Obrazy na stronie

This story, however, is entitled to little, if any credit, as well as another related by the same Suidas, of the Pythia's having been bribed by Heraclides, and having, in consequence, directed the people of Heraclea, during a period of famine, to present a crown of gold to him, and to decree him funeral honours after death. We have remaining of this writer some portions of a work of his on the constitutions of various states (trepi IIoŻuretóv), which Coray thinks is an abridgment of Aristotle's larger work on this subject. These extracts, which have several times been appended to editions of various history and to other collections, were given separately with a Latin translation, another in German, and with notes, by Köhler, Hala, 1804, 8vo. The best edition, however, is that of Coray, which follows AElian in the first volume of the Bibliotheca Graeca, Paris, 1805, 8vo. We have also, under the name of Heraclides, a treatise on the Allegories of Homer ('A2%myopukai 'Oumpukai). It is not, however, by the individual of whom we have just been speaking; but is merely an extract from the Stoic doctrines on this subject. The latest edition of this work is that of Schow, Götting., 1782, 8vo. A new and more correct edition was expected from Hase, based on a MS. more complete than any preceding one, and which he discovered in the Royal Library at Paris; but none ever appeared. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 20, p. 214.)—XT. A native of Tarentum, celebrated for his medical knowledge. He wrote on the Materia Medica, on poisons, and on the virtues of plants. His works are lost. (Fabr., Bibl. Gr., vol. 13, p. 77. —Compare Schweigh., ad Athen. Ind. Auct., vol. 9, p. 121, scqq.) He appears to have flourished about the 126th Olympiad, or B.C. 276. We have a dissertation on this writer by Kuhn (Opusc. Acad., Lips., 8vo, vol. 2, p. 150, seqq.).—XII. A native of Cyme in AEolis, whose work on the Persians (IIepauká) is mentioned in Athenaeus (2, p. 48, c.—Id., 4, p. 145, a.—Consult Schweigh., ad Athen. Ind. Auct, vol. 9, p. 120.)— XIII. Surnamed Ponticus Junior, a writer who flourished during the first century of our era. (Athen., 14, p. 649, c.—Schweigh., ad loc.)—XIV. A Macedonian K. who lived at the time of the overthrow of the Macedonian empire. He at first painted ships. On the defeat and captivity of Perses he retired to Athens, according to Pliny, which would be 168 B.C. The same writer also states, that he attained to a degree of reputation, but was yet entitled to only a cursory mention. (Plin., 35, 11.)—XV. An Ephesian sculptor, son of Agasias, who made, in conjunction with Harmatius, the statue of Mars now in the Paris Museum. His age is uncertain. (Clarac, Descr, des Antiques du Musée Royal, nr. 411, p. 173.) Heraclitus, a native of Ephesus, was surnamed “the Naturalist” (6 ovauxóc), and belongs to the dynamical school of the Ionian philosophy. He is said to have been born about 500 B.C., and, according to Aristotle, died in the sixtieth year of his age. The title he assumed of “self-taught” (airočičakroc), refutes at once the claims of the various masters whom he is said to have had, and the distinguished position that he held in political life attests the wealth and lustre of his descent. The gloomy haughtiness and melancholy of his temperament led him to despise all human pursuits, and he expressed unqualified contempt as well for the political sagacity of his fellow-citizens as for the speculations of all other philosophers, which had mere learning, and not wisdom, for their object. It is utterly untrue, theresore, though commonly related of him, that he was continually shedding tears on account of the vices and follies of mankind, and the story is as little entitled to sober belief as that of the perpetually-laughing Democritus. Of the work of Heraclitus “On Nature” (repi pāaewc), the difficulty of which obtained for him the surname of oxoteuvág, or “the obscure,” many fragments are still extant, and

