Obrazy na stronie

properly speaking, himself a god. (Od, 10, 2.) His island was entirely surrounded by a wall of brass, and by smooth precipitous rocks; and here he dwelt in continual joy and festivity, with his wife and his six sons and as many daughters. The island had no other tenants. The sons and daughters were married to each other, after the fashion set by Jupiter (ka0' 6 kai & Zeic avvoxel ‘Hpa, Eustath, ad loc.), and are nothing more than a poetic type of the twelve months of the year. (Compare Eustath., ad loc.) The office of directing and ruling the winds had been conferred on AEolus by Jupiter (Od., 10, 21, seqq.—Virg. Æn., 1, 65); but his great protectress was Juno (Virga #: 1, 78, seqq.), which accords very well with the ideas of the earlier poets, who made Juno merely a type of the atmosphere, the movements of which produce the winds.-Ulysses came in the course of his wanderings to the island of Æolus, and was hospitably entertained there for an entire month. On his departure, he received from AEolus all the winds but Zephyrus, tied up in a bag of ox-hide. Zephyrus was favourable for his passage homeward. During nine days and nights the ships ran merrily before the wind : on the tenth they were within sight of Ithaca ; when Ulysses, who had hitherto held the helm himself, sell asleep: his comrades, who fancied that Æolus had given him treasure in the bag, opened it : the winds rushed out, and hurried them back to Æolia. Judging, from what had befallen them, that they were hated by the gods, the ruler of the winds drove them with reproaches from his isle. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 240.)—The name AEolus has been derived from alóżoc, “rarying,” “unsteady,” as a descriptive epithet of the winds.—II. A son of Hellen, father of Sisyphus, Cretheus, and Athamas, and the mythic progenitor of the great Æolic race.—III. A son of Neptune and the nymph Arne. (Eustath., ad Od., 10, 2.) AEóNes (alover), or Æons, a term occurring frequently in the philosophical speculations of the Gnostics. The Gnostics conceived the emanations from Deity to be divided into two classes; the one comprehended all those substantial powers which are contained within the Divine Essence, and which complete the infinite plenitude of the Divine Nature: the other, existing externally with respect to the Divine Essence, and including all finite and imperfect natures. Within the Divine Essence, they, with wonderful ingenuity, imagined a long series of emanative principles, to which they ascribed a real and substantial existence, connected with the first substance as a branch with its root, or a solar ray with the sun. When they ben to unfold the mysteries of this system in the reek language, these Substantial Powers, which they conceived to be comprehended within the tropoua, or Divine Plenitude, they called atover, Æons. (Enjield's History of Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 142.) AEPEA, or Æpeia, a town in the island of Cyprus. Vid. Soloe. AEpoll ANUs, an engraver on precious stones, who flourished in the second century of our era. One of his gems, with the head of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, is still extant. (Bracci, P. 1, tab. 3.-Sillig, Dict. Art., s. p.) AEpyrus, I. king of Messenia, and son of Cres. phontes. His father and his two brothers were put to death by Polyphontes, who usurped, upon this, the throne of the country. Æpytus, however, was saved by his mother, Merope, who had been compelled to marry the murderer of her husband, and was sent by her to the court of her father Cypselus, king of Arcadia, to be there brought up. On attaining to manhood, he slew Polyphontes, and recovered the throne. His descendants were called AEpytidie. (Apollod, 2, 8, 5 —Heyne, ad Apollod, l.c.)—II. A king of Arcadia, and son of Elatus. He was killed, in hunting, by a small species of serpent, called assp. (Pausan., 8,4,4.)

—III. A king of Arcadia, son of Hippothous, and contemporary with Orestes, son of Agamemnon, who, in obedience to the Delphic oracke, migrated into Arcadia from Mycenae during this monarch's reign. AEpytus having, on one occasion, boldly entered the temple of Neptune, near Mantinea, which no mortal was allowed to do, is said to have been deprived of sight by a sudden eruption of salt water from the sanctuary, and to have died soon after. (Pausan., 8, 10.) This story, if true, points of course to some artifice on the part of the priests of the temple. The “salt water” was probably some strong acid. (Compare Salverte, Sciences Occultes, vol. 1, ch. 15.)—IV. A monarch who ruled in the Southern part of Arcadia, and who brought up Evadne, daughter of Neptune and the Laconian Pitane. (Pind. Ol., 6, 54.—Compare Bockh, ad loc.)

