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ing extended under the sign Leo, and only ending at the later degrees of the sign Virgo. On this is based the fable of the continual reappearance of the monster's heads; the constellation being of so great a length, that the stars of one part reappear after the sun has passed onward to another part, and while the stars of this latter part are merged in the solar fires. In the third month the sun enters the sign Libra, at the beginning of autumn, when the constellation of the centaur rises, represented as bearing a wine-skin full of liquor, and a thyrsus adorned with vine-leaves and grapes. Bayer represents him in his tables with a thyrsus in one hand and a flask of wine in the other. (Uran., tabl., 41.) The Alphonsine tables depict him with a cup or goblet in his hand. (Tab., Alph., p. 209.) At this same period, what is termed by some astronomers the constellation of the boar rises in the evening; and in his third labour Hercules, after being hospitably entertained by a centaur, encountered and slew the other centaurs who fought for a cask of wine : he slew also in this labour the Erymanthian boar. In the fourth month the sun enters the sign of Scorpio, when Cassiopeia rises, a constellation in which anciently a stag was represented; and in his fourth labour Hercules caught the famous stag with golden horns and brazen feet. It is said also to have breathed fire from its nostrils. (Quint. Smyrn., 6, 226.) The horns of gold and the breathing of flames are traits that harmonize well with a constellation studded with blazing stars, and which, in the summer season, unites itself to the solstitial fires of the sun, by rising in the evening with its spouse Cepheus. In the fifth month the sun enters the sign Sagittarius, consecrated to Diana, who had a temple at Stymphalus, in which were seen the birds called Stymphalides. At this same time rise the three birds; namely, the constellations of the vulture, swan, and eagle pierced with the arrows of Hercules; and in his fifth labour Hercules destroyed the birds near Lake Stymphalus, which are represented as three in number on the medals of Perinthus. (Med. du Cardin. Alban., vol. 2, p. 70, n. 1.) In the sixth month the sun passes into the sign Capricornus, who was, according to some, a grandson of the luminary. At this period the stream which flows from Aquarius sets; its source is between the hands of Aristaeus, son of the river Peneus. In his sixth labour Hercules cleansed, by means of the Peneus, the stables of Augeas, son of Phoebus. Augeas is made by some to have been a son of Nycteus, a name which bears an evident reference to the night (váš), and which contains, therefore, in the present instance, an allusion to the long nights of the winter solstice. In the seventh month the sun passes into the sign Aquarius. The constellation of the Lyre, or celestial vulture, now sets, which is placed by the side of the constellation called Prometheus, and at this same period the celestial bull, called the bull of Pasiphaë, the bull of Marathon, in fine, the bull of Europa,

asses the meridian. In his seventh labour, Hercules

rings alive into the Peloponnesus a wild bull, which laid waste the island of Crete. He slays also the vulture that preyed upon the liver of Prometheus. It is to be remarked that, as the constellation sets at this period, Hercules is said to have killed that bird; whereas the bull, which crosses the meridian merely, is made to have been brought alive into Greece. The bull in question was also fabled to have vomited flames (Aul. Gell., 1, 1), an evident allusion to the celestial bull which glitters with a thousand fires. It is at the close of this seventh labour, and under the same title with it, that Hercules is supposed to have arrived in Elis, mounted on the steed Arion, and to have established there the Olympic games on the banks of the Alpheus. Now, when the sun passes into the sign Aquarius, he comes into that quarter of the heavens which is marked by the full moon from year to year.

