Obrazy na stronie

observes Willemain, “that Heliodorus, when he wrote the work, was at least initiated in Christian sentiments. This is felt by a kind of moral purity which contrasts strongly with the habitual license of the Greek fables; and the style even, as the learned Coray remarks, contains many expressions familiar to the ecclesiastical writers. This style is pure, polished, symmetrical; and the language of love receives a character of delicacy and reserve, which is very rare among the writers of antiquity.” It must not be disguised, however, that Huet, a courtier of Louis XIV., and the contemporary and admirer of Mademoiselle de Scudery, judged after the models of romance which were fashionable in his own century. Poetry, battles, captivities, and recognitions fill up the piece; there is no picture of the mind, no history of the character carried on with the development of the action. The incidents point to no particular era of society, although the learned in history may perceive, from the tone of sentiment throughout, that the struggle had commenced between the pure and lofty spirit of Christianity and the grossness of pagan idolatry. Egypt, as Villemain remarks, is neither ancient Egypt, nor the Egypt of the Ptolemies, nor the Egypt of the Romans. Athens is neither Athens free nor Athens conquered: in short, there is no individuality either in the places or persons; and the vague pictures of the French romances of the seventeenth century give scarcely a caricatured idea of the model from which they were drawn.—It may not be amiss to mention here an incident relative to the poet Racine and the work of Heliodorus which we have been considering. When Racine was at Port Royal learning Greek, his imagination almost smothered to death by the dry erudition of the pious fathers, he laid hold instinctively on the romance of Heliodorus, as the only prop by which he might be preserved for his high destiny, even then, perhaps, shadowed dimly forth in his youthful mind. A tale of love, however, surprised in the hands of a Christian boy, filled his instructers with horror, and the book was seized and thrown into the fire. Another and another copy met the same fate; and poor Racine, thus excluded from the benefits of the common typographical art, printed the romance on his memory. A first love, wooed by stealth, and won in difficulty and danger, is always among the last to loose her hold on the affections; and Racine, in riper age, often fondly recurred to his forbidden studies at Port Royal. From early youth, his son tells us, he had conceived an extraordinary passion for Heliodorus; he admired both his style and the wonderful art with which the fable is conducted. —In the ecclesiastical history of Nicephorus Calistus, a story is told of Heliodorus, which, if true, would exhibit, on the part of the Thessalian church, somewhat of the fanatical spirit which in Scotland expelled Home from the administration of the altar. Some young persons having fallen into peril through the reading of such works, it was ordered by the provincial council, that all books whose tendency it might be to incite the rising generation to love, should be burned, and their authors, if ecclesiastics, deprived of their dignities. Heliodorus, rejecting the alternative which was offered him of suppressing his romance, lost his bishopric. This story, however, is nothing more than a mere romance itself, as Bayle has shown, by proving that the requisition to suppress it could neither have been given nor refused at a time when the work was spread over all Greece. (Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. 125, seqq.)—Various editions have been published of the romance of Heliodorus. The best is that of Coray, Paris, 1804, 2 vols. 8vo. The edition of Mitscherlich, Argent, 1798, 2 vols. 8vo, forming part of his Erotici Graeci, is not held in much estimation. Hellog Abilus or Elagabilus, I. a deity among the Phoenicians. This deity, according to Capitolinus (Wit. Mog , c. 9) and Aurelius Victor, was the 4.

