Obrazy na stronie

consistent with a prudent regard to securing the substance. They kept up a standing force of foreign mercenaries, but they made no change in the laws or the forms of the constitution, only taking care to fill the most important offices with their own friends. They even reduced the tax imposed by Pisistratus to a twentieth, and, without laying on any fresh burdens, provided for the exigences of the state, and continued the great works which their father had begun. The language of a later writer (the author of the Hipparchus, p. 229), who speaks of their dominion as having recalled the happiness of the golden age, seems almost justified by the sober praise of Thucydides, when he says that these tyrants most diligently cultivated virtue and wisdom. The country was flourishing, the people, if not perfectly contented, were certainly not impatient of the yoke, and their rule seemed likely to last for at least another generation, when an event occurred which changed at once the whole aspect of the government, and led to its premature overthrow. This was the affair of Harmodius and Aristogiton, in which Hipparchus lost his life, and the particulars of which have been given under a different article. (Wid. Harmodius.) Previous to this occur. rence, Hippias had shown himself a mild, affable, and beneficent ruler, but he now became a suspicious, stern, and cruel tyrant, who regarded all his subjects as secret enemies, and, instead of attempting to conciliate them, aimed only at cowing them by rigour. He was now threatened not only by the discontent of the people at home, but by the machinations of powerful enemies from without. The banished Alcmaeonidae, with the aid of the oracle at Delphi, induced the Lacedaemonians to espouse their cause, and Hippias was compelled to leave Attica in the fourth year after his brother's death. Having set sail for Asia, he fixed his residence for a time in his hereditary principality of Sigeum. The Spartans, subsequently repenting of what they had done, sent for Hippias, and, on his arrival, summoned a congress of deputies from their Peloponnesian allies, and proposed, as the only means of curbing the growing insolence of the Athenian people, to unite their forces and compel Athens to receive her former ruler. All, however, with one accord, loudly exclaimed against the proposition of Sparta, and Hippias soon after returned to Sigeum, whence he proceeded to the court of Darius Hystaspis. Here he remained for many years; and when the expedition of Datis and Artaphernes took place, an expedition which he himself had strenuously urged, he guided the barbarian armament against his country, and the Persian fleet, by his advice, came to anchor in the bay of Marathon.—The subsequent history of Hippias is involved in uncertainty. Thucydides (6,59) merely says that he was present at the battle of Marathon, without informing us whether he lost his life there or not. (Compare Herodotus, 6, 107.) Justin (2, 9) states that he was killed in the fight, and Cicero (Ep. ad Att., 9, 10) confirms this. Suidas, however, informs us, that Hippias fled to Lemnos, where, falling sick, he died, the blood issuing from his eyes. (Consult Larcher, ad Herod., 6, 117.) Hippo, I. Regius ("Irröv Baat?txào), a city of Af. rica, in that part of Numidia called the western province. It was situate near the sea, on a bay in the vicinity of the promontory of Hippi. It was called HipRegius, not only in opposition to Hippo Zarytus mentioned below, but also from its having been one of the royal cities of the Numidian kings. The place was of Tyrian origin. Of this city St. Augustine was bishop. The ruins are spread at the present day over the neck of land that lies between the rivers Boojemah and Seibouse. Near the ancient site is a town named Bona. –II. Zarytus, a town of Africa, on the coast to the west of Utica. It was thus termed to distinguish

to have reference to its situation among artificial canals, which afforded the sea an entrance to a navigable lagune adjacent. Some of the Greek writers corrupted the appellation Zarytus into Atáðvrot, in which the same idea is endeavoured to be expressed. The modern name is Beni-Zert, which, according to Shaw, signifies “the son of the canal.” (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt, 2, p. 298.) Hippocent Auri ("Irrokévravpot), fabulous animals, partly human, partly resembling the horse. They are the same with the Centauri. (Vid. Centauri.) Hippocrites, a celebrated physician, born in the island of Cos. The particulars of his life, as far as they have reached us, are few in number. His contemporaries have commended him in the highest terms for his consummate skill and his profound acquaintance with the medical art; but they have left us little information relative to the man himself. Hippocrates, too, in those of his writings, the authenticity of which no one contests, enters into