exhibit a broken and concise style, hinting at rather than explaining his opinions, which are often conveyed in mythical and half oracular images. On this account he well compares himself to the Sibyl, “who,” he says, “speaking with inspired mouth, smileless, inornate, and unperfumed, pierces through centuries by the power of the gods.” According to Heraclitus, the end of wisdom is to discover the ground and principle of all things. This principle, which is an eternal, ever-living unity, and pervades and is in all phenomena, he called fire. By this term, however, Heraclitus understood, not the elemental fire or flame, which he held to be the very excess of fire, but a warm and dry vapour; which, therefore, as air, is not distinct from the soul or vital energy, and which, as guiding and directing the mundane development, is endued with wisdom and intelligence. This supreme and persect force of life is obviously without limit to its activity; consequently, nothing that it forms can remain fixed; all is constantly in a process of formation. This he has thus figuratively expressed: “No one has ever been twice on the same stream.” Nay, the passenger himself is without identity: “On the same stream we do and we do not embark; for we are and we are not."—The vitality of the rational fire has in it a tendency to contraries, whereby it is made to pass from gratification to want, and from want to gratification, and in fixed periods it alternates between a swifter and a slower flux. Now these opposite tendencies meet together in determinate order, and, by the inequality or equality of the forces, occasion the phenomena of life and death. The quietude of death, however, is a mere semblance, which exists only for the senses of man. For man, in his folly, forins a truth of his own, whereas it is only the universal reason that is really cognizant of the truth. Lastly, the rational principle, which governs the whole moral and physical world, is also the law of the individual; whatever, therefore, is, is the wisest and the best—and “it is not for man's welfare that his wishes should be fulfilledsickness makes health pleasant, as hunger does gratification, and labour rest.”—The physical doctrines of Heraclitus form no inconsiderable portion of the eclectic system of the later Stoics; and, in times still more recent, there is much in the theories of Scheliing and Hegel that presents a striking though general resemblance thereto.—According to the ancient writers, neither critics nor philosophers were able to explain his productions, on account of their extreme obscurity; and they remained in the temple of Diana at Ephesus, where he himself had deposited them, for the use of the learned, until they were made public by Crates, or, as Tatian relates the matter (adv. Graec., p. 143), till the poet Euripides, who frequented the temple of Diana, committing the doctrines and precepts of Heraclitus to memory, accurately repeated them. From the fragments of this work, as preserved by Sextus Empiricus, it appears to have been written in prose, which makes Tatian's account less credible. Heraclitus is said to have eventually shunned intercourse with the world, and devoted himself to retirement and meditation. His place of residence was a mountainous retreat, and his food the produce of the earth. This diet and mode of life at length occasioned a dropsy, for which he could obtain no relief by medical advice. It seems that the philosopher, who was always fond of enigmatical language, proposed the o question to the physicians: “Is it possible to bring dryness out of moisture?” and upon their answering in the negative, in place of stating his case more plainly to then, he turned his own physician, and attempted to effect a cure by placing himself in the sun, and causing a slave to cover his body with the dung of cattle. The experiment proved, as may easily be imagined, to be anything but a successful one.—The fragments of Heraclitus have been collected from Plutarch, Sto


pasus, Clemens of Alexandrea, and Sextus Empiricus, and explained by Schleiermacher, in Wolf and Buttmann's Museum der Alterthumswissenschaft, vol. 1, p. 313-533. – Consult also Brandis, Handbuch der Geschichte der Griechisch. und Röm. Philos., Berlin, 1835.-Ruter's History of Ancient Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 230, seqq., Eng. transl. Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 12, p. 137.) HERAEA, I. a city of Arcadia, on the slope of a hill rising gently above the right bank of the Alpheus, and near the frontiers of Elis, which frequently disputed its possession with Arcadia. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 6, 5, 22.) Before the Cleomenic war, this town had joined the Achaean league, but was then taken by the AEtolians, and recaptured by Antigonus Doson, who restored it to the Achaeans. (Polyb., 2, 54.—ld., 4, 77–Liv., 28, 7.) In Strabo's time Heraea was greatly reduced; but when Pausanias visited Arcadia it appears to have recovered from this state of decay. (Pausan., 8, 26.—Compare Thucyd., 5, 67.) Stephanus remarks, that this place was also known by the name of Sologorgus (s. v. 'Hpaía). Its site is now occupied by the village of Agiani. (Gell, Itin., p. 113.)—II. A festival at Argos in honour of Juno, who was the patroness of that city. It was also observed by the colonies of the Argives, which had been planted at Samos and Ægina. cessions to the temple of the goddess without the city walls. The first was of the men in armour, the second of the women, among whom the priestess, a woman of the first rank, was drawn in a chariot by white oxen. The Argives always reckoned their year from her priesthood, as the Athenians from their archons, or the Romans from their consuls. When they came to the temple of the goddess, they offered a hecatomb of woxen. Hence the sacrifice is often called ékarðubota, and sometimes Aérepva, from Aéroc, a bed, because Juno presided over marriage, births, &c. There was a festival of the same name in Elis, celebrated every fifth year, at which sixteen matrons wove a garment for the goddess. Herzeum, I. a temple and grove of Juno, situate about forty stadia from Argos, and ten from Mycenae. The structure was embellished with a lofty statue of Juno, made of ivory and gold; a golden peacock, enriched with precious stones, and other equally splendid ornaments.-II. A large and magnificent temple of Juno in the island of Samos, built by the architect Rhoecus, who is said to have invented the art of casting in brass. (Pausan., 8, 14.—Herod., 3, 60.—Plin., 35, 12.) Herculani UM, a city of Campania, on the coast, and not far from Neapolis. Cicero writes the name Herculanum (ad Att., 7, 3). The situation of this place is no longer doubtful since the discovery of its ruins. Cluverius was right in his correction of the Tabula Theodosiana, which reckoned twelve miles between this place and Neapolis instead of six, though he removed it too far from Portici when he assigned to it the position of Torre del Greco. Nothing is known respecting the origin of Herculaneum, except that fabulous accounts ascribed its foundation to Hercules on his return from Spain. (Dion. Hal., 1, 44.) It may be inferred, however, from a passage in Strabo, that this town was of great antiquity. It may be reasonably conjectured, too, that Herculaneum was a Greek city, but that its name was altered to suit the Latin or Oscan pronunciation. At first it was only a fortress, which was successively occupied by the Osci, Tyrrheni, Pelasgi, Samnites, and lastly by the Ro: mans. Being situated close to the sea, on elevated ground, it was exposed to the southwest wind, and from that circumstance was reckoned particularly healthy. (Strabo,247.) We learn from Velleius Paterculus, that Herculaneum suffered considerably during the civil wars. (Compare Florus, l, 16.) This