AEqui or AEquicüll, a people of Italy, distinguished in history for their early and incessant hostility against Rome, more than for the extent of their territory or their numbers. Livy himself (7, 12) expresses his surprise, that a nation, apparently so small and insignificant, should have had a population adequate to the calls of a constant and harassing warfare, which it carried on against the city of Rome for so many years. But it is plain, from the narrow limits which must be assigned this people, that their contests with Rome cannot be viewed in the light of a regular war, but as a succession of marauding expeditions, made by these hardy but lawless mountaineers on the territory of that city, and which could only be effectually checked by the most entire and rigid subjection. (Liv., 10, 1.) The AEqui are to be placed next to the Sabines, and between them and the Marsi, chiefly in the upper valley of the Anio, which separated them from the Latins. They are said at one time to have been possessed of forty towns; but many of these must certainly have been little more than villages, and some also were subsequently included within the boundaries of Latium. The only cities of note, which all ge hers agree in assigning to the AEqui, are Varia and Carseoli, on the Via Valeria. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 322.) “Almost inseparable from the Volscians in Roman story,” observes Niebuhr (Rom. Hist., vol. 1, p. 58, Cambridge transl.), “we find the AEqui or AEquiculi, who are described as an ancient people, and threatening Rome. They are so often confounded with the Volscians, that the fortress on the Lake Fucinus, which the Romans took in the year of the city 347, may with probability be called AEquian; and when Livy says that the Volscian wars had lasted from the time of Tarquinius Superbus for more than two hundred years, he considers the Volscians and AEquias one people.” This remark of Niebuhr's, however, admits of some modification, as will appear from what precedes. The AEqui and Volsci should undoubtedly be kept distinct, though originating evidently from the same parent-race.

AEquiwelium, a place at Rome, in the Vicus Jugarius, at the base of the Capitoline Hill, where once had stood the mansion of Spurius Melius. This individual, having aspired to supreme power, was slain by Ahala, master of the horse to the dictator Cincinnatus, and his dwelling was razed to the ground. Hence, according to Varro (L. L., 4, 32),the etymology of the term AEquimelium, “quod solo acquata sit Melii domus.” (Compare Liv., 4, 16.) 3. and Valerius Maximus, however, assign another, but less correct, derivation, from the just nature of the punishment inflicted upon Melius (“ex aquo seu justo supplicio Melii.”—Consult Cic. pro Dom., c. 38, and Val. Mar., 6, 3).

AErias, an ancient king of Cyprus, who built the temple of Venus at Paphos. A later tradition made this temple to have been founded by Cinyras. (Tacit. Hist., 2, 3.)

AERöpf, I. daughter of Catreus, king of Crete, and granddaughter, on the father's side, o Minos. She and her sister Clymene, having been guilty of incontinence, were delivered over, by their father, into the hands of Nauplius of Euboea, to be conveyed by him to forcign lands, and there sold into slavery. Nauplus, however, married Clymene, and sold merely Aerope. She was purchased by Plisthenes, son of Atreus, and became by him the mother of Agamemnon and Menelaus. Plisthenes, however, dying young, Atreus, his father, took Aérope to wife, and brought up Agamemnon and Menelaus as his own sons. Aérope subsequently was seduced by Thyestes, brother of Atreus, an act which was punished so horridly by the injured husband. (Vid. Atreus and Thyestes.) According to some authorities, Aérope was cast into the sea by Atreus. (Apollod., 3, 2, 3–Heyne, ad Apollod, l, c.—Schol. in Eurip. Orest.,812–Brunck, ad Soph. Aj., 1255.)—II. Daughter of Cepheus, became the mother of Aeropus by the god Mars. She died in giving birth to her offspring. (Pausan., 8, 44.)

AERöpus, I. son of Mars and Aérope. (Wid. Aérope, II.)—II. Son of Temenus, who, with his two brothers, left Argos, and settled in Macedonia. Perdiccas, the youngest of the three, was the sounder of the Macedonian royal line. (Herod., 8, 137. Compare Thucyd, 2, 99, and consult the article Macedonia.)—III. A king of Macedonia, who succeeded, while yet an infant, his father Philip the First. The Illyrians having made an inroad into Macedonia, and having proved successful at first, were afterward defeated by the Macedonians, the infant king being placed in his cradle in the rear of their line. (Justin, 7, 2.)—IV. A regent of Macedonia during the minority of Orestes, son of Archelaus. He usurped the supreme power, and held it six years, from 400 B.C. to 394 B.C.— W. A mountain of Epirus, now Mount Trebeeshna, near the defile anciently called Stena Aoi, or “Gorge of the Aous.” On one of the precipices of this mountain stands the fortress of Clissura. (Consult Hughes' Travels, vol. 2, p. 272.)