Sun. Lampridius, however (Wit. Heliog., c. 1), fluc. tuates between the Sun and Jupiter, while Spartianus (Wit. Caracall., c. 1 l) leaves it uncertain. The orthography of the name is also disputed, some writing it Elagabalus, others Eleagabalus and Alagabalus. Scaliger (ad Euseb., p. 212) makes the name of this divinity equivalent to the Hebrew Elah-Gebal., i. e., “Gebalitarum Deus.” (Consult, for other etymologies of the term, the remarks of Hamaker, Miscell. Phaenic., p. 119, seqq.). Herodian gives us an accurate description of the form under which this deity was worshipped (5, 8, 10, seqq.); he also informs us that by this appellation the Sun was meant, and that the deity in question was revered not only by the Syrians, but that the native satraps and barbarian kings were accustomed to send splendid presents to his shrine. According to Herodian, the god Heliogabalus was worshipped under the form of a large black stone, round below, and terminating above in a point; in other words, of a conical shape. This description is confirmed by the medals of Emesa, the principal seat of his worship, on which the conical stone is represented. So also, on the medals of Antoninus Pius, struck in this same city, an eagle appears perched on a cone. (Mionnet., Rec. de Med., vol. 5, p. 227, seqq.) The same thing appears on medals of Caracalla (Id., p. 229, n. 608), and on one (n. 607), an eagle with expanded wings stands before a conical stone in the middle of a hexastyle temple.—II. M. Aurelius Antoninus, a Roman emperor. He was the grandson of Maesa, sister to the Empress Julia, the wife of Septimius Severus. Maesa had two daughters, Soaemis or Semiamira, the mother of the subject of this article, and Mammaea, mother of Alexander Severus. The true name of Heliogabalus was Varius Avitus Bassianus, and he was reported to have been the illegitimate son of Caracalla. He was born at Antioch, A.D. 204. Maesa took care of his infancy, and placed him, when five years of age, in the temple of the Sun at Emesa, to be educated as a priest; and through her influence he was made, while yet a boy, high-priest of the Sun. That divinity was called in Syria Helagabal or Elagabal, whence the young Varius assumed the name of Heliogabalus or Elagabalus. After the death of Caracalla and the elevation of Macrinus, the latter having incurred by his severity the dislike of the soldiers, Maesa availed herself of this feeling to induce the officers to rise in favour of her oil. whom she presented to them as the son of the murdered Caracalla. Heliogabalus, who was then in his fisteenth year, was proclaimed emperor by the legion stationed at Emesa. Having put himself at their head, he was attacked by Macrinus, who at first had the advantage; but he and his mother Soaemis, with great spirit, brought the soldiers again to the charge, and defeated Macrinus, who was overtaken in his flight and put to death, A.D. 218. Heliogabalus, having entered Antioch, wrote a letter to the senate, professing to take for his model Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, a name revered at Rome; and he also assumed that emperor's name. The senate acknowledged him, and he set out for Rome, but tarried several months on his way amid festivities and amusements, and at last stopped at Nicomedia for the winter. In the following year he arrived at Rome, and began a career of debauchery, extravagance, and cruelty, which lasted the remaining three years of his reign, and the disgusting details of which are given by Lampridius, Herodian, and Dio Cassius. Some critics have imagined, especially from the shortness of his reign, that there must be some exaggeration in these accounts, for he could hardly have done, in so short a time, all the mischief that is attributed to him. That he was extremely dissolute, and totally unfit for reigning, is certain; and this is not to be wondered at, from his previous Eastern education, his extreme youth, the corrupt example of his * his sudden elevation, and the general profligacy of the times. He surrounded himself with gladiators, actors, and other base favourites, who made an unworthy use of their influence. He married several wives, among others a Westal. The imperial palace became a scene of debauch and open prostitution. Heliogabalus, being attached to the superstitions of the East, raised a temple on the Palatine Hill to the Syrian god whose name he bore, and plundered the temples of the Roman gods to enrich his own. He put to death many senators; he established a senate of women, under the presidency of his Inother Soaemis, which body decided all questions relative to female dresses, visits, precedences, amusements, &c. He wore his pontifical vest as high-priest of the Sun, with a rich tiara on his head. His grandmother Massa, seeing his folly, thought of conciliating the Romans by associating with him, as Caesar, his younger cousin, Alexander Severus, who soon became a favourite with the people. Heliogabalus, who had consented to the association, became afterward jealous of his cousin, and wished to deprive him of his honours, but he could not obtain the consent of the senate. His next measure was to spread the report of Alexander's death, which produced an insurrection among the praetorians. And Heliogabalus, having repaired to the camp to quell the mutiny, was murdered, together with his mother and favourites, and his body was thrown into the Tiber, A.D. 222. He was succeeded by Alexander Severus. Heliogabalus was eighteen years of age at the time of his death, and had reigned three years, nine months, and four days. (Lamprid., Wit. Heliogab.—Herodian, 5, 3, seqq.—Dio Cass., 78, 30, seqq.—Id, 79, 1, seqq.) HeliöPölts, a famous city of Egypt, situate a little to the east of the apex of the Delta, not far from modern Cairo. (Strab., 805.) In Hebrew it is styled On or Aun. (Well's Sacred Geography, s. v.–Ercurs., 560.—Compare the remarks of Cellarius, Geog. Antiq., vol. 1, p. 802.) . In the Septuagint, it is called Heliopolis ('HAvôtožtc), or the city of the Sun. (Schleusner, Ler. Wet. Test., vol. 2, p. 20, ed. Glasg. –In Jeremiah, xliii., 13, “Beth Shemim,” i.e., Domus Solis.) Herodotus also mentions it by this name, and speaks of its inhabitants as being the wisest and most ingenious of all the Egyptians (2, 3.—Compare Nic. Damascenus, in Euseb., Praep. Evang., 9, 16). According to Berosus, this was the city of Moses. It was, in fact, a place of resort for all the Greeks who visited Egypt for instruction. Hither came Herodotus, Plato, Eudoxus, and others, and imbibed much of the learning which they afterward disseminated among their own countrymen. Plato, in particular, resided here three years. The city was built, according to Strabo (l.c.), on a long, artificial mound of earth, so as to be out of the reach of the inundations of the Nile. It had an oracle of Apollo, and a famous temple of the Sun. In this temple was fed and adored the sacred ox Mnevis, as Apis was at Memphis. This city was laid waste with fire and sword by Cambyses, and its college of priests all slaughtered. Strabo saw it in a deserted state, and shorn of all its splendour. Heliopolis was famed also for its fountain of excellent water, which still remains, and gave rise to the subsequent Arabic name of the place, Ain Shems, or the sountain of the sun. The modern name is Matarea, or cool water. For some valuable remarks on the site of the ancient Heliopolis, in opposition to Larcher and Bryant, consult Clarke's Trarels, vol. 5, praef., xv., seña, and p. 140, in notis. Larcher erroneously pretends, that Heliopolis was situate within the Delta, and that Matarea stands on the site of an insignificant town of the same name, which has been confounded with the more ancient city. A solitary obelisk is all that remains at the present day of this once celebrated place. Other monuments, however, exist no doubt around this pillar, concealed only by a thin superficies