There were always two pro

place is mentioned also by Mela (2, 4), and by Sisen, na, a more ancient writer than any of the former; he is quoted by Nonius Marcellus (De Indiscr. Gen., v. Fluvius). Ovid likewise notices it under the name of “Urbem Herculeam.” (Met, 15, 711.) Herculaneum, according to the common account, was overwhelmed by an eruption of Vesuvius in the first year of the reign of Titus, A.D. 79. Pompeii, which stood near, shared the same fate. It is probable, however, that the subversion of Herculaneum was not sudden, but progressive, since Seneca mentions a partial domolition which it sustained from an earthquake. (Nat. Quast., 6, 1.) After being buried for more than sixteen hundred years, these cities were accidentally discovered : Herculaneum in 1713, by labourers digging for a well; and Pompeii forty years after. It appears that Herculaneum is in no part less than seventy feet, and in some parts one hundred and twelve scet below the surface of the ground, while Pompeii is buried ten or twelve feet deep, more or less. Sir W. Hamilton thinks, that the matter which covers the city of Herculaneum is not the produce of a single eruption, but that the matter of six eruptions has taken its course over that with which the town is covered, and

ch was the cause of its destruction. Many valuablo remains of antiquity, such as busts, manuscripts,

., have been recovered from the ruins of this ancient city, and form the most curious museum in the world. They are all preserved at Portici, and the engravings taken from them have been munificently presented to the different learned bodies of Europe. The plan also of many of the public buildings has been laid out, and especially that of the theatre. Sir W. Hamilton thinks, that the matter which first issued from Vesuvius and covered Herculaneum was in the state of liquid mud, and that this has been the means of preserving the pictures, busts, and other relics, which otherwise must have been either entirely destroyed by the red-hot lava, or else have become one solid body along with it when cooled. In illustration of this remark, we may cite the following from a periodical work. (Edinburgh Review, vol. 45, p. 304.) “An enormous quantity of aqueous vapour is exhaled in every volcanic eruption, which, being condensed by the cold in the regions of the atmosphere beyond the reach of the volcano's heat, falls down again in the form of rain, and, when it mixes with the clouds of ashes, it forms that compound which has been sometimes mistaken for an actual eruption of mud from the crater. It was such a compound as this that overwhelmed Herculaneum, and it is found to consolidate very speedily into a hard, compact substance.” Among the excavations at Herculaneum, in the remains of a house supposed to have belonged to L. Piso, was found a great number of volumes of burned papyrus. Many of these papyri, as they have since been generally termed, were destroyed by the workmen; but as soon as it was known that they were the remnants of ancient manuscripts, their development became an object of no common interest to the learned world. , Father Piaggi invented a machine for unrolling them, which has been described by several writers. When we reflect on the number of valuable works which have been lost since the period when Herculaneum was destroyed, we ought not to be surprised at the sanguine expectations which, upon the first discovery of the MSS., were entertained, of adding some important acquisitions to the treasures of ancient literature which we already possess. The lost books of Livy, and the comedies of Menander, presented themselves to the imagination of almost every scholar. Each, indeed, anticipated, according to his taste, the mental pleasures and the literary labours which awaited him. These enthusiastic hopes were perhaps too suddenly repressed, as they had been too easily excited. The first papyrus which was opened contained a treatise upon music, by Philodemus the Epicurean. It was in vain that Mazocchi and Rosini wrote their learned comments on this dull performance: the sedative was too strong; and the curiosity which had been so suddenly awakened, was as quickly lulled to repose. A few men of letters, indeed, lamented that no farther search was made for some happier subjects, on which learned industry might have been employed; but the time, the difficulty, and the expense which such an enterprise required, and the uncertainty of producing anything valuable, had apparently discouraged and disgusted the academicians of Portici. Things were in this state when the Prince of Wales, afterward George IV., proposed to the Neapolitan government to defray the expenses of unrolling, j and publishing the manuscripts. This offer was accepted by the court of Naples; and it was consequently judged necessary by his royal highness to select a proper person to superintend the undertaking. The reputation of Mr. Hayter as a classical scholar justified his appointment to the place which the munificence of the prince, and his taste for literature, had created. This gentleman arrived at Naples in the beginning of the year 1802, and was nominated o of the directors for the development of the manuscrip During a period of several years, the workmen co tinued to open a great number of the papyri. Many, indeed, of these frail substances were destroyed, and had crumbled into dust under the slightest touch of the operator. When the French invaded the king. dom of Naples in the year 1806, Mr. Hayter was compelled to retire to Sicily. It is to be deeply regretted that all the papyri were left behind. (Quarterly Review, vol. 3, p. 2.) An account of more recent operations, including the interesting experiments of Sir Humphrey Davy, will be found in the latest edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, under the article Herculaneum. Hercüles, a celebrated hero, son of Jupiter and Alcmena, who, after death, was ranked among the gods, and received divine honours. His reputed father was Amphitryon, son of Alcaeus, who, having accidentally killed his father-in-law Electryon, was compelled to leave Mycenae and take refuge in Thebes, where Hercules was born. While yet a mere infant, or, according to others, before he had completed his eighth month, the jealousy of Juno, intent upon his destruction, sent two snakes to devour him. The child, not terrified at the sight of the serpents, boldly seized them in both his hands, and squeezed them to death, while his brother Iphiclus alarmed the house with his shrieks. (Vid. Iphiclus.) He was early instructed in the liberal arts, and Castor, the son of Tyndarus, taught him the use of arms, Eurytus how to shoot with a bow and arrows, Autolycus to drive a chariot, Linus to play on the lyre, and Eumolpus to sing. Like the rest of his illustrious contemporaries, he soon after became the pupil of the centaur Chiron. In the 18th year of his age, he resolved to deliver the neighbourhood of Mount Cithaeron from a huge lion which preyed on the flocks of Amphitryon, his supposed father, and which laid waste the adjacent country. After he had destroyed the lion, he delivered his country from the annual tribute of a hundred oxen which it paid to Erginus. (Wid. Erginus.) Such public services became universally known; and Creon, who then sat on the throne of Thebes, rewarded the patriotic deeds of Hercules by giving him his daughter in marriage, and intrusting him with the government of his kingdom. As Hercules, by the will of Jupiter, was subjected to the power of Eurystheus (vid. Eurystheus), and obliged to obey him in every respect, Eurystheus, acquainted with his successes and rising power, ordered him to - appear at Mycenae and perform the labours which, by riority of birth, he was empowered to impose upon him. H. refused; and Juno, to punish his disobedi