AEsicus, according to Ovid (Met., 11, 762, seqq.), a son of Priam and Alexirrhoe, who at an early age quitted his father's court and retired to rural scenes. He became enamoured of the nymph Hesperia; but she treated his suit with disdain, and, in endeavouring on one occasion to escape from him, lost her life by the bite of a serpent. Æsacus, in despair, threw himself headlong from a rock into the sea; but Tethys, pitying his fate, suspended his fall, and changed him into a cormorant.—A different account is given by Apollodorus. According to this writer, Æsacus was the son of Priam, by his first wife Arisba, and married Asterope, who did not long survive her union with him. His grief for her loss induced him to put an end to his existence. AEsacus was endued by his grandmother Merope with the gift of prophecy; and he transmitted this art to his brother and sister, Helenus and Cassandra. Priam, having divorced Arisba that he might espouse Hecuba, and the latter having dreamed that she had brought forth a blazing torch, which wrapped in flames the whole city, AEsacus predicted that the offspring of this marriage would occasion the destruction of his family and country. On this account, the infant Paris, immediately after his birth, was exposed on Mount Ida. (Apollod., 3, 12, 5, seqq., and Heyne, ad loc.)

ÆsAR, an #. word, equivalent to the Latin Deus. (Sueton. Wit. Aug., 97.) The lightning, having struck a statue of Augustus at Rome, effaced the letter C from the name CAESAR on the pedestal. The augurs declared that, as C was the mark of a hundred, and AESAR the same as Deus, the emperor had only a hundred days to spend on earth, after which he would be taken to the gods. The death of Augustus, soon after, was thought to have verified this jo

(Sueton, i. e.—Dio Cass., 56, 29.) Casaubon derives, the Etrurian term just referred to from the Greek Aiga, “fate;” and Dickinson (Delph. Phaeniciz., c. 11) from the Hebrew, comparing it also with the Arabic asara, “to create.” nzi (Saggio di Ling. Etrusc., vol. 3, p. 708), after quoting Casaubon's etymology, suggests the Greek form atoi, the same with 9eoi, as the root. The Asi (or, more correctly, AEsir) of Scandinavian mythology will furnish, however, a more obvious and satisfactory ground of comparison. The term As is equivalent to “Deus” or “God,” and the plural form is Æsir, “Gods.” Hence Asgard, or Asa-gard, the old northern term for “heaven.” It is curious to observe, that Os in Coptic likewise signifies “God” or “Lord,” with which we may compare the Greek 60-too, “holy.” So, also, the earlier term for “altar” in the Latin language was asa. (Terent. Scaur., p. 2252, 2258.) In Berosus, moreover, the gods are termed Isi; and good deities or geniuses were called by the ancient Persians Ized. (Müller, Etrusker, vol. 2, p. 81.—Kanne, System der Indischen Mythen, p. 228.-Magnusen, Boreal. Mythol. Lez., p. 17, seqq.) AEs KRUs, a river of Bruttium, on which Crotona was situate. It formed a haven, which, however incommodious compared with those of Tarentum and Brundisium, was long a source of great wealth to this city, as we are assured by Polybius (Frag., 10, 1). The modern name is the Esaro. (Compare Theocritus, Id., 4, 17.) AEschíNes, I. an Athenian philosopher, of mean birth and indigent circumstances, styled the Socratic (6 Xoxparukóc) for distinction' sake from the orator of the same name mentioned below. He flourished during the fourth century B.C., and obtained instruction from Socrates, who honoured his ardent zeal for knowledge, and held him in high estimation. (Diog. Laert., 2, . 60.—Senec. de Benef, 1, 8.) When Æschines addressed himself to the sage for the purpose of becoming his disciple, it was in the following words: “I am poor, but I give myself up entirely to you, which is all I have to give.” The reply of Socrates was characteristic: “You know not the value of your present.” After the death of his master, he endeavoured to better his worldly condition, and, having borrowed a sum of money, became a perfumer. It appears, however, that he did not succeed in this new vocation; and, not paying the interest of the sum he had borrowed, he was ...; sor the debt. Athenaeus (13, p. 611, d) has preserved for us part of a speech delivered by Lysias on this occasion, in which he handles AEschines with considerable severity, and charges him with never paying his debts, with defrauding a certain individual of his property, corrupting his wife, &c. Not being able to live any longer at Athens, he betook himself to Sicily, and sought to win the favour of the tyrant Dionysius. According to Lucian (de Parasit.—ed. Bip., vol. 7, p. 127), he accomplished his object by reading one of his dialogues, entitled Miltiades, to the tyrant, who liberally rewarded him. Plutarch (de Discr. amic. et adulat. —ed. Reiske, vol. 6, p. 248) informs us, that he had been strongly recommended to Dionysius by Plato, in a conversation which they had together subsequent to the arrival of Æschines, in which Plato complained to the tyrant of his neglecting a man who had come to him with the most friendly intention, that of improving him by philosophy. The statement of Diogenes Laertius, however, is directly opposite to this, for he informs us that AEschines was slighted by Plato, and introduced to the prince by Aristippus. He remained in Sicily till the expulsion of Dionysius, and then returned to Athens. Here, not daring to become a public rival of Plato or Aristippus, he taught philosophy in private, and received payment for his instructions. He also composed orations and pleadings for others. Be