of soil. For a description of this obelisk, consult the work of the learned traveller just mentioned, vol. 5, p. 143.-II. A celebrated city of Syria, southwest of Emesa, on the opposite side of the Orontes. Its Grecian name, Heliopolis ("Häuotorožw), “City of the Sun,” is merely a translation of the native term Baalbeck, which appellation the ruins at the present day retain. Heliopolis was famed for its temple of the Sun, erected by Antoninus Pius (Malala, Chron., 11, p. 119), and the ruins of this celebrated pile still attest its former magnificence. Venus was also revered in this city, and its maidens were therefore said to be the fairest in the land. (Expositio Mundi, &c., Genev., p. 14.) Helium, a name given to the mouth of the Maese in Germany. (Plin., 4, 15.) Helius ("Hator), the Greek name of the Sun or Apollo. HelLANicus, a Greek historian, a native of Mytilene, who flourished about 460 B.C. He wrote an account of various countries, both Grecian and Barbarian, in which he availed himself of the labours of Hecataeus and Hippys. Various productions of his are referred to by the ancient writers, under the titles of Aiyurruaxá, Atožuká, 'Apyoãuká, &c. In order to arrange his narratives in chronological order, he made use of the catalogue of the priestesses of Juno at Argos, deposited in the temple at Sicyon. This is the first attempt that we find of the employment of chronology in history.—According to the ordinary derivation of this name, from 'EAAac, “Greece,” and vikm, “victory,” the penult ought to be long. As, however, Hellanicus was of Æolic origin, it is more than probable, as Sturz remarks, that his name is the Æolic form merely of ‘E22nvukóc, and hence has the penult short. Lobeck (ad Phryn., p. 670) opposes this, however, and derives the name from ‘Ezzā; and viam, as above, citing at the same time Tzetzes (Posthom, 778), with whom it occurs as a fourth Epitrite (– :And hence Passow (Ler. Gr.) considers the penult doubtful. The opinion of Sturz, however, seems more deserving of being followed.—The fragments which remain of the writings of Hellanicus were published by Sturz in 1787, Lips., 8vo; and a second edition in 1826. They are given also in the Museum Criticum, vol. 2, p. 90, seqq., Cambr., 1826. Hellas, a term first applied to a city and region of Thessaly, in the district of Phthiotis, but afterward extended to all Thessaly, and finally made a general appellation for the whole of Greece. “It is universally acknowledged,” observes Cramer, “that the name of Hellas, which asterward served to designate the whole of what we now call Greece, was originally applied to a particular district of Thessaly. At that early period, as we are assured by Thucydides, the common denomination of Hellenes had not yet been received in that wide acceptation which was afterward attached to it, but each separate district enjoyed its distinctive appellation, derived mostly from the clan by which it was held, or from the chieftain who was regarded as the parent of the race. In proof of this assertion, the historian appeals to Homer, who, though much later than the siege of Troy, never applies a common term to the Greeks in general, but calls them Danai, Argivi, and Achaei. The opinion thus advanced by Thucydides finds support in Apollodorus, who states, that when Homer mentions the Hellenes, we must understand him as referring to a people who occupied a particular district in Thessaly. The same writer ob: serves, that it is only from the time of Hesiod and Archilochus that we hear of the Panhellenes. (Apollod., ap. Strab., 370.) It is true that the word occurs in our present copies of Homer, as in Il., 2, 530, but Aristarchus and other critics rejected it as spurious. (Schol. ad Il., l.c.) From Strabo, however, we learn that this was a disputed point; and he himself seems inclined to imagine that Homer did not assign to the word "Eaza; so limited a signification as Thucydides supposed. But, whatever may be thought of the testimony of Homer in regard to this question, we can have no doubt as to . extension which the terms "EAAaç and “E2%mwe; acquired in the time of Herodotus, Scylax, and Thucydides. Scylax, whose age is disputed, but of whom we may safely affirm that he wrote about the time of the Peloponnesian war, includes under Hellas all the country situated south of the Ambracian gulf and the Peneus. (Peripl., p. 12, et 25.) Herodotus extends its limits still farther north, by taking in Thesprotia (2,56), or, at least, that part of it which is south of the river Acheron (8,47). But it is more usual to exclude Epirus from Græcia Propria, and to place its northwestern extremity at Ambracia, on the Ionian Sea, while Mount Homole, near the mouth of the Peneus, was looked upon as forming its boundary on the opposite side. This coincides with the statement of Scylax, and also with that of Dicaearchus in his descriptions of Greece (v. 31, seqq.) The name Graecia, whence that of Greece has descended unto us, was given to this country by the Romans. It comes from the Graeci, one of the ancient tribes of Epirus (Aristot., Meteor., 1, 14), who never became of any historical importance, but whose name must at some period have been extensively spread on the western coast, since the inhabitants of Italy appear to have known the country at first under this name.