very few details respecting his long and honourable career. The Greek writer, who, under the name of Soranus, has transmitted to us some biographical information concerning this eminent physician, relates, that the father of Hippocrates was named Heraclides, and deduced his descent, through a long line of progenitors, from AEsculapius himself. On the side of his mother, who was named Praxithe, he was fabled to be a descendant of Hercules. , In other words, he belonged to the race or family of the Asclepiades, who, from time immemorial, had devoted themselves exclusively to the service of the god of medicine and the cultivation of the medical art. It appears, from the table of Meibomius (Comment. in Hipp. jusjur.), that he was the seventeenth in order of the pretended descendants of AEsculapius, his uncle Hippocrates I. being the fifteenth. The birth of Hippocrates II., or the Great, is fixed by Soranus in the first year of the eighteenth Olympiad, B.C. 460: consequently, he was contemporary with Socrates and Plato, a little younger than the former, and a little older than the latter. His name began to be illustrious during the Peloponnesian war.—After having received at Cos his first professional instruction from his father Heraclides, Hippocrates went to study at Athens under Herodicus of Selymbria. He had also for one of his masters the sophist Gorgias. Some authors pretend that he was also a disciple of Democritus; it is even said that he conceived so high an esteem for this philosopher, as to show it by writing his works in the Ionic dialect, though he himself was a Dorian. It would seem, however, from an examination of his writings, that Hippocrates preferred the doctrines of Heraclitus to those of Democritus—After the death of his father he travelled over many countries, according to the custom of the physicians and philosophers of his time; and finally established himself in Thessaly, whence some have called him “the Thessalian." Soranus informs us, that Hippocrates lived at the court of Perdiccas, king of Macedonia, and that he cured this prince of a consumption caused by a violent passion which he had conceived for his mother-in-law Phila. This fact is not, indeed, in contradiction of chronology; but what gives it a suspicious appearance is, that a story almost similar is related by the ancient writers as having happened at the court of Seleucus Nicator. (Vid. Erasistratus.) It is possible, however, that Hippocrates may have passed some time with Perdiccas; for he states that he had observed many maladies in the cities of Pella, Olynthus, and Acanthus, situate in Macedonia. He appears also to have sojourned for a while in Thrace, for he frequently mentions, in his accounts of epidemic disorders, the Thracian cities of Abdera, Datus, Doriscus, AEnos, Cardia, and the isle of Thasos. It is equally probable that he travelled in Scythia and the countries imme

it from the one above mentioned, and the name is said diately contiguous to the kingdom of Pontus and the

Palus Maeotis, because the description he gives of the manners and mode of life of the Scythians is extremely exact and faithful. According to Soranus, the cities of Athens and Abdera owed to Hippocrates the benefit of having been delivered from a plague which had caused great ravages. It is uncertain whether the frightful epidemic is here meant which desolated Athens during the Peloponnesian war, and which Thucydides has so faithfully described, or some other malady; for the historian, who was an eyewitness of the ravages of the disease, makes no mention of Hippocrates. However this may be, the Athenians, grateful for the services which this distinguished physician had rendered, either in delivering them from a pestilential scourge, or in publishing valuable works on the art of preserving life, or in refusing the solicitations of the enemies of Greece, decreed that he should be initiated into the mysteries of Ceres, should be gifted with a golden crown, should enjoy the rights of citizenship, should be supported all his days at the public expense in the Prytaneum, and, finally, that all the children born in Cos, the native island of Hippocrates, might come and pass their youth at Athens, where they would be reated as if offspring of Athenian citizens. According to Galen, it was by kindling large fires, and burning everywhere aromatic substances, that Hippocrates succeeded in arresting the pestilence at Athens. The reputation of this eminent physician extended far and wide, and Artaxerxes Longimanus even sent for him to stop the progress of a malady which was committing great ravages among the forces of that monarch. Hippocrates declined the offer and the splendid presents that accompanied it; and Artaxerxes endeavoured to accomplish his object by menacing the inhabitants of Cos, but in vain. Though the correspondence which took place on this point between Hippocrates and the