sides orations and epistles, Æschines wrote seven SoAESCHINES.

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cratic dialogues in the true spirit of his master, on temperance, moderation, humanity, integrity, and other virtues. Their titles were, Mužtutions, KažAtac, 'A5ío2 oc, 'Aaragia, 'AAktötaðmo, Tm2avyńs, and "Pivov, Of these none remain. We have, indeed, three dialogues extant, which go under the name of Æschines, but the first and second are not his, and very probably the third also was never composed by him. (Meiners, Judicium de quibusdam Socraticorum reliquits.-Comment. Soc. Goett., vol. 5, p. 45, 1782.-Fischer, ad AEsch. Dial, p. 23, 49, 107, ed. 1786.) Their titles are: 1. IIepi 'Aperic, el 616aktóv. “Concerning virtue, and whether it can be communicated by instruction.” 2. 'Epw$íaç, ) Tepi Tàotorov. “Eryxias, or concerning riches.” 3. "Aştoroc, #. Tepi Gavarov. “Axiochus, or concerning death.” This last is attributed by some to Xenocrates of Chalcedon, and, what makes it extremely probable that Xenocrates was the author of the piece, is the circumstance of its containong the word ážextpuovospópoc, for which Pollux cites the Axiochus of this very philosopher. Diogenes Laertius, moreover, informs us, that Xenocrates wrote a work on death, but the manner in which he speaks of this production does not seem to indicate that it had the form of a dialogue. A letter, ascribed to Æschines, is, in like manner, supposed to be the production of another writer. Afschines pretended to have received his dialogues from Xanthippe, the wife of Socrates; and Diogenes Laertius states that Aristippus, when reading them, called out, Tóffev goi, Żyard, Taira; “where did you get these from, you thief!”. Little reliance, however, can be placed on either of these accounts. The three dialogues ascribed to Æschines are found in the old editions of Plato, since that of Aldus, 1513. The Axiochus is given by Wolf, in the collection entitled Doctrina recte virendi ac monendi, Basil., 1577 and 1586, 8vo. Le Clerc first published these dialogues separately, at Amsterdam, 1711, in 8vo. Horræus gave a new edition and a new Latin version at Leuwarde, 1718, in 8vo. Fischer published four editions successively at Leipsic, in 1758, 1766, 1786, and 1788, 8vo. The last contains merely the text with an Index, so that the third is the most useful to the student. Fischer's editions are decidedly the best. The letter mentioned above was published by Sammet, in his edition of the letters of Æschines the orator.—II. An Athenian orator, born 397 B.C., sixteen years before Demosthenes. According to the account which AEschines gives of his own parentage, his father was of a family that had a community of altars with the race of the Eteobutada”. Having lost his property by the calamities of war, he turned his attention, as the son tells us, to gymnastic exercises; but, being subsequently driven out by the thirty tyrants, he retired to Asia, where he served in a military capacity, and greatly distinguished himself. He contributed afterward to the restoration of the popular power in Athens. One of the orator's brothers served under Iphicrates, and held a command for three years, while another, the youngest, was sent as ambassador from the republic to the King of Persia. Such is the account of AEschines himself (de male gesta leg., p. 47 and 48, ed. Steph.). That given by Demosthenes, however, in his oration for the crown, is widely different. According to the latter, the father of AEschines was originally a slave to a schoolmaster, and his first name was Tromes, which, ...'. his freedom, he changed to Atrometus, in accordance with Athenian usage. His mother was at first named Empusa, an appellation which Demosthenes informs us was given to her on account of her habits of life, she being a common courtesan. This name was afterward changed to Glaucothea. (Demosth. de corona, p. 270, ed. Reiske.) The statement of Demosthenes, coming as it does from the lips of a rival, might well be suspected of exaggeration; and as AEschines did not reply to the speech of his opponent, we