ence, rendered him delirious, so that he killed his own children by Megara, supposing them to be the offspring of Eurystheus. (Wid. Megara.) When he recovered his senses, he was so struck with the misfortunes which had proceeded from his insanity, that he concealed himself and retired for some time from the society of men. He afterward consulted the oracle of Apollo, and was told that he must be subservient for twelve years to the will of Eurystheus, in compliance with the commands of Jupiter; and that, after he had achieved the most celebrated labours, he should be translated to the gods. So plain and expressive an answer determined him to go to Mycena, and to bear with fortitude whatever gods or men imposed upon him. Eurystheus, seeing the hero totally subjected to him, and apprehensive of so powerful an enemy, commanded him to achieve a number of enterprises the most difficult and arduous ever known, generally called the twelve labours of Hercules. The favour of the gods had completely armed him when he undertook his labours. He had received a sword from Mercury, a bow from Apollo, a golden breastplate from Vulcan, horses from Neptune, a robe from Minerva. He himself cut his club in the Nemean wood. The first la

our imposed upon Hercules by Eurystheus was to

ill the lion of Nemea, which ravaged the country near Mycenae. The hero, unable to destroy him with his arrows, boldly attacked him with his club, pursued him to his den, and, after a close and sharp engagement, choked him to death. He carried the dead beast on his shoulders to Mycente, and ever after clothed himself with the skin. Eurystheus was so astonished at the sight of the beast and at the courage of Hercules, that he ordered him never to enter the gates of the city when he returned from his expeditions, but to wait for his orders without the walls. He even made himself a brazen subterranean apartment, into which he retired whenever Hercules returned. (Wid. Chalcioecus and Eurystheus.)—The second labour of Hercules was to destroy the Lernaean hydra, which abode in the marsh of Lerna, whence it used to come out on the land, and kill the cattle and ravage the country. This hydra had a huge body, with nine heads, eight of them mortal, and one in the middle immortal. Hercules mounted his chariot, which was driven by Iolaus, son of Iphiclus, and, on coming to Lerna, he stopped the horses and went in quest of the hydra, which he found on a rising ground, near the springs of Amymone, where its hole was. He shot at the animal with fiery darts till he made it come out; and he then grasped and held it, while it twisted itself about his legs. The hero crushed its heads with his club, but to no purpose; for, when one was crushed, two sprang up in its stead. A huge crab also aided the hydra, and bit the feet of Her. cules. He killed the crab, and then called upon Iolaus to come to his assistance. Iolaus immediately set fire to the neighbouring wood, and with the flaming brands searing the necks of the hydra as the heads were cut off, effectually checked their growth. Having thus got rid of the mortal heads, Hercules cut off the immortal one and buried it, setting a heavy stone on the top of it, in the road leading from Lerna to Eleus. He cut the body of the hydra into pieces, and dipped his arrows in its gall, which made their wounds incurable. Eurystheus, however, denied that this was to be reckoned among the twelve labours, since he had not destroyed the hydra alone, but with the assistance of Iolaus.—He was ordered, in his third labour, to bring, alive and unhurt, into the presence of Eurystheus, a stag, famous for its incredible swiftness and golden horns. This celebrated animal frequented the neighbourhood of OEnoë, and Hercules was employed for a whole year continually pursuing it. . When at last the animal was tired with the chase, she took refuge in Mount Artemisium, then fled to the river Ladon, and, as she was about to cross the stream, Ho" struck her with an arrow, caught her, put her on his shoulder, and was going with his burden through Arcadia, when he met Diana and Apollo. The goddess took the hind from him, and reproached him for violating her sacred animal. But the hero excusing himself on the plea of necessity, and laying the blame on Eurystheus, Diana was mollified, and allowed him to take the hind alive to Mycenae.