satrap Hystanes, and which has reached our days, must be regarded as altogether unauthentic, yet it appears that credit was given to the story by ancient writers, two of whom, Galen and Plutarch, relate the circumstance. Stobaeus also makes mention of it, but commits, at the same time, an anachronism in giving the name of the monarch as Xerxes, and not Artaxerxes. Certain Arabian authors affirm, that, in the course of his travels, Hippocrates spent some time at Damascus; there is no authority, however, for this, and the assertion is altogether destitute of probability. An individual named Andreas or Andron, who lived under Ptolemy Philopator, and who was a disciple of Herophilus, undertook, nearly three centuries after the death of Hippocrates, to assign a very disgraceful motive for the travels of this physician. He says that Hippocrates was compelled to flee for having set fire to the library at Cnidus, after having copied the best medical works contained in it. Tzetzes, agreeing in this accusation, states that it was the library at Cos which became a prey to the flames; and Pliny, without charging Hippocrates with the deed, and without speaking of any library, reduces the loss to that of a few votive tablets, which were consumed together with the temple of AEsculapius. The discrepance of these statements alone is sufficient to show the falsity of the accusation. Besides, all contemporaneous history is silent on the subject; nor would Plato have shown so much esteem for the physician of Cos, nor Athens and Greece, in general, have rendered him so many and so high honours, had he been guilty of the disgraceful crime alleged against him. The name of Hippocrates is still held in veneration by the natives of Cos (StanCo), and they show a small building which they pretend was the house that he inhabited. Hippocrates passed the latter years of his life in Thessaly, at Larissa in particular, as well as at Cranon, Phera, Tricca, and Meliboea, as appears from many observations made by him relative to the maladies of these different

cities. The period of his death is unknown. Soranus affirms, that he ended his long and brilliant career in his 85th or 90th year, according to some ; in his hundredth year, according to others: and some even give 109 years as the extent of his existence. The number of works ascribed to Hippocrates is very considerable; they are made by some to amount to eighty : those, however, about the authenticity of which there is no doubt, reduce themselves to a very few. Palladius, a physician of the 6th century of the present era, who wrote scholia on the treatise of Hippocrates respecting fractures, points out eleven works of this physician as alone authentic. One thousand years after, two learned men turned their attention to a critical review of the works of Hippocrates; these were Hieronymus Mercurialis, a celebrated physician and philologist of the 16th century, and a native of Portugal, Louis de Lemos. These two scholars conceived the idea, at the same period, of classifying the works of Hippocrates. The Paduan professor established four categories of them: 1. Works in which the doctrine and style of this distinguished physician plainly present themselves, and which are therefore manifestly authentic. 2. Works written by Hippocrates, but published by his sons and disciples. 3. Works composed by the sons and disciples of Hippocrates, but which are in conformity with his doctrine. 4. Works, the very contents of which are not in accordance with his doctrine. (Censura Operum Hippocratis, Venet., 1583, 4to.) Lemos, after having critically examined all the works ascribed to Hippocrates, acknowledges only nineteen as authentic. (De Optima pradicandi ratione item judicii operum magni Hippocratis liber unus, Salamantica, 1585, 12mo.) When, in the 18th century, the critical art, long neglected, was at last made to rest on sure principles, the works of Hippocrates were again subjected to rigorous investigation. The celebrated Haller, on reprinting a Latin translation of these works, discussed their authenticity, and allowed only fifteen treatises to be genuine. Two other German physicians, MM. Gruner and Grimm (Hippokrates Werke, aus dem Gr—Censura librorum Hippocratensium, Vratislap, 1772, 8vo), of distinguished reputaton, employed themselves in researches, the object of which was to distinguish what was authentic from what was falsely ascribed to the father of medicine. In pursuing this examination, they combined the testimonies of ancient writers with the internal characters of the works themselves. The result is, that, according to Gruner, there exist but ten authentic works of Hippocrates, while Grimm makes the number still less. Linck, a professor at Berlin, comes to a bolder conclusion. He maintains, that the works of Hippocrates, as they are called, are a mere collection of pieces by different authors, who all lived before the