1. History of Greece from the earliest times to the Trojan War.

The people whom we call Greeks (the Hellenes) were not the earliest inhabitants of the country. Among the names of the many tribes which are said to have occupied the land previous to the Hellenes, the most celebrated is that of the Pelasgi, who appear to have been settled in most parts of Greece, and from whom a considerable part of the Greek population was probably descended. The Caucones, Leleges, and other barbarous tribes, who also inhabited Greece, are all regarded by a modern writer (Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol. i., p. 32–61) as parts of the Pelasgic nation. He remarks, “that the name Pelasgians was a general one, like that of Saxons, Franks, or Alemanni, and that each of the Pelasgian tribes had also one peculiar to itself.” All these tribes, however, were obliged to submit to the power of the Hellenes, who eventually spread over the greater part of Greece. Their original seat was, according to Aristotle (Meteor., 1, 14), near Dodona, in Epirus, but they first appeared in the south of Thessaly about B.C. 1384, according to the received chronology. In accordance with the common method of the Greeks, of inventing names to account for the origin of nations, the Hellenes are represented as descended from Hellen, who had three sons, Dorus, Xuthus, and Æolus. Achaeus and Ion are represented as the sons of Xuthus; and from these four, Dorus, AEolus, Achaeus, and Ion, the Dorians, AEolians, Achaeans, and Ionians were descended, who formed the four tribes into which the Hellenic nation was for many centuries divided, and who were distinguished from each other by many peculiarities in language and institutions. At the same time that the Hellenic race was spreading itself over the whole land, numerous colonies from the East are said to have settled in Greece, and to their influence many writers have attributed the civilization of the inhabitants. Thus we read of Egyptian colonies in Argos and Attica, of a Phoenician colony at Thebes in Boeotia, and of a Mysian colony led by Pelops, from whom the southern part of Greece derived its name of Peloponnesus. The very existence of these colonies has been doubted by some writers; but, though the evidence of each one individually is perhaps not sufficient to satis