—The fourth labour was to bring alive to Eurystheus a wild boar which ravaged the neighbourhood of Erymanthus. In this expedition he destroyed the Centaurs (vid. Centauri and Chiron), and then caught the boar by driving him from his lair with loud cries, and chasing him into a snow-drift, where he seized and bound him, and then took him to Mycenae. Eurystheus was so frightened at the sight of the boar, that, according to Diodorus, he hid himself in his brazen apartment for several days.-In his fifth labour Hercules was ordered to cleanse the stables of Augeas, where numerous oxen had been confined for many years. (Wid. Augeas.)—For his sixth labour he was ordered to kill the carnivorous birds which ravaged the country near the Lake Stymphalus in Arcadia. While Hercules was deliberating how he should scare them, Minerva brought him brazen rattles from Vulcan. He took his station on a neighbouring hill, and sounded the rattles: the birds, terrified, rose in the air, and he then shot them with his arrows.-In his seventh labour he brought alive into Peloponnesus a prodigious wild bull, which laid waste the island of Crete.—He then let him go, and the bull roved over Sparta and Arcadia, and, crossing the isthmus, came to Marathon in Attica, where he did infinite mischief to the inhabitants.—In his eighth labour he was employed in obtaining the mares of Diomedes, the Thracian king, which fed on human flesh. (Vid. Diomedes II.)—For his ninth labour he was commanded to obtain the girdle of the queen of the Amazons. (Wid. Hippolyta.) —In his tenth labour he killed the monster Geryon, king of Erythea, and brought his oxen to Eurystheus, who sacrificed them to Juno. (Wid. Geryon.)—The eleventh labour was to obtain the apples from the garden of the Hesperides. (Vid. Hesperides.)—The twelfth, and last, and most dangerous of his labours, was to bring upon earth the three-headed dog Cerberus. When preparing for this expedition, Hercules went to Eumolpus at Eleusis, desirous of being initiated; but he could not be admitted, as he had not been urified of the blood of the centaurs. Eumolpus, f. purified him, and he then saw the mysteries; after which he proceeded to the Taenarian promontory in Laconia, where was the entrance to the lower world, and went down to it, accompanied by Mercury and Minerva. The moment the shades saw him they fled away in terror, all but Meleager and Medusa the Gorgon. (Od., 11,633.) He was drawing his sword on the latter, when Mercury reminded him that she was a mere phantom. Near the gates of the palace of Hades he found Theseus and Piritholis, who had attempted to carry off Proserpina, and had, in consequence, been fixed on an enchanted rock by the offended monarch of Erebus. When they saw Hercules, they stretched forth their hands, hoping to be relieved by his might. He took Theseus, by the hand and raised him up ; but when he would do the same for Pirithous, the earth quaked, and he left him. He then, after several other acts of prowess, asked Pluto to give him Cerberus; and the god consented, provided he would take him without using any weapons. He found him at the gates of Acheron; and protected only by his corslet and lion's skin, he flung his arms about his head, and, grasping him by the neck, made him submit, though the dragon in his tail bit him severely. He brought him through Troezene to Eurystheus, and, when he had shown him, took him back to the lower world.—Besides these arduous labours, which the jealousy of Eurystheus imposed upon him, he also achieved