The full moon of the summer-solstice was the period for celebrating the Olympic Games; and hence the poets, observing the phenomenon of the full moon during every year in the sign of Aquarius, ascribed to Hercules the institution of these games, of which Aquarius, by its union with the full moon, was every year the symbol. In the immediate vicinity of Aquarius, moreover, we find the constellation Pegasus identical with the fabled steed Arion. Hence the sable of Hercules having come on this latter animal to the land of Elis. In the eighth month the sun enters into the sign Pisces, when the celestial horse rises in the morning, known by the name of Pegasus and Arion, as we have just remarked; and in his eighth labour Hercules overcame and carried off the horses of Diomede. Eurystheus consecrated these steeds to Juno, to whom, in the division of the zodiac among the twelve great gods, the sign Aquarius was given as her peculiar domain; and it is worthy of remark, that the Thracian Diomede is fabled to have been the son of Cyrene, who was also the mother of Aristaeus, and that this last personage is supposed by many to have been the same with Aquarius. In the ninth month the sun asses into the sign Aries, sacred to Mars, which all * ancient authors who have written on astronomy make to be the same with the ram of the golden fleece. When the sun enters into this sign, the celestial ship, called Argo, rises in the evening. At this same period Cassiopeia and Andromeda set. Androineda is remarkable for many beautiful stars, one of which is called her girdle. Hyginus makes this girdle consist of three stars. Aratus designates it particularly by the name of on m. Now, in his ninth labour, Hercules, according to one version of the legend, embarked on board the Argo in quest of the golden fleece; he contends with the female warriors, and takes from Hippolyta, their queen, the daughter of Mars, a famous girdle. He also rescues Hesione from a sea-monster, as Peresus did Andromeda. In the tenth month the sun enters into the sign Taurus. The constellation of Orion, who was fabled to have pursued, through love, the Pleiades, or daughters of Atlas, now sets: the herdsman, or conductor of the oxen of Icarus, also sets, as does likewise the river Eridanus. At this period, too, the Pleiades rise, and the she-goat fabled to have been the spouse of Faunus. Now, in his tenth labour, Hercules restores to their father the seven Pleiades, whose beauty and wisdom had inspired with love Busiris, king of Egypt, and who, wishing to become master of their persons, had sent pirates to carry them off. He slew also Busiris, who is here identical with Orion. In this same labour he bore away from Spain the oxen of Geryon, and arrived in Italy, where he overcame Cacus, and was hospitably received by Faunus. In the eleventh month the sun passes into the sign of Gemini. This period is marked by the setting of Procyon, and the cosmical rising of the dog-star. The constellation of the Swan also rises in the evening. In his eleventh labour, Hercules conquers Cerberus, the dog of Hades. He triumphs also over Cycnus (Swan), and at the very time, too, according to Hesiod (Scut. Herc., 393), when the dog-star begins to parch the fields, and the cicada announces the summer by its song. It is to be remarked, moreover, that the constellation of the Swan gave rise, in a different legend, to the fable of the amour of Leda and Jove, and the birth of the twin-brothers Castor and Pollux. (Eratosth., c. 25.) In the twelfth month the sun enters the sign Cancer, the last of the twelve commencing with Leo. The constellations of the river and the centaur set, that of Hercules Ingeniculus also descends towards the western regions, or those of Hesperia, followed by the dragon of the pole, the guardian of the golden apples of the Hesperides, whose head he crushes with his foot. In his twelfth labour, Hercules travelled to Hesperia in quest of the golden

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to offer up a solemn sacrifice, and clothes himself in a robe dipped in the blood of the Centaur, whom he had slain in crossing a river. The robe takes fire, and the hero perishes amid the flames, but only to resume his youth in the heavens, and become a partaker of immortality. The Centaur thus terminates the mortal career of Hercules; and in like manner the new annual period commences with the passage of the sun into Leo, marked by a group of stars in the morning, which glitter like the flames that issued from the vestment of Nessus.