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know not how he might have met these disgraceful charges. If, however, any inference is to be drawr from the feeble manner in which he replies to similar charges, made by the same orator on a different occasion, we should be led to suspect that they were, in some degree, based upon the truth. Nor, indeed, is it probable, that, with all the license allowed the ancient orators, Demosthenes would have ventured to make such assertions in the presence of the Athenian people if unsupported by facts. Suidas calls the mother of AEschines težeorpía, a retainer to the female priesthood in initiations. Photius (Biblioth., vol. 1, p. 20, ed. Bekker) says, that she was lepeia, “a priestess;” while another authority (Lucian, in Somn.—vol. 1, ed. Bip., p. 13) makes her to have been Tvuravuarpía, a kind of minstrel, who beat the tabour in the feasts of Cybele. From all that we can learn of the early life of AEschines, it would appear, that, after having aided his father in the management of a school, he became clerk to one of the lower class of magistrates. Tired of this station, he attached himself to a company of tragedians, but was intrusted merely with third-rate characters. It is said that, on one occasion, when personating CEnomaus, he chanced to fall upon the stage, a circumstance which occasioned his disgraceful dismission from the troop. Hence the name of OEnomaus, which Demosthenes, in ridicule, applies to him. (Demosth. de corona, 307, ed. Reiske.) On the other hand, AEschines himself states, that from early life he followed the profession of arms, served on many occasions with distinction, and had a crown decreed him by the people for his meritorious exertions. It is more than probable that Æschines here selects the fairest parts of his career, and Demosthenes, on the contrary, whatever was calculated to bring him into contempt. Some ancient writers make him to have been a disciple of Isocrates and Plato, but others, with far more probability, assign him Nature alone for an instructress, and affirm that the public tribunals and the theatre were his only places of initiation into the precepts of the oratorical art. AEschines must have possessed strong natural talents to become as eminent as he did, and to be able to contest the prize of eloquence with so powerful a competitor as Demosthenes. It was a long time, however, before he became much known as a public speaker, and he was already advanced in life when he commenced taking part in the politics of the day. (Recherches sur la vie et sur les ouvrages d'Eschine, par l'Abbé Vatry—Mem. Acad. des Inscr., &c., vol. 14, p. 87.) When Æschines began his public career, the Athenians were engaged in a war with Philip of Macedon. The orator showed himself, at first, one of the most violent opposers of this monarch, and proposed sending ambassadors throughout Greece, in order to raise up enemies against him. He himself went in this capacity to Megalopolis, to confer with the general council of Arcadia. When the Athenians sent ten ambassadors to negotiate a peace with Philip, who had been at war with them on account of Amphipolis, AEschines, who was thought to be devoted to the public good, was one of the number. Demosthenes was a colleague of his on this occasion, and we have the express testimony of the latter, in favour of the correctness and integrity which on this occasion marked the conduct of his rival. A change, however, soon took place. AEschines, on his return, after having at first strenuously opposed the projected peace, on the morrow as earnestly advised it. The gold of Macedon had, beyond a doubt, been instrumental in producing this revolution in his sentiments, and we find him ever afterward a warm partisan of Philip's, and blindly seconding all his ambitious designs. From this period AEschines and Demosthenes became open antagonists. The latter, in concert with Timarchus, having meditated an impeachment of his rival for his conduct on