others of his own accord, equally great and celebrated (Vid. Cacus, Antaeus, Busiris, Eryx, &c.), and he had also, according to some, accompanied the Argonauts to Colchis before he delivered himself up to the King of Mycenae. Wishing after this to marry again, having given Megara to Iolaus, and hearing that Eurytus, king of OEchalia, had declared, that he would give his daughter Iole to him who should overcome himself and his sons in shooting with the bow, he went thither and won the victory, but did not obtain the promised prize. Iphitus, the eldest son, was for giving his sister to Hercu. les, but Eurytus and his other sons refused, lest he should destroy her children, if she had any, as he had done those of Megara. Shortly afterward, the oxen of Eurytus being stolen by Autolycus, his suspicions fell on Hercules. Iphilus, who gave no credit to the charge, betook himself to that hero, and besought him to join in the search for the lost oxen. Hercules promised to do so, and entertained him; but, falling into madness, he precipitated Iphitus from the walls of Tiryns. In order to be purified of this murder, he went to Neleus, who, being a friend of Eurytus, refused to comply with his desire. Hercules then proceeded to Amycla, where he was purified by Deiphobus, the son of HipH. lytus. But he fell, notwithstanding, into a severe o, on account of the murder of Iphitus; and, going to Delphi to seek relief, he was refused a response by the Pythia. In his rage at her denial he went to plunder the temple, and, taking the tripod, was about establishing an oracle for himself, when Apollo came to oppose him ; but Jupiter hurled a thunderbolt between the combatants, and put an end to the contest. Hercules now received a response, that his malady would be removed if he let himself be sold for three years as a slave, and gave the purchase-money to Eurytus as a compensation for the loss of his son. Accordingly, in obedience to the oracle, he was conducted by Mercury to Lydia, and there sold to Omphale, the queen of the country. (Wid. Omphale.) The purchase-money (three talents, it is said) was offered to Eurytus, but he refused to accept it. When the term of this servitude had expired, he prepared, being now relieved of his disease, to take vengeance on Laomedon, for having refused the promised reward for delivering Hesione. (Wid. Hippolyta and Laomedon.) After succeeding in this enterprise, and slaying Laomedon, he collected an army and marched against and slew Augeas and his sons. Elis was the scene of this warfare, and here, when victory had declared for him, he established the Olympic games, raised an altar to Pelops, and built altars also to the twelve great deities. After the conquest of Elis he marched against Pylos, took the city, and killed Neleus and all his sons, except Nestor, who was living with the Gerenians. (Il. 11, 689.) He is said also to have wounded Pluto and Juno, as they were aiding the Pylians. Some time after this, Hercules went to Calydon, where he sought the hand of Deianira, the daughter of OEneus. e had to contend for her with the river-god Achelous, who turned himself into a bull, in which form one of his horns was broken off by the victorious hero. (Wid. Achelous.)—One day, at the table of CEneus, as Eunomus, son of Architeles, was, according to custom, pouring water on the hands of the guests, Hercules happening unawares to swing his hand suddenly, struck the boy and killed him. As it was evidently an accident, the father forgave the death of his son; but Hercules resolved to banish himself, agreeably to the law in such cases, and he set out with his wise for Trachis, the realm of his friend Ceyx. On his journey to this quarter the affair of Nessus took place. (Wid. Deianira and Nessus.) While residing with Ceyx, he aided AEgimius, king of the Dorians, against wholm the Lapithae, under the command of Coronus, had made war, on account of a dispute respecting boundaries. As he was passing, on a subsequent occasion, by the temple of Apollo at Pagasae, he was opposed by Cycnus, the son of Mars, who was in the habit of plundering those that brought the sacrifices to Delphi. Cycnus fell in the combat; and when Mars, who had witnessed the fate of his son, would avenge him, he received a wound in the thigh from the spear of the hero. Returning to Trachis, Hercules collected an army, and made war on Eurytus, king of CEchalia, whom he killed, together with his sons, and, plundering the town, led away Iole as a captive. At the Euboean promontory Caenaeum he raised an altar to Jupiter, and, wishing to offer a sacrifice, sent to Ceyx for a splendid robe to wear. Deianira, hearing about Iole from the messenger, and fearing the effect of her charms on the heart of her husband, resolved to try the efficacy of the philtre of Nessus (vid. Deianira), and tinged with it the tunic that was sent. Hercules, suspecting nothing, put on the fatal garnent, and prepared to offer sacrifice. At first he felt no effect from it; but when it warmed, the venom of the hydra began to consume his flesh. In his fury, he caught Lichas, the ill-fated bearer of the tunic, by the foot, and hurled him into the sea. He attempted to tear off the tunic, but it adhered closely to his skin, and the flesh came away with it. In this wretched state he got on shi