period when the medical art flourished at Alexandrea. A full list of the works of Hippocrates is given by Schöll (Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 19, seqq.). The best edition of all the works is that of Foesius, Francof., 1595, fol., reprinted at several subsequent periods, and, with the glossaries, at Geneva, in 1657, fol. The edition of Kühn, in the Collection of the Greek Medical Writers (Lips., 1825–1827, 3 vols. 8vo), is also a good one. In 1815 M. de Mercy commenced a valuable edition of select works of Hippocrates, with a French translation and commentary. The learned Coray also published a translation in French of the treatise on Airs, Waters, and Places, at Paris, 1801, in 2 vols. 8vo, enriched with critical, historical, and medical notes.—“Of all the medical authors,” observes Dr. Adams, “of ancient, and, I believe I may add, of modern times, no one deserves to be so frequently in the hands of the student of medicine as Hippocrates; for his works not only contain an invaluable treasure of practical facts, but likewise abound in precepts inculcating porno conduct and purity of morals. In his Oath, he exacts from those who enter on the profession a solemn promise never to indulge in libertine practices, nor to degrade their art by applying it to any criminal purposes. In his other works he is at great pains to inculcate the necessity of attention to address and apparel; and gives particular directions to assist in forming a correct prognostic. With regard to his descriptions of the phenomena of disease, one may venture to affirm, that even at the present day they are perfectly unrivalled. As a guide to practice, he may be followed with great confidence; for his indications are always derived from personal observation, and his principles are never founded on vague hypothesis. Indeed, as an intelligent American author, Dr. Hosack, remarks, his professional researches were conducted according to the true principles of the Baconian philosophy; and his late editor, Kühn, relates, that a zealot for the Brunonian theory of medicine was convinced of its being untenable by an attentive perusal of the works of Hippocrates. His treatment of acute diseases may be instanced as being so complete that the experience of more than two thousand years has scarcely improved upon it. Nay, in some instances, the correctness of his views outstripped those of succeeding ages, and we now only begin to recognise the propriety of them. Thus, in acute attacks of anasarca, he approved of bloodletting, which is a mode of practice now ascertained to be highly beneficial in such cases, but against which great and unfounded prejudices have existed, not only in modern times, but even as far back as the days of Galen, who sound great difficulty in enforcing the treatment recommended by Hippocrates. In his work on Airs, Places, and Waters, he has treated of the effects of the seasons and of situation on the human form, with a degree of accuracy which has never been equalled. His Epidemics contain circumstantial reports of febrile cases highly calculated to illustrate the causes, symptoms, and treatments of these diseases. Though he has not treated of the capital operations of Surgery, which, if practised at all in his day, most probably did not come within his province, he has given an account of Fractures and Dislocations, to which little has been added by the experience of after ages. He has also left many important remarks upon the treatment of wounds and ulcers, and the American author alluded to above ventures to assert, that the surgeons of the present day might derive an important lesson from him on the use of the Actual Cautery. The following aphorism points out the class of diseases to which he considered this mode of practice applicable. “Those complaints which medicines will not cure, iron will cure ; what iron will not cure, fire will cure ; what fire will not cure are utterly incurable.” In his treatise on the Sacred Disease, he has shown himself superior to the superstition of his age ; for he maintains that the epilepsy is not occasioned by demoniacal influence, but by actual disease of the brain; and he mentions, what is now well known to be the fact, that when the brains of sheep or goats that are affected with this complaint are opened, they are found to contain water. Of the anatomical treatises attributed to him it is unnecessary to say anything, as it appears highly probable that all, or most of them, at least, are not genuine. Dr. Alston counted, in his Materia Medica, 36 mineral, 300 vegetable, and 150 animal substances ; in all 586, and he could not pretend to have overlooked none. Hippocrates appears to have been profoundly skilled in the principles of the Ionian philosophy, of which he has left several curious samples. He has treated likewise both of animal and vegetable physiology; and Aristotle and Theophrastus are said to have profited by his labours in this department of natural science.” Hippock ENE, a fountain of Boeotia, on Mount Helicon, sacred to the Muses. It was fabled to have burst