another embassy, when he and four colleagues purpose

ly wasted time in Macedonia, while Philip was prosecuting his conquests in Thrace, Æschines anticipated their attack by an accusation of Timarchus himself, and spoke with so much energy, that the latter either hung himself in despair, or, according to another authority, was condemned, and deprived of his rights as a citizen. Demosthenes, however, not intimidated by the blow, preferred his original charge against Æschines, and, according to Photius (Biblioth., vol. 1, p. 20, ed. Bekker), came so near accomplishing the object he had in view, that his rival was only saved by the active interserence of a wealthy citizen named Eubulus, an open enemy of Demosthenes, and by the judges rising from their seats before the accusation was brought to a close. After many subsequent collisions, AEschines was compelled to yield to the patriotism and eloquence of his adversary. Their most famous controversy was that which related to the crown. A little aster the battle of Cheronaea, Demosthenes was commissioned to repair the fortifications of Athens. He expended, in the [... of this task, thirteen talents, ten of which e received from the public treasury, while the remaining three were generously given from his own private purse. As a mark of public gratitude for this act of liberality, Ctesiphon proposed to the people to decree a crown of gold to the orator. AEschines immediately preferred an impeachment against Ctesiphon, alleging that such a decree was an infringement of the established laws of the republic, since Demosthenes still held some public offices, and his accounts had not therefore been settled, and besides, since he was not such a friend to the state as Ctesiphon had represented him to be, who had, therefore, put upon record documents of a false and erroneous character. Demosthenes, on whom the attack was virtually made, appeared in defence of the accused. This celebrated cause, after having been delayed for some time in consequence of the troubles attendant on the death of Philip, was at last brought to a hearing. Ability and eloquence was displayed on both sides, but the palm was won by Demosthenes; and his rival, being found guilty of having brought an unjust accusation, was obliged to undergo the punishment he had intended for Ctesiphon, and was banished from his country. It is stated by Photius (Biblioth., vol. 2, p. 493, ed. Bekker), that Æschines, when he left Athens, was followed and assisted by Demosthenes, and that, upon the latter's offering him consolation, he replied, “How shall I be able to bear my exile from a city, in which I leave behind me enemies more nerous than it is possible to find friends in any other.” f. however, ascribes this very answer to Demosthenes, when his opponents made a similar offer to him as he was departing from Athens into exile. AEschines retired to Asia with the intention of presenting himself before Alexander; but the death of that monarch compelled him to change his views, and take up his residence at Rhodes. Here he opened a school of eloquence, and commenced his lectures by reading the two orations which had been the occasion of his banishment. His hearers loudly applauded his own speech; but when he came to that of Demosthenes, they were thrown into transports of admiration. “What would you have said,” exclaimed Æschines, according to the common account, “had you heard Demosthenes himself pronounce this oration?” The statement of Photius, however, is different from this, and certainly more probable. The auditors of Æschines at Rhodes expressed, as he informs us, their surprise that a man of so much ability should have been overcome by Demosthenes: “Had you heard that wild beast (rod &mpíov Hreivov),” exclaimed AEschines, “you would have ceased to be at a loss on this head.” (el #ročaare Toà tomptov oketvov oik div tuiv Toàro #76pm to. Phot. Biblioth., vol. 1, p. 20, ed. Bekker.) He subsequently transferred his school from Rhodes to Samos, where he died at the age of 75 years. We have only three