board, where Deianira, on hearing the consequenc

of what she had done, hanged herself; and Hercules, charging Hyllus, his eldest son by her, to marry Iole when he was of sufficient age, had himself carried to the summit of Mount CEta, and there causing a pyre to be erected, ascended it, and directed his followers to set ft on fire. But no one would venture to obey; till Poeas, happening to arrive there in search of his stray cattle, complied with the desire of the hero, and received his bow and arrows as his reward. While the pyre was blazing, a thunder-cloud conveyed the sufferer to heaven, where he was endowed with immortality; and, being reconciled to Juno, he espoused her daughter Hebe, by whom he had two children, Alexiares (Aider-in-war) and Anicetus (Unsubdued). The legend of Hercules is given in full detail by Apollodorus (2, 4, 8, seqq.). Other authorities on the subject are as follows: Diod. Sic., 4, 9, seqq.—Theocrit., Idyll., 25. Pind., Ol., 3, 55. Theocrit., Idyll., 7, 149.—Pherecydes, ap. Schol. ad 4poll. Rhod, 2, 1054. —Il., 8,867.—Pherecyd., ap. Schol. ad Od., 21, 23.− JHesiod., Scut. Herc. Ovid, Met., 9, 165, et 217. – Soph., Trachin.—Homer arms Hercules with a bow and arrows. (Il., 5, 393.—0d., 8, 224.) Hesiod describes him with shield and spear. Pisander and Stesichorus were the first who gave him the club and lion's skin. (Athenaeus, 12, p. 513.)—The mythology of Hercules is of a very mixed character in the form in which it has come down to us. There is in it the identification of one or more Grecian heroes with Melcarth, the sun-god of the Phoenicians. Hence we find Hercules so frequently represented as the sun-god, and his twelve labours regarded as the passage of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac. He is the powerful planet which animates and imparts fecundity to the universe, whose divinity has been honoured in every quarter by temples and altars, and consecrated in the religious strains of all nations. From Meroë in Ethiopia, and Thebes in Upper Egypt, even to Britain, and the icy regions of Scythia; from the ancient Taprobana and Palibothra in India, to Cadiz and the shores of the Atlantic ; from the forests of Germany to the burning sands of Africa; everywhere, in short, where the benefits of the luminary of day are experienced, there we find established the name and worship of a Hercules. Many ages before the period when Alcmena is said to have lived, and the pretended Tyrinthian hero to have performed his wonderful exploits, Egypt and Phoenicia, which certainly did not borrow their divinities from Greece, had raised tempes to the Sun, under a name analogous to that of