forth from the ground when Pegasus struck his hoof into the side of the mountain; and hence the name applied to it, 'Introkpāvm or 'Introvkpāvm, i. e., “the horse's fountain,” from triroc (genitive introv), “a horse,” and kpávn, “a fountain.” (Strab., 410.Pausan., 9, 31.) HippoDAMIA, I. a daughter of CEnomaus, king of Pisa, in Elis, who married Pelops, son of Tantalus. (Wid. Pelops, where the full legend is given.)—II. A daughter of Adrastus, king of Argos, who married Pirithois, king of the Lapithae. The festivity which prevailed on the day of her marriage was interrupted by the violent conduct of the Centaurs, which led to their conflict with the Lapithae. (Wid. Centauri, Lapithae.) Hippolyte, I. a queen of the Amazons. She was mistress of the belt of Mars, as a token of her exceeding all the Amazons in valour. This belt Eurystheus coveted for his daughter Admeta, and he ordered Hercules to bring it to him. The hero, having drawn together some volunteers, among whom were Theseus, Castor, and Pollux, reached, after some incidental adventures, the haven of Themiscyra, where Hippolyta came to inquire the cause of his arrival; and, on hearing it, promised to give him her girdle. . But Juno, taking the form of an Amazon, went and persuaded the rest that the strangers were carrying off their queen. They instantly armed, mounted their horses, and came down to the ship. Hercules, thereupon, thinking that Hippolyta had acted treacherously, slew her, and, taking her belt, made sail homeward. (Apollod., 2, 5, 9.—Diod. Suc., 4, 16.) Another account made Theseus to have received Hippolyta in marriage from Hercules, and to have become, by her, the father of Hippolytus. (Compare Heyne, ad Apollod., l. c.)—II. The wife of Acastus, who falsely accused Peleus, while at her husband's court, of dishonourable conduct. (Wid. Acastus.) Hippolytus, I. a son of Theseus and Hippolyte, or, according to others, of Theseus and Antiope. Theseus, after the death of his first wife, married Phaedra, the daughter of Minos, and sister of Ariadne. This princess was seized with a violent affection for the son of the Amazon, an affection produced by the wrath of Venus against Hippolytus, for neglecting her divinity, and for devoting himself solely to the service of Diana; or else against Phaedra as the daughter of Pasiphaë, During the absence of Theseus, the queen made advances to her step-son, which were indignantly rejected by the virtuous youth. Filled with fear and hate, on the return of her husband she accused his innocent son of an attempt on her honour. Without giving the youth an opportunity of clearing himself, the blinded monarch, calling to mind that Neptune had promised him the accomplishment of any three wishes that he might form, cursed and implored destruction on his son from the god. As Hippolytus, leaving Troezene, was driving his chariot along the seashore, a monster, sent by Neptune from the deep, terrified his horses; they burst away in fury, heedless of their driver, dashed the chariot to pieces, and dragged ...; Hippolytus, entangled in the reins, till life abandone him. Phaedra ended her days by her own hand; and Theseus, when too late, learned the innocence of his son. Euripides has founded a tragedy on this subject, but the legend assumes a somewhat different shape with him. According to the plot of the piece, Phaedra hangs herself in despair when she finds that she is slighted by her step-son, and Theseus, on his return from abroad, finds, when taking down her corpse, a writing attached to it, in which Phaedra accused Hippolytus of having attempted her honour.-According to another legend, AEsculapius restored Hippolytus to life, and Diana transported him, under the name of Virbius, to Italy, where he was worshipped in the grove of Aricia. (Wid. Virbius.-Apollod, 3, 10, 3. —Heyne, ad loc.—Ovid, Met., 15, 492, seqq.—Virg., AEn., 7, 761, seqq.—Consult Buttmann, Mythologus, vol. 2, p. 145, seq.) HippomédoN, a son of Nisimachus and Mythidice, was one of the seven chiefs that went against Thebes. He was killed by Ismarus, son of Acastus. (Apollod, 3, 6.-Pausan., 2, 36.) HippoméNes, son of Megareus, was, according to some authorities, the successful suiter of Atalanta. (Wid. Atalanta, and consult Heyne, ad Apollod., 3, 9, 2, and the authorities there cited.) Hippomolgi, or, more correctly, Hippe Molgi ("Immonprożyot), a people of Scythia, who, as the name imports, lived on the milk of mares. (Dionys. Perieg., 309.