§ a critical inquirer, yet the uniform tradition of the reeks authorizes us in the belief, that Greece did in early times receive colonies from the East; a supposition which is not in itself improbable, considering the proximity of the Asiatic coast. The time which elapsed from the appearance of the Hellenes in Thessaly to the siege of Troy is usually known by the name of the Heroic Age. Whatever opinion we may form of the Homeric poems, it can hardly be doubted that they present a correct picture of the manners and customs of the age in which the poet lived, which, in all probability, differed little from the manners and customs of the Heroic Age. The state of society described by Homer very much resembled that which existed in Europe during the feudal ages. No great power had yet arisen in Greece; it was divided into a number of small states, governed by hereditary chiefs, whose power was limited by a martial aristocracy. Piracy was an honourable occupation, and war the delight of noble souls. Thucydides informs us (1, 4), that the commencement of Grecian civilization is to be dated from the reign of Minos of Crete, who acquired a naval power and cleared the AEgean Sea of pirates. Among the most celebrated heroes of this period were Bellerophon and Perseus, whose adventures were laid in the East; Theseus, the king of Athens, and Hercules. Tradition also preserved the account of expeditions undertaken by several chiess united together, such as that of the Argonauts, of the Seven against Thebes, and of the Siege of Troy, B.C. 1184.

2. From the Siege of Troy to the Commencement of the Persian wars, B.C. 500.

We learn from Thucydides (1, 12), that the population of Greece was in a very unsettled state for some time after the Trojan war. Of the various migrations which appear to have taken place, the most important in their consequences were those of the Boeotians from Thessaly into the country afterward called Boeotia, and of the Dorians into Peloponnesus, the former in the sixtieth and the latter in the eightieth year after the Trojan war. About the same period the western coast of Asia Minor was colonized by the Greeks. The ancient inhabitants of Boeotia, who had been driven out of their homes by the invasion of the Baeotians, together with some Æolians, whence it has acquired the name of the AEolian migration, left Boeotia B.C. 1124, and settled in Lesbos and the northwestern corner of Asia Minor. They were followed by the Ionians in B.C. 1040, who, having been driven from their abode on the Corinthian Gulf, had taken refuge in Attica, whence they emigrated to Asia Minor and settled on the Lydian coast. The southwestern part of the coast of Asia Minor was also colonized about the same period by Dorians. The number of Greek colonies, considering the extent of the mother country, was very great; and the readiness with which the Greeks left their homes to settle in foreign parts forms a characteristic feature in their national character. In the seventh century before Christ the Greek colonies took another direction: Cyrene, in Africa, was founded by the inhabitants of Thera, and the coasts of Sicily and the southern part of Italy became studded with so many Greek cities, that it acquired the surname of the Great, or Greater, Greece.—The two states of Greece which attained the greatest historical celebrity were Sparta and Athens. The power of Athens was of later growth; but Sparta had, from the time of the Dorian conquest, taken the lead among the Peloponnesian states, a position which she maintained by the conquest of the fertile country of Messenia, B.C. 688. Her superiority was probably owing to the nature of her political institutions, which are said to have been fixed on a firm basis by her celebrated lawgiver Lycurgus, B.C. 884. At the head of the polity were two hereditary chiefs, but their power * limited by a jealous aristocracy. Her territories were also increased by the conquest of Tegea in Arcadia. Athens only rose to importance in the century preceding the Persian wars; but even in this period her power was not more than a match for the little states of Megaris and Ægina. The city was long harassed by intestine commotions till the time of Solon, B.C. 594, who was chosen by his fellow-citizens to frame a new constitution and a new code of laws, to which much of the suture greatness of Athens must be ascribed. We have already seen that the kingly form of government was prevalent in the Heroic Age. But, during the period that elapsed between the Trojan war and the Persian invasion, hereditary political power was abolished in almost all the Greek states, with the exception of Sparta, and a republican form of government established in its stead. In studying the history of the Greeks, we must bear in mind that almost every city formed an independent state, and that, with the exception of Athens and Sparta, which exacted obedience from the other towns of Attica and Laconia respectively, there was hardly any state which possessed more than a few miles of territory. Frequent wars between each other were the almost unavoidable consequence of the existence of so many small states nearly equal in power. The evils which arose from this state of things were partly remedied by the influence of the Amphictyonic council, and by the religious games and festivals which were held at stated periods in different parts of Greece, and during the celebration of which no wars were carried on. In the sixth century before the Christian era Greece rapidly advanced in knowledge and civilization. Literature and the fine arts were already cultivated in Athens under the auspices of Pisistratus and his sons; and the products of remote countries were introduced into Greece by the merchants of Corinth and Ægina.