Hercules, and had carried his worship to the isle of Thasus and to Gades. Here was consecrated a tem. ple to the year, and to the months which divided it into twelve parts,...that is, to the twelve labours or victories which conducted Hercules to immortality. It is under the name of Hercules Astrochyton ('AaTpo2 trav), or the god clothed with a mantle of stars, that the poet Nonnus designates the Sun, adored by the Tyrians. (Dionys., 40, 415.-Ibid., 375.) “He is the same god,” observes the poet, “whom different nations adore under a multitude of different names : Belus on the banks of the Euphrates, Ammon in Libya, Apis at Memphis, Saturn in Arabia, Jupiter in Assyria, Serapis in Egypt, Helios among the Babylonians, Apollo at Delphi, AEsculapius throughout Greece,” &c. Martianus Capella, in his hymn to the Sun, as also Ausonius (Epigr., 2, 4) and Macrobius (Sat., 1, 20), confirm the fact of this multiplicity of names given to a single star. The Egyptians, according to Plutarch (De Is... et Os., p. 367.—Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 449), thought that Hercules had his seat in the Sun, and that he travelled with it around the moon. The author of the hymns ascribed to Orpheus, fixes still more strongly the identity of Hercules with the Sun. He calls Hercules “the god who produced time, whose forms vary, the father of all things, and destroyer of all. He is the god who brings back by turns Aurora and the night, and who, moving onward from east to west, runs through the career, of his twelve labours, the valiant Titan, who chases away maladies, and delivers man from the evils which afflict him.” (Orph., Hymn., 12.-ed. Herm., p. 272, seq.). The Phoenicians, it is said, preserved a tradition among them, that Hercules was the Sun, and that his twelve labours indicated the sun's passage through the twelve signs. Porphyry, who was born in Phoenicia, assures. us that they there gave the name of Hercules to the sun, and that the sable of the twelve labours represents the sun's annual path in the heavens (ap. Euseb., Prap. Ep., 3, 11). In like manner the scholiast on Hesiod remarks, “the zodiac, in which the sun performs his annual course, is the true career which Hercules traverses in the fable of the twelve labours; and his marriage with Hebe, the goddess of youth, whom he espoused after he had ended his labours, denotes the renewal of the year at the end of each solar revolution.” (J. Diaconus, Schol. ad Hes., Theog., p. 165.) Among the different epochs at which the year in ancient times commenced among different nations, that of the summer solstice was one of the most remarkable. It was at this period that the Greeks fixed the celebration of their Olympic game, the establishment of which is attributed to Hercules. (Corsini, Fast. Att., vol. 2, p. 235.) It was the origin of the most ancient era of the Greeks.—If we fix from this point the departure of the sun on his annual career, and compare the progress of that luminary through the signs of the zodiac with the twelve labours of Hercules, altering somewhat the order in which they are handed down to us, a very striking coincidence is instantly observed. A few examples will be adduced. In the first month the sun passes into the sign Leo; and in his first labour Hercules slew the Nemean lion. Hence, too, the legend, that the Nemean lion had fallen from the skies, and that it was produced in the regions bordering on the sphere of the moon. (Tatian, Contr. Gent, p. 164.) In the second month the sun enters the sign Virgo, when the constellation of the Hydra sets; and in his second labour Hercules destroyed the Lernaan hydra. It should also be remarked, that the head of the celestial hydra rises with the constellation Cancer, or the Crab, and hence the fable that Hercules was annoyed by a crab in his conflict with the hydra. (Cynesius Calv., p. 64.) The hydra, moreover, is remarkable among the constellations for its great length ; its head rising, as has just been remarked, with Cancer s3. body be.

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