-If Hercules be regarded as having actually existed, nothing can be more monstrous, nothing more at variance with every principle of chronology, nothing more replete with contradictions, than the adventures of such an individual as poetry makes him to have been. But, considered as the luminary that gives light and life to the world, as the god who impregnates all nature with his fertilizing rays, every part of the legend teems with animation and beauty, and is marked by a pleasing and perfect harmony. The sun of the summer solstice is here represented with all the attributes of that strength which he has acquired at this season of the year. He enters proudly on his course, in obedience to the eternal order of nature. It is no longer the sign Leo that he traverses; he combats o fearful lion which ravages the plains. The Hydra i the second monster that opposes the hero, and the constellation in the heavens becomes a searful animal on earth, to which the language of poetry assigns a hundred heads, with the power of reproducing them as they are crushed by the weapon of the hero. All the obstacles that array themselves against the illustrious champion are gifted with some quality or attribute that exceeds the bounds of nature: the horses of Diomede feed on human fesh ; the females rise above the timidity of their sex, and become formidable heroines; the apples of the Hesperides are of gold; the stag has brazen hoofs; the dog of Hades bristles with serpents; everything, even down to the very crab, is formidable; for everything is great in nature, and must, therefore, be equally so in the various symbols that are used to designate her various powers. (Consult, on this whole subject, the remarks of Dupuis, Origine de tous les Cultes, vol. 2, p. 168, seqq.—Abrégé, p. 116, seqq.) The conclusion to which we have here arrived, will appear still plainer if we take a hasty sketch of the Oriental origin of the fable of Hercules, and its passage from the East into the countries of the West. And it will be seen that the Greeks, in conformity with their national character, appropriated to themselves, and gave a human form to, an Oriental deity; and that, metamorphosing the stranger-god into a Grecian hero, they took delight in making him an ideal type of that heroic courage and might which triumphs over every obstacle. Hercules, the invincible Hercules, has strong analogies with the Persian Mithras, the type of the unconquered sun. (Creuzer, Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 1, p. 376, &c.) Mithras, Perseus, and Hercules the descendant of Perseus, connect together the two families of Belus, that of Asia and that of Egypt. According to the Greek genealogies, the son of Amphitryon and Alcmena was of Egyptian blood both on the father's and mother's side, while he was descended by Perseus from Belus, the solar god. (Consult the tables of genealogy, X, Xa, and Xb, at the end of Heyne's Apollodorus.) But, added the tradition, the figure of Amphitryon only served as a mask to the king of gods and men when he wished to give birth to Hercules. The origin of the latter, then, was mediately and immediately divine, and we have a son of Jupiter in the Hellenic Hercules, as well as in the Sem-Hercules of Egypt. But, in every other respect, what a difference between the two. Herodotus, full of the ideas imbibed from the national poems on Hercules, the illustrious chief of the heroic races of Greece, arrives in Egypt. There he finds a Hercules quite different from the one with

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which he is familiar. In vain does he endeavour to reconcile the mythic legends of Greece with the soreign dogmas that he encounters. After a scrupulous examination, and imploring the favour of the gods of his country, he declares that the name Herakles is originally from Egypt, not from Greece. Hercules with the Egyptians was the sun of the spring in all his force, an idea to which his very name alluded, which was in the Egyptian tongue Sem, Som, or Djom, “the Strong.” Sem-Herakles passed for a god of the second class in Egypt. He was the type of the divine power, appearing with glory at the period of the spring, after having conquered the gloomy winter. He was the sun traversing his celestial career, contending against the numerous obstacles with which his path is supposed to be strewed, and obtaining by his immortal vigour a prize worthy of his numerous triumphs. On the monuments of Egypt he was seen traversing the fields of air in the bark of the star of day (Plut., de 1s. et Os., p. 506, ed. Wyttenb.); at other times the phoenix was placed in his hand, as a pledge of eternal victory, and a symbol of the great year, to which the renewal of each solar year was supposed to allude.— From the Egyptian let us pass to the Phoenician Hercules. Here he was denominated Melkarth, and belonged to the line of Bel or Baal, called Cronos by the Greeks. (Creuzer, Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 3, p. 15.) Melkarth was the tutelary divinity of the powerful city of Tyre, and the Tyrian navigators spread his worship from island to island, and from shore to shore, even to the farthest west, even to Gades, where a flame burned continually in his temple, as at Olympia on the altar of Jupiter. (Heeren, Ideen, vol. 1, p. 2, seqq.) His name signified, according to some, “the king of the city;” according to others, and with greater probability, “the powerful king” (Bochart, Geogr. Sacr., 2, 2–Selden, de D. S., I, 6), an idea closely analogous to that intended to be conveyed by the Egyptian appellation Sem. The King of the City, or the powerful King, was a true incarnation of the sun. He was the sun of spring, growing o more and more powerful as it mounts to the skies, sending rains upon the earth, and causing the seed to shoot forth from the ground. Hence the Phoenicians regarded him as the god of harvests and of the table, the god who brings joy in his train. (Nonnus, Dionys., 40, 418.) A mercantile and commercial people, they also made him (in a still more special sense, perhaps) the