece, together with the commodity, by the Phoenician traders. That this was the case with the word cinnamon, Herodotus (3, 11 l) informs us. The term cinnamon (in Greek kivváuouov or kivvauov, cinnamomum, cinnamom; in Hebrew kinnamon) is not sound in Sanscrit; the Sanscrit term for this article is gudha toach, “sweet bark.” The word cinnamon appears to be derived from the Cingalese kakyn nama, “sweet wood,” of which the Sanscrit is probably a translation. We are not, however, surprised at missing the Sanscrit word for this article, since the languages in Southern India have no affinity with the Sanscrit. Tin also appears to have been from early times an article of exportation from India. The Greek term for tin, kadairepor (kassiteros), which occurs even in Homer, is evidently the same as the Sanscrit kastira. It is usually considered that the Greeks obtained their tin, by means of the Phoenicians, from the Scilly Islands or Cornwall; but there is no direct proof of this; and it appears probable, from the Sanscrit derivation of the word, that the Greeks originally obtained their tin, from India.-The western nations of Asia appear to have had no connexion with India, except in the way of commerce, till the time of Darius Hystaspis, 521 B.C. The tales :* Diodorus relates respecting the invasion of India by Sesostris and Semiramis, cannot be estimated as historical facts. The same remark may perhaps apply to the alliance which, according to Xenophon, in his Cyropaedia (6,2, 1), Cyrus made with a king of India. But, in the reign of Darius Hystaspis, #. informs us (4, 44), that Scylax of Caryanda was sent by the Persians to explore the course of the Indus; that he set out for the city Caspatyrus, and the Pactyican country (Pakali ) in the northern part of India; that he sailed down the Indus until he arrived at its mouth, and thence across the Indian Sea to the Arabian Gulf, and that this voyage occupied 30 months. Darius also, it is said, subdued the Indians and formed them into a satrapy, the tribute of which amounted to 360 talents of gold. (Herod., 3, 94.) The extent of the Persian empire in India cannot be ascertained with any degree of certainty. The Persians appear to have included under the name of Indians many tribes dwelling to the west of the Indus; it seems doubtful whether they ever had any dominion east of the Indus; and it is nearly certain that their authority did not extend beyond the Penjab.—The knowledge which the Greeks possessed respecting India, previous to the time of Alexander, was derived from the Persians. We do not find the name of Indian or Hindu in ancient Sanscrit works; but the country east of the Indus has been known under this name by the western nations of Asia from the earliest times. In the Zend and Pehlvi languages it is called Heando, and in the Hebrew Hoddu (Esther, 1, 1), which is evidently the same as the Hend of the Persian and Arabic geographers. The first mention of the Indians in a Greek author is in the “Supplices” of AEschylus (v. 287); but no Greek writer gives us any information concerning them till the time of Herodotus. We may collect from the account of this historian a description of three distinct tribes of Indians: one dwelling in the north, near the city Caspatyrus, and the Pactyican country, resembling the Bactrians in their customs and mode of life. The second tribe or tribes evidently did not live under Brahminical laws; some of them dwelt in the marshes formed by the Indus, and subsisted by fishing; others, called Padai, with whom we may probably class the Calantiae or Calatiae, were wild and barbarous tribes, such as exist at present in the mountains of the Deccan. The third class, who are described as subsisting on the spontaneous produce of the earth, and never killing any living thing, are more likely to have been genuine Hindus. (Herod., 3, 98, seqq.) Herodotus had heard of some of the natural productions of Hindustan, such as the cotton-plant and the bamboo ; but his knowledge was very limited.—Ctesias, who lived at the court of Artaxerxes Mnemon for many years, has given us a fuller account than Herodotus of the manners and customs of the Indians, and of the natural productions of the country. He had heard of the war-elephants, and describes the parrot, the monkey, cochineal, &c.—The expedition of Alex. ander into India, B.C. 326, first gave the Greeks a correct idea of the western parts of this country. Alexander did not advance farther east than the Hyphasis; but he followed the course of the Indus to the ocean, and afterward sent Nearchus to explore the coast of the Indian Ocean as far as the Persian Gulf. The Penjab was inhabited, at the time of Alexander's invasion, by many independent nations, who were as distinguished for their courage as their descendants the Rajpoots. Though the Macedonians did not penetrate farther east than the Hyphasis, report reached them of the Prasii, a powerful people on the banks of the Ganges, whose king was prepared to resist Alexander with an immense army. After the death of Alexander, Seleucus made war against Sandrocottus, king of the Prasii, and was the first Greek who advanced as far as the Ganges. This Sandrocottus,