-Bernhardy, ad loc.) HirröNA, a goddess who presided over horses. Her statues were placed in horses' stables. (Jun., 8, 157. —Consult Ruperti, ad loc., who gives Epona as the reading demanded by the line.) HippūNax, a Greek poet, who flourished about the 60th Olympiad, or 540 B.C. He was born at Ephesus, and was compelled by the tyrants Athenagoras and Comas to quit his home, and to establish himself in another Ionian city, Clazomenae. This political persecution (which affords a presumption of his vehement love of liberty) probably laid the foundation for some of the bitterness and disgust with which he regarded mankind. Precisely the same fierce and indignant scorn, which found an utterance in the iambics of Archilochus, is ascribed to Hipponax. What the family of Lycambes was to Archilochus, Bupalus (a sculptor belonging to a family of Chios, which had produced several generations of artists) was to Hipponax. He had made his small, meager, and ugly person the subject of caricature; an insult which Hipponax avenged in the bitterest and most pungent iambics, of which some remains are extant. In this instance, also, the satirist is said to have caused his enemy to hang himself. The satire of Hipponax, however, was not concentrated so entirely on certain individuals. From existing fragments it appears rather to have been founded on a general view of life, taken, however, on its ridiculous and grotesque side. His language is filled with words taken from common life, such as the names of articles of food and clothing, and of ordinary utensils, current among the working people. He evidently strives to make his iambics local ictures, full of freshness, nature, and homely truth. }. this purpose, the change which Hipponax devised in the iambic metre was as felicitous as it was bold. He crippled the rapid, agile gait of the iambus, by transforming the last foot from an iambic into a spondee, contrary to the fundamental principle of the whole mode of versification. The metre, thus maimed and stripped of its beauty and regularity, was a perfectly appropriate rhythmical form for the delineation of such ictures of intellectual deformity as Hipponax de}. in. Iambics of this kind (called choliambics, or trimeter scazons) are still more cumbrous and halt. ing when the fifth foot is also a spondee ; which, indeed, according to the original structure, is not forbidden. These were called broken-backed (ischiorrhogic) iambics, and a grammarian (ap Tyrwhitt, Dissert. de Babrio, p. 17) settles the dispute (which, accord. ing to ancient testimony, was so hard to decide), how far the innovation of this kind of verse ought to be ascribed to Hipponax, and how far to another iambographer, Ananius, by pronouncing, that Ananius invented the ischiorrhogic variety, and Hipponax the common scazon. It appears, however, from the fragments attributed to him, that Hipponax sometimes used the spondee in the fifth place. In the same manner, and with the same effect, these poets also changed the trochaic tetrameter by regularly lengthening the pemultimate short syllable. Some remains of this kind are extant. orms likewise composed pure trime4.

ters in the style of Archilochus; but there is no conclusive evidence that he mixed them with scazons. Ananius has hardly any individual character in literary history distinct from that of Hipponax. In Alexandrea their poems seem to have been regarded as forming one collection; and thus the criterion by which to determine whether a particular passage belonged to the one or the other, was often lost or never existed. Hence, in the uncertainty which is the true author, the same verse is occasionally ascribed to both (as in Athenaeus, 14, p. 625, c.) The few fragments which are attributed with certainty to Ananius are so completely in the tone of Hipponax, that it would be a vain labour to attempt to point out any characteristic difference.—The fragments of Hipponax and Ananius were edited by Welcker, Gotting., 1817, 4to. (Müller, Hist. Graec. Lit., p. 141, seqq.—Philological Museum, vol. 1, p. 281.) Hipponium, called also Vibo Valentia, a town of Italy, on the western coast of the territory of the Brutii, southwest from Scylacium. According to Strabo (56) it was founded by the Epizephyrian Locri. We learn from Diodorus (14, 107; 15, 24), that not long afterward it was destroyed by Dionysius the elder, who transplanted the inhabitants to Syracuse. It was restored, however, by the Carthaginians, who were then at war with that prince. Subsequently it fell into the hands of the Brutii, together with all the Greek settlements on the coast. (Strab., l.c.) About 297 B.C., Agathocles, tyrant of Sicily, seized upon the harbour of Hipponium, which he sortified, and even succeeded in obtaining possession of the town for a short period. He was soon, however, compelled by the Brutii to relinquish it, together with the port. (Diod. Sic., Excerpt., 21, 8.-Strab., l.c.) This city became a colony of the Romans, A.U.C. 560, and took the name of Wibo Valentia. (Liv., 35, 40.) Antiquaries and topographers are generally of opinion that the modern town of Monte Leone represents the ancient Hipponium, and they recognise its haven in the present harbour of Bivona. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 420.) Hippopodes, a people of Scythia, who were fabled to have horses' feet (iTrov Tóðaç), whence their name. The Hippopodes are mentioned by Dionysius Periegetes, Mela, Pliny, and St. Augustine. The truth appears to be, that they had this appellation given them on account of their swiftness of foot. (Dionys. Perieg., 310.—Mela, 3, 6, 83.) HiRA or Alexandría, now Messid-ali, or Mehamali, a town of Asia in Babylonia, situate on a lake, a short distance from the western bank of the Euphrates. It was the residence of a dynasty of princes who aided the Persians and Parthians against the Romans. They are called in history by the general name of Alamundari, after the term Al-Mondar, common to many of these princes at the fall of their dynasty under the Mohammedan power. The body of Ali was here interred; and hence, from the sepulchre of the calif, came the modern name. (Bischoff und Moller, Wörterb. der Geogr., p. 615.) HiRPini, a people of Italy, who formed a part of the Samnites, and were situate to the south of Samnium Proper. As the term Hirpus signified in the Samnite dialect a wolf, they are said to have been thus called from their having followed the tracks of these animals in migrating to this quarter. Towards the end of the second Punic war they began to be distinguished from the rest of the Samnites. Their territory comprehended the towns of Beneventum, Caudium, Abellinum, and Compsa. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 248.) Hirtius Aulus, a Roman of a distinguished family. He applied himself in early life to the study of rhetoric, and spoke on several occasions with great success. He followed Caesar in the war against the Gauls, and merited the esteem of that great **,s:" his re

turn from this expedition, he eagerly courted the friendship of Cicero, and accompanied him in his retreat to Tusculum. Here he exercised himself in declamation, under the eyes of this illustrious orator, who speaks highly of his talents in many of his letters, and particularly in that addressed to Volumnius (8, 32). Cicero sent Hirtius to Caesar, on the return of the latter from Africa, with the view of bringing about a reconciliation with the dictator, whom the orator had of. fended by the freedom of some of his discourses. Hirtius, either from affection or gratitude, was always attached to the party of Caesar; but after the death of

the dictator, he declared against Antony.—Being cre-,

ated consul elect along with C. Vibius Pansa, he fell sick soon after his election, and Cicero informs us (Phil., 37), that the people testified the warmest concern in his recovery. Hirtius was scarcely restored to health, when he set out with his colleague to attack Antony, who was besieging Brutus in Mutina, now Modena. They gained a victory over Antony, near the city, B.C. 43; but Hirtius sell in the battle, and Pansa died a few days after of his wounds. The report was spread abroad, that Octavius had caused the two consuls to be poisoned in order to appropriate to himself all the glory of the day. (Sueton., Wit. Aug., 11.)—It cannot be affirmed with any degree of certainty that Hirtius was the author of the continuation of Caesar's Commentaries which commonly goes by his name. Even as far back as the time of Suetonius, great difference of opinion prevailed on this point; some, according to that writer, attributing the continuation in question to Oppius, and others to Hirtius : the latter opinion, however, has, in general, gained the ascendancy. This continuation forms the eighth book of the Gallic war. The author addresses himself, in a letter, to Balbus, in which he apologizes for having presumed to terminate a work so perfect in its nature, that Caesar seems to have had in view, in composing it, not so much the collecting together of materials, as the leaving a model of composition to historical writers. We learn by the same letter, that the book on the Alexandrine War, and that on the African War, proceeded from the same pen; and these three works, in a style at once simple and elegant, do not appear unworthy of the friend of Caesar and Cicero. We have also, under the name of Hirtius, a book on the Spanish War, so inferior to the preceding that judicious critics regard it as the mere journal of a soldier, who was an eyewitness of the events which he relates. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 20, p. 423, seqq.