protector of commerce and colonies. It is to this idea that many seek to refer the etymology of the Greek and Latin names Herakles and Hercules. Thus, some assign as the root the Phaenician or Hebrew term Harkel, “circuitor,” “mercator” (Munter, Relig. der Carthag., p. 41, ed. 2), but which applies equally well to the sun moving along in his celestial career (wirepíov). Others write the name Archles, which recalls the old Latin or Etrurian Ercle, Hercole. (Bellermann, 1, 22.) The perilous and fertilizing course of the sun in the heavens may, in fact, have passed for a natural type of those adventurous courses by land and sea which enriched the hardy navigators of Phoenicia; and beyond a doubt the mythus of Hercules borrowed more than one incident from their distant expeditions. The ancient nations had a custom of loading with chains the statues of their gods, when the state was menaced with danger, in order to prevent their flight. Among the Phoenicians, the idol Melkarth was almost constantly chained. In the same manner, the nations of Italy chained their Saturn every year until the tenth month, and at his festival in December they gave him his freedom. (Macrob., Sat., 1, 8.) The fundamental idea of this symbolical usage was originally the same among all these nations, though afterward differently expressed, and variously modified in various systems of religion. In the infantine conceptions of the earliest times, it was believed that the course of the 601

sun could be retarded by chaining his image, and accelerated by removing the fetters. Hence, in this way, they wished to represent his strength and his weakness.-The worship of Hercules prevailed also in Phrygia. Hercules, according to Eusebius (Chron., 1, p. 26.-Bochart, Geogr. Sacr., p. 472), here bore the name of Diodas, or, as the Latin version gives it, Desanaus, which last Vossius makes equivalent to “strong,” “powerful,” an idea conveyed also by the Tyrian appellation of Melkarth. (Voss, de Idolol., 1, 22.)—As a colony from Tyre had carried the worship of Hercules into Boeotia by the way of Thasus, so another colony conveyed it to the Ionians of lower Asia. At Erythrae, on the coast of Ionia, was to be seen a statue of Hercules, of an aspect completely Egyptian. The worship of the god was here celebrated by certain Thracian females, because the females of the country were said to have refused to make to the god an offering of their locks on his arrival at Erythrae. (Pausam., 7, 5.) The females of Byblos sacrificed to Adonis their locks and their chastity at one and the same time, and it is probable that the worship of Hercules was not more exempt, in various parts of the ancient world, from the same dissolute offerings. In Lydia, particularly, it seems to have been marked by an almost delirious sensuality. Married and unmarried females prostituted themselves at the festival of the god. (Herodot., 1, 93.—Compare Clearch., ap. Athen., 12, p. 416, ed. Schweigh.) The two sexes changed their respective characters; and tradition reported that Hercules himself had given an example of this, when, assuming the vestments and occupation of a female, he subjected himself to the service of the voluptuous Omphale. (Creuzer, Fragm. Hist. Antiq., p. 187.) The Lydian Hercules was named Sandon, after the robe dyed with sandyx, in which Omphale had arrayed him, and which the females of the country imitated in celebrating his licentious worship. (I. Laurent. Lydus, de Mag. Rom., 3, 64, p. 268.) This Sandon reappears in the Cilician Sandacus, subjected to his male companion Pharnaces, as the Lydian Hercules was to Omphale. (Creuzer, Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 3, p. 179.) We find here, as in the religion of Phoenicia, the same opposition, the same alternation of strength and weakness, of voluptuousmess and courage. Hercules with Omphale, is the solar god descended into the omphalos, or “navel” of the world, amid the signs of the southern hemisphere; and it was the festival of this powerful star, enervated in some degree at the period of the winter solstice, which the Lydian people celebrated by the changing of the vestments of the weaker and the stronger sex.The fable of Hercules Melampyges and the Cercopes has a similar reference. According to Diodorus Siculus (4, 31), the Cercopes dwelt in the vicinity of Ephesus, and ravaged the country far and wide, while Hercules led a life of pleasure and servitude in the arms of Omphale. In vain had their mother warned them to beware of the powerful hero ; they contemned her exhortations, and Melampyges, in consequence, was sent to chastise them. He soon brought them to the queen, loaded with chains. A different tradition places the Cercopes in the islands that face the coast of Campania. Jupiter, says the legend, being involved in war with the Titans, came to these islands to demand aid from the people called Arimi. But the Arimi, after having promised him assistance, refused to fulfil that promise, and trifled with the god. As a punishment for this conduct, Jove changed them into monkeys, or, according to others, into stones, and from this period the isles of Inarime and Prochyta have taken the name of Pithecusae, or “Monkey Islands.” (IIuthoroúaat, from Titokos, “a monkey.") We have here the Cercopes, both in Asia Minor and in the volcanic islands of Campania. The meaning of the fable is evident. The Lydian Hercules is the sun, pale and