called Sandracoptus by Athenaeus (Epit., 1, 32), is probably the same as the Chandragupta of the Hindus. (Consult Sir W. Jones, in Asiatic Researches, vol. 4, p. 11.-Wilson's Theatre of the Hindus, vol. 2, p. 127, seqq., 2d ed.—Schlegel, Indische Bibliothek, vol. 1, p. 246.) Sandrocottus is represented as king of the Gangaridae and Prasii, who are probably one and the same people, Gangaridae being the name given to them by the Greeks, and signifying merely the people in the neighbourhood of the Ganges, and Prasii being the Hindu name, the same as the Prachi (i.e., “eastern country”) of the Sanscrit writers. Seleucus remained only a short time in the country of the Prasii, but his expedition was the means of giving the Greeks a more correct knowledge of the eastern part of India than they had hitherto possessed; since Megasthenes, and afterward Daimachus, resided for many years as ambassadors of the Syrian monarchs at Palibothra (in Sanscrit, Pataliputra), the capital of the Prasii. From the work which Megasthenes wrote on India, later writers, even in the time of the Roman emperors, such as Strabo and Arrian, appear to have derived their principal knowledge of the country. The Seleucidae probably lost all influence at Palibothra after the death of Seleucus Nicator, B.C. 281 ; though we have a brief notice in Polybius (11,34) of an expedition which Antiochus the Great made into India, and of a treaty which he concluded with a king Sophagasenus (in Sanscrit, probably, Subhagaséna, i. e., “the leader of 2 fortunate army”), whereby the Indian king was bound to supply him with a certain number of war elephants. The Greek kingdom of Bactria, which was founded by Theodotus or Diodotus, a lieutenant of the Syrian monarchs, and which lasted about 120 years, appears to have comprised a considerable portion of northern India.-After the foundation of Alexandrea, the Indian trade was almost entirely carried on by the merchants of that city ; few ships, however, appear to have sailed from Alexandrea till the discovery of the monsoons by Hippalus; and the Arabians supplied Alexandrea, as they had previously done the Phoenicians, with the produce of India. The monsoons must have become known to European navigators about the middle of the first century of our era, since they are not mentioned by Strabo, but were well known in the time of Pliny. Pliny has given us (6, 23) an interesting account of the trade between India and Alexandrea, as it existed in his own time. We learn from him that the ships of the Alexandrean merchants set sail from Berenice, a port of the Red Sea, and arrived, in about 30 days, at Ocelis or Carre, in Arabia. Thence they sailed by the wind Hippalus (the southwest monsoon), in 40 days, to Muziris (Mangalore), the first emporium in India, which was not much frequented, on account of the pirates in the neighbourhood. The port at which the ships usually stayed was that of Barace (at the mouth, probably, of the Nelisuram river). After remaining in India till the beginning of December or January, they sailed back to the Red Sea, met with the wind Africus or Auster (south or southwest wind), and thus arrived at Berenice in less than a twelvemonth from the time they set out. The same author informs us, that the Indian articles were carried from Berenice to Coptos, a distance of 258 Roman miles, on camels; and that the different halting-places were determined by the wells. From Coptos, which was united to the Nile by a canal, the goods were conveyed down the river to Alexandrea.—We have another account of the Indian trade, written by Arrian, who lived, in all proba: bility, in the first century of the Christian era, and certainly not later than the second. Arrian had been in India himself, and describes in a small Greek treatise, entitled “the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea,” the coast from the Red Sea to the western parts of India:

and also gives a list of the most important exports and

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