orations of Æschines, and it would seem that these were his sole remaining productions, even at an early period, since Photius states, that it was customary to designate these speeches by the name of “the Graces of Æschines.” The most celebrated of these ha. rangues is the one ostensibly directed against Ctesiphon, but in reality against Demosthenes. It is remarkable for order, clearness, and precision, and was selected by Cicero to be translated into Latin.—The Abbé Barthelemy makes the eloquence of Æschines to be distinguished by a happy flow of words, by an abundance and clearness of ideas, and by an air of great ease, which arose less from art than nature. The ancient writers appear to agree in this, that the manner of AEschines is softer, more insinuating, and more delicate than that of Demosthenes, but that the latter is more grave, forcible, and convincing. The onc has more of address, and the other more of strength and energy. The one endeavours to steal, the other to force, the assent of his auditors. In the harmony and elegance, the strength and beauty of their language, both are deserving of high commendation, but the figures of the one are finer, of the other bolder. In Demosthenes we see a more sustained effort, in AEschines vivid, though momentary, flashes of oratory.—Besides the speeches above mentioned, twelve epistles are attributed to Æschines, which he is supposed to have written from Rhodes. Photius makes the number only nine, and states that they were called, from this circumstance, the Muses of Æschines. One of the best editions of Æschines is that of Wolf, containing also the orations of Demosthenes. It was first printed at Basle by Oporinus, asterward at the same place in 1549 and 1572, at Venice in 1550, and at Frankfort in 1604. The orations of AEschines are also contained in Reiske's excellent edition of the Greek Orators, Lips., 1770, &c., 12 vols. 8vo, and in the valuable London edition, recently published, of the works of Demosthenes and AEschines, 10 vols. 8vo, 1827. To these may be added the edition of Foulkes and Friend, Ozon., 1696, 8vo, and that of Stock, Dublin, 1769, 2 vols. 8vo. These last two editions, however, contain merely the orations of Æschines and Demosthenes respecting the crown. The epistles were published separately by Sammet, Lips., 1771, 8vo.—III. The author of a harangue entitled Deliaca, which some have attributed to the orator Æschines. (Diog. Laert.)— IV. An Arcadian, a disciple of Isocrates. (Id.)—W. A Mytilenean, surnamed the scourge of orators, on topoHäatus. (Id.)—VI. A native of Neapolis, and member of the Academic sect. (Cic. Or, l, 11.)—WII. A native of Miletus, and orator, whose style of speaking is represented by Cicero as of the florid and Asiatic kind. (Cic. Brut, c. 95.)—VIII. An Athenian physician who cured the quinsy, affections of the palate, cancers, &c., by employing the cinders of excrements. (Plin., 28, 4.) —IX. A distinguished individual among the Eretrians, who disclosed to the Athenians the treacherous designs of some of his countrymen, when the former had marched to their aid against the Persians. (Herod., 6, 100.) AEschrion, f a Mytilenean poet, intimate with Aristotle. He accompanied Alexander in his Asiatic expedition. Consult Vossius de Poet. Gratc.—II. An Iambic poet of Samos. He is mentioned by Athenaeus (7,296, e, and 8,335, c), and also by Tzetzes, in his scholia on Lycophron (v. 688–9). Some of his verses are preserved by Athenaeus and in the Anthology. (Compare Jacobs, ad Anthol., vol. 1, part 1, p. 385.) —III. A physician, preceptor to Galen, and of whom the latter speaks oil. high eulogium. He composed a work on husbandry, &c., which is cited by Pliny, and also by Varro, R. R., 1, 1. AEschylus, a celebrated tragic writer, son of Euphorion, born of a noble family at Eleusis in Attica, in the fourth year of the sixty-third Olympiad, B.C. 525. (Compare Wit. Anonym. given in Stanley's cd., a story of his boyhood, professedly on the authority of the poet himself, that, having fallen asleep while watching the clusters of grapes in a vineyard, Bacchus appeared to him, and bade him turn his attention to tragic composition. This account, if true, shows that his mind was, at a very early period, enthusiastically struck with the exhibitions of the infant drama. An impression like this, acting upon his servid imagination, would naturally produce such a dream as is described. To this same origin must, no doubt, be traced the common account relative to Æschylus, that he was accustomed to write under the influence of wine; and in confirmation of which Lucian (Demosth. Encom.— ed. Bip.—vol. 9, p. 144) cites the authority of Callisthenes, and Athenaeus (10, 33) that of Chameleon. The inspiration of Bacchus, in such a case, can mean nothing more than the true inspiration of poetry. (Mohnike, Litt. der Gr, und Rom., vol. 1, p. 359.) At the age of twenty-five, Æschylus made his first

and the Arundel Marbles.) Pausanias (1, 14) records over him by Simonides, in an elegiac contest; and,

ublic attempt as a tragic author, in the 70th Olympiad,

.C. 499. (Suid. in Alox—Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, p. 21, 2d ed.) The next notice which we have of him is in the third year of the 72d Olympiad, B.C. 490, when, along with his two celebrated brothers Cynaegirus and Aminias, he was graced at Marathon with the praises due to pre-eminent bravery, being then in his 35th year. (Marm. Arund, No. 49-Wit. Anonym.) Six years aster that memorable battle, he gained his first tragic victory. Four years after this was sought the battle of Salamis, in which Æschylus took part with his brother Aminias, to whose extraordinary valour the diptareia were decreed. (Herod., 8, 93-AElian, War. Hist., 5, 19 ) In the following year he served in the Athenian troops at Plataea. Eight years afterward (Argument. ad Pers.) he gained the prize with a tetralogy, composed of the Persa, the Phineus, the Glaucus Potniensis, and the Prometheus Igniser, a satyric drama (or, to give their Greek titles, the IIápoat, bustic, TŽańkoç IIorvuesc, and IIpountric trupgåpoc). The latter part of the poet's life is involved in much obscurity. (Compare Blomfield, ad Pers. praf, p. xxii.-Id. ad Arg, in Agamem., p. xix. et xx.-Bockh, de Gracc. Trag. Princip., c. 4, seqq.) That he quitted Athens and died in Sicily, is agreed on all hands, but the time and cause of his departure are points of doubt and conjecture. It seems that Æschylus had laid himself open to a charge of profanation, by too boldly introducing on the stage something connected with the mysteries. According to Clemens Alexandrinus, he was tried and acquitted of the charge (#v 'Apeig tray(0 kputeic, otrac àgetathm, bručeišac airów His uruvmuévov.–Clem. Aler. Stron., 2). The more romantic narrative of AElian (Var. Hist., 5, 19) informs us, that the Athenians stood ready to stone him to death, when his brother Aminias, who interceded for him, dexterously dropped his robe and showed the stump of his own arm lost at the battle of Salamis. This act of fraternal affection and presence of mind had the desired effect on the quick . impulsive temper of the Athenians, and AEschylus was pardoned. But the peril which he had encountered, the dread of a multitude ever merciless in their superstitions, indignation at the treatment which he had received, joined, in all likelihood, to feelings of vexation and jealousy at witnessing the preference occasionally given to young and aspiring rivals, were motives sufficiently powerful to induce the proud-spirited poet to abandon his native city, and seek a retreat in the court of the munificent and literary Hiero, prince of Syracuse. (Wit. Anonym.— Pausan., 1, 2.—Plut. de Eril., Op., vol. 8, p. 385, ed. Reiske.) This must have been before the second year of the 78th Olympiad, B.C. 467, for in that year Hiero died. The author of the anonymous life of AEschylus, which has come down to us, mentions, among other reasons for his voluntary banishment, a victory obtained