feeble at the period of the winter solstice, which in some sense turns his back upon the earth, and shows his obscurer parts. (Compare the literal meaning of Mežáumvyog, and the note of Guigniaut, vol. 3, p. 182.) As long as the solar god abandons himself to an inglorious life, and divides his attention between the pleasures and the servile employments of women, that is, during the entire winter solstice, the Cercopes, who are the divisions of this period of languor, crowd around and insult him with impunity. But no sooner does the approach of the vernal equinox reinvigorate the solar luminary, than Hercules, coming forth from degrading repose, attacks and subjugates his revilers. Jupiter, placed in opposition to the same creatures, so full of artifice and so fair a symbol of it, may equally be explained in an astronomical and calendary sense. This god was the sun of suns; the supreme force that combats, subdues, and dissipates whatever tends to obscure the light and disturb the harmony of the universe. The Cercopes are here opposed to him in the same manner as in other legends the Titans.—It may be as well, before leaving this part of the subject, to remark, that the monkey, and also various other animals or natural objects, consecrated in public worship

th among the Egyptians and elsewhere, were regarded as having a direct and permanent relation to the stars, their revolutions, and the periods of the year. Apes appear to have been honoured with a species of worship, not only in India and Egypt, but also along the northern coast of Africa, perhaps even at Carthage itself. (Guigniaut, vol. 3, p. 183.)—Hercules, according to the traditions of Lydia, became the father, in this country, by a female slave, perhaps the same with Omphale, of the chief of a new dynasty of kings. The dynasty preceding this had in like manner for its founder a chieftain of the name of Atys, homonymous with the solar god of Phrygia and Lydia. The second royal race was that of the Heraclidae, or rather of the Candaulidae; for, according to some, the Lydian Hercules was named Candaules. (Hesych., s. v. Kavõat 2nc.) This name recalls to mind the iast monarch of the race, who, like his divine progenitor, fell into the snare laid for him by an artful woman, and, still more unfortunate than he, lost at one and the same time his throne and his life. (Herodot, 1, 12.) Without speaking of the marvellous incidents with which the later accounts of this work are adorned, such, for example, as the magic ring of Gyges, the narrative of Herodotus alone evidently shows a mythic side in the whole history of the kings of Lydia : the very fall of the monarchy is related with accompanying circumstances that bear the imprint of old religious symbols. If King Meles, said the legend, had carried the lion, which one of his concubines brought forth, all around the walls of Sardis, that city never would have fallen into the hands of Cyrus. (Herodot., 1, 84.) We have here a royal lion, born of a young female, in the family of the Heraclidae; and the lion was always a symbol of the valiant and victorious Hercules, an emblem of the sun in its protecting force. It remained the sacred attribute of the monarchs of Lydia. Among the rich offerings which Croesus sent to the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the principal one was a golden lion. (Herodot., 1, 50.) Even Sardis itself was, as the very name denoted, the city of the year, and, under this appellation, consecrated to the god who directed the movements of the year. (Xanthus, ap. I. Lyd. de Mens., p. 42.) It was the city of Hercules, as the Egyptian Thebes was the city of Ammon ; Babylon, the city of Belus; Ecbatana, with its walls of seven different colours, the city of the planets.-India had also her Hercules, if we credit the ancient writers, though their accounts are of a date comparatively recent. He was named Dorsanes or Dosanes (Hesychius, s. v. Aopo.—Alberti, ad loc.), an appellation which recalls the Desanaus of Phrygia. The account given by Megasthenes (ap. Arrian, Ind., c. 8, seqq.), is in many respects so very similar to that which has already been stated with regard to the Lydian Hercules, as to lead to the belief that the legends of Lower Asia had emanated in some degree from the plains of the Indian peninsula. The Rama of Hindustan, with his warlike apes, reminds us, under various striking aspects, of Hercules and the Cercopes.