—Bühr, Gesch. Röm. Lit, vol. 1, p. 360.) Hispills, a famous city of Spain, situate on the Batis, and corresponding to the modern Seville. Mannert thinks that it was the same as the ancient Tartessus. (Geogr., vol. 1, p. 312.) The name is supposed to be of Phoenician origin, and, according to Isidorus, has reference to the city's being founded on piles or stakes of wood, on account of the insecurity of the ground where it stood. (Isidor., lib. etymol., 15, 1.) Some ascribe the origin of the place to Hercules; probably, however, it was a Phoenician colony. It was a place of great commerce, the Bastis being navigable in ancient times for the largest ships up to the city. Now, however, vessels drawing more than ten feet of water are compelled to unload eight miles below the town, and the largest vessels stop at the mouth of the river. When Hispalis became a Roman colony, the name was changed to Julia Romulensis. (Cas., B. C., 2, 18.-Id., Bell. Hisp., 27, 35, seqq. Isidor, Chron. Goth., p. 168.—Id, Chron. Vand., p. 176. —Id., Hist. Suev., p. 180.—Plin., 3, 1.) Hispania, an extensive country, forming a kind of peninsula, in the southwest of Europe. It was bounded on the north by the Pyrenees and Sinus Cantabricus or Bay of Biscay, on the west by the Atlantic, on the south by the Atlantic, Fretum Herculeum or

Straits of Gibraltar, and the Mediterranean, which last bounds it also on the east. Many conjectures have been formed concerning the origin of the name Hispania. Bochart (Geogr. Sacr.—Phaleg., 3, 7) derives its name from the Phoenician (or Hebrew) saphan, “a rabbit,” from the vast numbers of those animals which the country was found by the early Phoenician colonists to contain. (Compare Catullus, 37, 18–Varro, R. R., 3, 12.—AEluan, de An., 13, 15.-Plin., 8, 29, &c.—Bochart, Geogr. Sacr. Canaan., 1, 35.) Others deduce the name in question from the Phoenician span, “concealed,” and consider it as referring to the circumstance of the country's being little known at an early period to the Phoenician traders. Neither of these etymologies is of much value, though the former is certainly the better of the two. It would seem to have been adopted by the Romans, as appears from a medal of Hadrian, on which Spain is represented by the figure of a woman with a rabbit at her side. (Flores, Medalles de Espania, vol. 1, p. 109.) The Romans borrowed the name Hispania, appending their own termination to it, from the Phoenicians, through whom they first became acquainted with the country. The Greeks called it Iberia, but attached at different periods different ideas to the name. Up to the time of the Achaean league and their more intimate acquaintance with the Romans, they understood by this name all the seacoast from the Pillars of Hercules to the mouth even of the Rhodanus or Rhone in Gaul. (Scylar, p. 1, seqq.—Scymnus Chius, v. 198.—Polybius, 3,37.—Strabo, 116–Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 233.) The coast of Spain on the Atlantic they called Tartessis. (Scymnus Chius, v. 164, v.198.—Herod, 1, 163.) The interior of the country they termed Celtice (Kežttkm), a name which they applied, in fact, to the whole northwestern part of Europe. (Aristot., de Mundo. Opp., ed. Duval, vol. 1, p. 850.) The Greeks in after ages understood by Iberia the whole of Spain. The name Iberia is derived from the Iberi, of whom the Greeks had heard as one of the most powerful nations of the country. The origin of the ancient population of Spain is altogether uncertain. Some suppose that a colony first settled on the shores of this country srom the island of Atlantis; an assumption as probable as the opinion supported by several Spanish authors, that the first inhabitants were descended from Tubal, a son of Noah, who landed in Spain twenty-two centuries before the Christian era. The Iberi, according to the ancient writers, were divided into six tribes; the Cynetes, Gletes, Tartessii, Elbysinii, Mastieni, and Calpiani. (Herodori, fragm. ap. Const. Porphyrog. de adm. Imp., 2, 23–Compare Steph. Byz., ed. Berkel, p. 408-Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 252.) Diodorus Siculus (5, 31, seqq.) mentions the invasion of Spain by the Celts. The Iberi made war against them for a long time, but, after an obstinate resistance on the part of the natives, the two people entered into an agreement, according to which they were to possess the country in common, bear the same name, and remain for ever united; such, says the same historian, was the origin of the Celtiberi in Spain. These warlike people, continues Diodorus, were equally formidable as cavalry and infantry; for, when the horse had broken the enemy's ranks, the men dismounted and fought on foot. Their dress consisted of a sagum, or coarse woollen mantle; they wore greaves made of hair, an iron helmet adorned with a red feather, a round buckler, and a broad two-edged sword, of so fine a temper as to pierce through the enemy's armour. Although they boasted of cleanliness both in their nourishment and their dress, it was not unusual for them to wash their teeth and bodies with urine, a custom which they considered favourable to health. Their habitual drink was a sort of hydromel; wine was brought into the country by foreign merchants. The land was equally distributed, and the harvests were divided

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