3. From the Commencement of the Persian Wars to the Death of Philip of Macedon, B.C. 336.

This was the most splendid period of Grecian history. The Greeks, in their resistance to the Persians, and the part they took in the burning of Sardis, B.C. 499, drew upon them the vengeance of Darius. After the reduction of the Asiatic Greeks, a Persian army was sent into Attica, but was entirely defeated at Marathon, B.C. 490, by the Athenians under Miltiades. Ten years afterward the whole power of the Persian empire was directed against Greece; an immense army, led in person by Xerxes, advanced as far as Attica, and received the submission of almost all the Grecian states, with the exception of Athens and Sparta. But this expedition also failed; the Persian fleet was destroyed in the battles of Artemisium and Salamis; and the land sorces were entirely defeated in the following year, B.C. 479, at Plataea in Boeotia. Sparta had, previous to the Persian invasion, been regarded by the other Greeks as the first power in Greece, and accordingly she obtained the supreme command of the army and fleet in the Persian war. But, during the course of this war, the Athenians had made greater sacrifices and had shown a greater de

ee of courage and patriotism. After the battle of

latea a confederacy was formed by the Grecian states for carrying on the war against the Persians. Sparta was at first placed at the head of it; but the allies, disgusted with the tyranny of Pausanias, the Spartan commander, gave the supremacy to Athens. The allies, who consisted of the inhabitants of the islands and coasts of the AEgean Sea, were to furnish contributions in money and ships, and the delicate task of assessing the amount which each state was to pay was assigned to Aristides. The yearly contribution was settled at 460 talents, about $485,500, and Delos was chosen as the common treasury. The Athenians, un

der the command of Cimon, carried on the war vig. orously, defeated the Persian fleets, and plundered the maritime provinces of the Persian empire. During this period the power of Athens rapidly increased; she possessed a succession of distinguished statesmen, Themistocles, Aristides, Cimon, and Pericles, who all contributed to the advancement of her power, though differing in their political views. Her maritime greatness was founded by Themistocles, her revenues were increased by Pericles, and her general prosperity, in connexion with other causes, tended to produce a greater degree of refinement than existed in any other part of Greece. Literature was cultivated, and the arts of architecture and sculpture, which were employed to ornament the city,were carried to a degree of excellence that has never since been surpassed. While Athens was advancing in power, Sparta had to maintain a war against the Messenians, who again revolted, and were joined by a great number of the Spartan slaves (B.C. 464–455). But, though Sparta made no efforts during this period to restrain the Athenian power, it was not because she wanted the will, but the means. These, however, were soon furnished by the Athenians themselves, who began to treat the allied states with great tyranny, and to regard them as subjects, not as independent states in alliance. The tribute was raised from 460 to 600 talents, the treasury was removed from Delos to Athens, and the decision of all important suits was referred to the Athenian courts. hen any state withdrew from the alliance, its citizens were considered by the Athenians as rebels, and immediately reduced to subjection. The dependant states, anxious to throw off the Athenian dominion, entreated the assistance of Sparta, and thus, in conjunction with other causes, arose the war between Sparta and Athens, which lasted for twentyseven years (B. C. 431–404), and is usually known as the Peloponnesian war. It terminated by again placing Sparta at the head of the Grecian states. Soon after the conclusion of this war, Sparta engaged in a contest with the Persian empire, which lasted from B.C. 400 to 394. The splendid successes which Agesilaus, the Spartan king, obtained over the Persian troops in Asia Minor, and the manisest weakness of the Persian empire, which had been already shown by the retreat of the ten thousand Greeks from the heart of the Persian empire, appear to have induced Agesilaus to entertain the design of overthrowing the Persian monarchy; but he was obliged to return to his native country to defend it against a powerful confederacy, which had been formed by the Corinthians, Thebans, Argives, Athenians, and Thessalians, for the purpose of throwing off the Spartan dominion. The confederates were not, however, successful in their attempt; and the Spartan supremacy was again secured for a brief period by a general peace, made B.C. 387, usually known by the name of the peace of Antalcidas. Ten years afterward the rupture between Thebes and Sparta began, which led to a general war in Greece, and for a short time placed Thebes at the head of the Grecian states. The greatness of Thebes was principally owing to the wisdom and valour of two of her citizens, #o. and Epaminondas. After the death of Epaminondas at the battle of Mantinea, B.C. 362, Thebes again sunk to its former obscurity. The Spartan supremacy was however destroyed by this war, and her power still more humbled by the restoration of Messenia to independence, B.C. 369. From the conclusion of this war to the reign of Philip of Macedon Greece remained without any ruling power. It is only necessary here to mention the part which Philip took in the sacred war, which last: ed ten years (B.C. 356-346), in which he appeared as the defender of the Amphictyonic council, and which terminated by the conquest of the Phocians. The Athenians, urged on by Demosthenes, made an alliance with the Thebans for the purpose of resisting Philip; but their defeat at Chaeronea, B.C. 388, secured for the Macedonian king the supremacy of Greece. In the same year a congress of Grecian states was held at Corinth, in which Philip was chosen generalissimo of the Greeks in a projected war against the Persian empire; but his assassination in B.C. 336 caused this enterprise to devolve on his son Alexander.