—The religion of Hercules, passing from the East like the god whom it was intended to commemorate, made its way to the farthest limits of the then known West. The Phoenicians, and after them the Carthaginians, extended on every side the worship of Melkarth, the divine protector of their colonies. It was from them that the nations of Spain, after those of Africa, learned to revere his name; and, not content with placing his columns at the entrance of the Atlantic, the Phoenician Hercules undertook, on this vast extent of ocean, long and perilous expeditions. Pursuing also another direction, he crossed the barriers of the Pyrenees and the Alps: he and his descendants founded numerous cities, both in Gaul and in the countries adjacent to it. He was here styled Deusoniensis, an appellation which again recalls that of Desanaús. Indeed, the occidental mythology seems here to correspond in every par ticular with that of the East. The cup of the sun, in which Hercules traverses the ocean for the purpose of reaching the isle of Erythea, represents the marvellous cup of the Persian Dschemschid. Under the empire of the latter, no corruption or decay of any kind prevailed ; and the columns of wood in the temple of Hercules at Gades were never carious. The Dschemschid of Persia and the Sem of Egypt gave health to their votaries; the Romans recognised the same power in their victorious Hercules. (I. Lyd. de Mens., p. 92.) Rome herself counted among her citizens certain individuals who claimed to be his descendants. The heroic family of the Fabii, for example, traced their origin to the son of Alcmena. (Plut., Vit. Fab. Max., c. 1.) The Latins, as well as the Lydians, assigned various concubines to this powerful deity, among whom are mentioned Fauna, and Acca Larentia, the nurse of Romulus. (Macer, ap. Macrob., Sat., 1, 10.—August, de Civ. Dei, 6, 7.) Thus, then, at the same time that we find even in the West the traces of a sensual worship rendered to Hercules, we see reproduced that peculiar tendency, so prevalent in the East, of making heroes and kings the descendants of the divine sun ; the children of that victorious and beneficent star, which continually brings us both the day and the year as the prizes of his glorious combats. And, indeed, what idea can be more natural than this? Is not the sun himself a powerful king, a hero, placed in a situation of continual combat with the shades of darkness and with the evil spirits to which they give birth 1 His numerous adversaries, in the career of the zodiac which he traverses, are principally the signs of winter. The solemn rites offered to him, such as the games celebrated at Chemmis , and Olympia; the chains with which the statue of the Tyrian Hercules was loaded; the circle of female figures surrounding his statue at Sardis, were intended to represent the alternations of strength and weakness, of victory and defeat, which mark the course of this courageous wrestler of the year, whose very death is a triumph. Hence, among the numerous incarnations of the star of day, the warlike spirit of the earlier nations of antiquity would, in order to propose it as an example to chiefs and monarchs, give a preference to that one which represented the sun under the character that we have just been considering. Nor could the heads of communities have a nobler model. If their origin was regarded as divine, it imposed upon them the obligation of a continual struggle, in order to render manifest to all eyes the principle of light, of strength, and of goodness, which they were supposed to have within

them. Besides, it was on the solar year, and its sev. eral subdivisions and periods, that the ordinances vs. the earliest social state were based. In maintaining this sacred order, they only imitated the god of the year, at once the author of it and of their race. It is for these reasons that we find, throughout all antiquity, a solar hero at the head of royal dynasties. This solar hero is Hercules, who is everywhere found to be the same personage, though under different appellations.—In Greece, the painful and protracted delivery of Alcmena, the mother of Hercules, already announces the god of light, destined to struggle painfully against the powers of darkness. Ilithyia herself, the light coming forth from the bosom of night, sits with folded arms before the door of Amphitryon, and the courageous mother is a prey to cruel pangs until the cause of her anguish is removed by the artifice of Galanthis. (Vid. Alcmena.) Long did Juno, according to the early traditions, put every obstacle in the way of the birth of the hero. (Il., 19, 119.) This hostile power persecutes the son after the mother, and her obstinate hatred becomes the means that enable him to develop in all its splendour the divine power with which he is of Thus the oracle gave him the name of Herakles ('Hpakāāo), because by means of Juno ("Hpa) he was destined to gain immortal glor (k2.Éoc), and live in the praises of posterity. (Diod. Sic., 4, 10.—Schol. ad Pind., Ol., 6, 115.-Compare Macrobius, Sat., 1, 20, who makes Hercules the glory of Hera, or the lower air, the native darkness of which is illumined by the sun.) False as this etymology undoubtedly is, it still proves that the Greeks themselves attached to their Hercules the fundamental idea of a hero constantly at variance with a contrary power. As regards the name itself, it may be remarked, that it is most probably of Oriental origin, though various attempts have been made by different scholars to trace it to a Grecian source. The Latin Hercules, (Hercole, Ercle) is, to all appearance, a more ancient form than the Greek 'Hpak2.jc. (Lennep, Etymol. L. G., p. 245. –Lanzi, Saggio di Ling. Etrusca, vol. 2, p. 206, seqq.) Hermann considers Hercules as virtue personified, and carrying off glory and praise ('Hpakāfic, Ör #paro Kočoc. Briefe über Homer und Hesiod, p. 20), while Knight gives to the fable of the hero a physical basis, borrowed from the worship of the sun (“the glorifier of the earth,” from #pa and k2.Éoc.