what is more probable, the success of Sophocles, who carried off from him the tragic prize, according to the common account, in the 78th Olympiad, B.C. 468. Plutarch, in his life of Cimon, confirms the latter statement. If so, AEschylus could not have been more than a year in Sicily before Hiero's death. The common account, relative to the cause which drove the poet from his country, is grounded upon an obscure allusion in Aristotle's Ethics, explained by Clemens Alexandrinus and Ælian. In Sicily, AEschylus composed a drama, entitled Ætna, to gratify his royal host, who had recently founded a city of that name. During the remainder of his life, it is doubtful whether he ever returned to Athens. If he did not, those pieces of his, which were composed in the interval, might be exhibited on the Athenian stage under the care of some friend or relation, as was not unfrequently the case. Among these dramas was the Orestean tetralogy (Argument. ad Agamem.—Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran., 1155), which won the prize in the second year of the 80th Olympiad, B.C. 458, two years before his death. At any rate, his residence in Sicily must have been of considerable length, as it was sufficient to affect the purity of his language. We are told by Athenaeus, that many Sicilian words are to be found in his later plays. AEschylus certainly has some Sicilian forms in his extant dramas: thus trečápaloc, Teóaixutos, Teóóopol, usiocov, uá, &c., for pietépatoc, suetaixuot, Pueréopot, utsov, ui/tep, &c. (Comp. Blomfield, Prom. Vinct., 277, Gloss., and Böckh, de Trag. Graec., c. 5.) The poet died at Gela, in the 69th year of his age, in the 81st Olympiad, B.C. 456. His death, if the common accounts be true, was of a most singular nature. Sitting motionless, in silence and meditation, in the fields, his head, now bald, was mistaken for a stone by an eagle, which happened to be flying over him with a tortoise in her claws. The bird dropped the tortoise to break the shell; and the poet was killed by the blow. It is more than probable, however, that this statement is purely fabulous, and that it was invented in order to meet a supposed prophecy, that he would receive his death from on high. The Geloans, to show their respect for so illustrious a sojourner, interred him with much pomp in the public cemetery.—AFschylus is said to have composed seventy dramas, of which five were satyric, and to have been thirteen times victor. The account of Pausanias, however, would almost imply a larger proportion of satyric dramas. In fact, considerable discrepance exists respecting the number of plays ascribed to Æschylus. Only seven of his tragedies remain, together with fragments of others prescryed in the citations of the grammarians, and two epigrams in the Anthology. The titles of the dramas which have reached us are as follows: 1. IIpounts is deausorno (Prometheus Vinctus). 2. "Erra &mi 976aç (Septem contra Thebas). 3. IIápaat (Persa). 4. 'Ayapuśuvov (Agamemnon). 5. Xompópot (Choēphora). 6. Eiušvideo (Eumenides). , 7. "Ikétudec (Supplices). A short account of each of these will be given towards the close of the present article. This great dramatist was the author of the fifth form of tragedy. (Vid. Theatrum.) He added a second actor to the locutor of Thespis and Phrynichus, and thus introduced the dialogue. He abridged the immoderate length of the choral odes, making them more subservient to the main interest of the plot, and expanded the short episodes into scenes of competent extent. To these improvements in the economy of the drama, he added the decorations of art in its exhibition. A regular stage (Vitrup. Praef, lib. 7), with appropriate scenery, was erected; the actors were furnished with becoming dresses, and raised to the stature of the heroes represented by the thick-soled cothurnus (Horat., Ep. ad Pis., 280); while the face was brought to the heroic cast by a mask of proportionate size and strongly.

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