— Enquiry into Symb. Lang., $ 130). For other theories relative to Hercules, consult Muller, Dorians, b. 2, c. 11, seq., and JButtmann, Mythologus, vol. 1, p. 246, seqq. HERculiéum, I. Promontorium, a promontory in the Bruttiorum Ager, forming the most southern angle of Italy to the east, now Capo Spartivento. (Strabo, 259.—Cluver., Ital. Antiq., 2, p. 1300.-Romanelli, vol. 1, p. 140.)—II. Fretum, the strait which forms the communication between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. (Wid. Abila, Calpe, and Herculis Columnae.) Hercülis, I. Columnae, or Columns of Hercules, a name given to Calpe and Abila, or Gibraltar on the Spanish, and Cape Serra on the African, shore of the straits. Hercules was fabled to have placed them there as monuments of his progress westward, and beyond which no mortal could pass. (Wid. Calpe, Abila, and Mediterraneum Mare.)—II. Monaeci Portus, or Arx Herculis Monacci, a town and harbour of Liguria, near Nicaea. The surname of Monaecus, given to Hercules, who was worshipped here, shows, as Strabo observes, the Greek origin of this place. Fabulous accounts attributed its foundation to Hercules himself. (Am. Marcell., 15.) The harbour is well described by Lucan (1, 405). It is now Monaco.—III. Liburni Portus, now Livorno or Leghorn, a part of Etruria, below the mouth of the Arnus. Cicero calls it Portus Herculis Labronis (ad Quint. Fratr., 2, 6).-IV. Portus, a harbour of Etruria, now Porto d'Ercole. og” Situate between Arminia and Incitaria, and served as a port to the city of Cosa. It was one of the principal stations for the Roman fleets on the lower sea. (Liv., 22, 11. —Id., 30, 39.) Hercy NIA, a very extensive forest of Germany, the breadth of which, according to Caesar, was nine days' journey, while its length exceeded sixty. It extended from the territories of the Helvetii, Nemetes, and Rauraci, along the Danube to the country of the Daci and Anartes. Then turning to the north, it spread over many large tracts of land, and is said to have contained many animals unknown in other countries, of which Caesar describes two or three kinds. Caesar, following the Greek geographers (Arist., Meteor., 1, 13.-Compare Apoll. Rhod., 4, 140), confounds all the forests and all the mountains of Central Germany under the name of Hercynia Silva. This vague tradition was propagated anong the Roman geographical writers, nor could either Pliny or Tacitus form a more exact idea of its extent. (Plin., 4, 12.—Tac., Germ., 28 and 30.) Ptolemy had obtained more positive information on the subject: besides his Mount Abnoba, he distinguished the Hartz Forest under the name of Melibocus, &c. On the country's becoming more inhabited, the grounds were gradually cleared, and but few vestiges of the ancient forest remain in modern times. These now go by particular names, as the Black Forest, which separates Alsace from Swabia; the Steyger in Franconia; the Spissard on the Mayn; the Thuringer in Thuringia; Hessewald in the duchy of Cleves; the Bohemerwald, which encompasses Bohemia, and was in the middle ages called Hercynia Silva; and the Hartz Forest in Lunenburgh. Some of the German writers at the present day derive the ancient name from the term hart, high; others suppose it to come from hartz, resin, and consider the old name as remaining in the present Hartz Forest. (Malte-Brun, Precis., &c., vol. 1, p. 108, Brussels ed. —Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 410.) Here NNius, I. Senecio, a native of Spain, and a senator and quaestor at Rome under Domitian. His contempt for public honours, his virtuous character, and his admiration of Helvidius Priscus, whose life he wrote, rendered him odious to the emperor, and caused him to be accused of high treason. He was condemned to death, and his work burned by the public executioner. (Tac., Wit. Agric., c. 3–Plin., Ep., 3, 33.) —II. The father of Pontius the Samnite commander, who advised his son either to give freedom to the Romans ensnared at the Caudine Pass, or to exterminate them all. (Livy, 9, 1, seqq.)—III. Caius, a Roman, to whom the treatise on rhetoric, ascribed by some to Cicero, is addressed. The treatise in question is generally regarded as not having been written by the Roman orator, but either by Antonius Gnipho or Q. Cornificius. (Consult on this point the remarks of Schutz, in his edition of Cicero, vol. 1, p. lv., seqq., and those of Le Clerc, in his more recent edition, Paris, 1827, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 1, seqq.) Her MAE, statues of Mercury, which the Athenians had in the vestibules of their dwellings. They were made like terminal figures of stones, of a cubical form, and surmounted with a head of Mercury. (Wid. Mercurius.) HERMAEA, a festival celebrated at Cydonia, in the island of Crete, at which the slaves enjoyed complete freedom, and were waited upon by their masters. (Ephorus, ap. Athen, 6, p. 263, f-Carystius, ap. eund., 14, p. 639.-Höck, Kreta, vol. 3, p. 39.) HerMA:UM, I. Promontorium, or Promontory of Mercury ('Epuffo, Mercurius), on the southern shore of Crete, between the Promontory Criu Metopon and Phoenix.-II. A promontory of Sardinia, on the western shore, a little to the north of Bosa, now Capo della Cacca.—III. A promontory of Africa, in the district Zeugitana, now Cape Bon. (Polyb., 1, 29.-Plin., 5, 4.—Mela, 1, 7.-Liv., 29, 27.)

Hermaphroditus, a son of Mercury ('Epstic) and Venus ('Appoćirm), the fable relative to whom and the nymph Salmacis may be found in Ovid (Met., 4, 285, seqq.). It is evidently copied after some Eastern legend, although the Grecian spirit has moulded it into a more pleasing form, perhaps, than was possessed by its original. #. doctrine of androgynous divinities lies at the very foundation of the earliest pagan worship. The union of the two sexes was regarded by the early priesthoods as a symbol of the generation of the universe, and hence originated those strange types and still stranger ceremonies, which, conceived at first in a pure and simple spirit, became eventually the source of so much licentiousness and indecency. The early believer was taught by his religious instructer, that, before the creation, the productive power existed alone in the immensity of space. When the process of creation commenced, this power divided itself into two portions, and discharged the functions of an active and a passive being, a male and a female. Hence arose the beauteous frame of the universe. This is the doctrine, in particular, of the Hindu Vedas, and it is explicitly established in the Manara-Dharma-Sastra, and also in the laws of Menou. The Adonis of Syria (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 12); the Adagoús of Phrygia (Herodotus, 1, 105—Creuzer, 1, 150); the Phtha and Neith of Egypt; the Mithras of Persia (Jul. Firmicus, p. 1, seqq.—Goerres, vol. 1, p. 254); the Freya of Scandinavia (Goerres, vol. 2, p. 574); the Cenrezi of Thibet (Wagner, p. 199); the Brama, Schiva, Vishnou, and Krishna, of India (Roger, Pagan, In, 2, 2.-Paulin., Syst. Brahman., p. 195– Porphyr., in Stob. Eclog. Phys., 1, 4.—Bagavadam. Wagner, p. 167.—Bhagavat Geta, &c.); the Moon among various nations of Asia (Spartian, Wit. Caracall, c. 7.—Casaubon, ad loc.); all these objects of adoration reunited the two sexes, and, by a consequence of this symbolical idea, the priests changed their ordinary vestments, and assumed those of the other sex in the ceremonies instituted in honour of these gods, for the purpose of expressing their double nature. How . different from all this is the Grecian legend and yet its origin is one and the same. Her MATHENA, a sort of statue, raised on a square pedestal, in which the attributes of Mercury ('Epuño) and Minerva ('Affivn) were blended. (Consult the remarks under the preceding article; and Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 750.) M. Spon gives various figures of Hermathenae. (Recherch. Curieuses de l'Antiq., p. 93.) Hermes ('Epuño), I. the name of Mercury among the Greeks. (Wid. Mercurius I.)—II. Trismegistus. (Wid. Mercurius II.) Her MesikNax, a poet of Colophon, who flourished in the time of Philip and his son Alexander. He composed three books of elegies, and entitled the collection Leontium (Aeóvrov), in honour of his mistress, who is the same, perhaps, with the one connected with the history of Epicurus and his disciple Metrodorus. Athenaeus has preserved for us a fragment of nearly a hundred verses of this poet, which makes us regret what we have lost. This fragment was o in 1782, by Ruhnken, in an appendix to his Epistola Critica, 2, p. 283. It was also edited by Weston, Lond, 1784, 8vo, and by Ilgen, in his Opuscula Varia, Erfort, 1797, 8vo, vol. 1, p. 248, seqq. The best edition, however, is that of Hermann, 1828, 4to, in his Program. Acad. in memoriam I. A. Ernesti, Lips. (Consult Hoffmann, Lez. Bibliogr., vol. 2, p. 353.) Her MíAs, a Christian writer towards the close of the second century, and a native of Galatia, who has left us a short but elegant discourse in ridicule of the pagan philosophers, entitled Ataqvpuðc Töv čo oogó9&n. It appears to be an imitation of a discourse of Tatian's, but it is an imitation by a man of spirit and ability. He ridicules the want of harmony that prevails among the systems of the Greek philosophers, which is the

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