4. From the Accession of Alexander the Great to the Roman Conquest, B.C. 146.

The conquests of Alexander extended the Grecian influence over the greater part of Asia west of the Indus. After his death the dominion of the East was contested by his generals, and two powerful empires were permanently established; that of the Ptolemies in Egypt and the Seleucidae in Syria. The dominions of the early Syrian kings embraced the greater part of western Asia; but their empire was soon divided into various independent kingdoms, such as that of Bactria, Pergamus, &c., in all of which the Greek language was spoken, not merely at court, but to a considerable extent in the cities. From the death of Alexander to the Roman conquest, Macedon.remained the ruling power in Greece. The AEtolian and Achaean leagu were formed, the former B.C. 284, the latter B.C. 281, for the purpose of resisting the Macedonian kings. M..." was conquered by the Romans B.C. 197, and the Greek states declared independent. This, however, was merely nominal; they only exchanged the rule of the Macedonian kings for that of the Roman people; and in B.C. 146, Greece was reduced to the form of a Roman province, called Achaia, though certain cities, such as Athens, Delphi, &c., were allowed to have the rank of free towns. The history of Greece, from this period, forms part of the Roman empire. It was overrun by the Goths in A.D. 267, and again in A.D. 398, under Alaric; and, after being occupied by the Crusaders and Venetians, at last fell into the hands of the Turks, on the conquest of Constantinople; from whom, with the exception of Macedonia, Thessaly, and Epirus, it is now again liberated. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 12, p. 426, seqq.)

#w. a daughter of Athamas and Nephele, sister to Phrixus. She and her brother Phrixus, in order to avoid the cruel persecution of their stepmother Ino, fled from Thessaly on the back of a golden fleeced ram, which transported them through the air. They proceeded safely till they came to the sea between the

romontory of Sigaeum and the Chersonese, into which

#. fell, and it was named from her Hellespontus (Helle's Sea). Phrixus proceeded on his way to Colchis. (Vid. Athamas, Argonautas, Phrixus.) The tomb of Helle was placed, according to Herodotus, on the shores of the Chersonese, near Cardia. (Herod., 7, 58.)

Hellen, the fabled son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, and progenitor of the Hellenic race. (Wid. Hellas, ) 1, History of Greece, from the earliest times to the Trojan war.)

HELLENEs ("EWAmyeo), the general name of the Grecian race. It was first borne by the tribes that came in from the north, at an early period, and eventually spread themselves over the whole of Greece. Their original seat was, according to Aristotle (Meteor., 1, 14), near Dodona, in Epirus; but they first appeared in the south of Thessaly, about B.C. 1384, according to the common chronology. (Vid. Hellas, $ 1, History of Greece, from the earliest times to the Trojan war.)

Hellespontus, now the Dardanelles, a narrow strait between Asia and Europe, near the Propontis, which received its name, it is said, from Helle, who was drowned there in her voyage to Colchis. (Wid. Helle.) Its modern name of Dardanelles is supposed to come from

the ancient Dardania in its vicinity. Homer's epithet of tržario, “broad,” applied to so narrow a strait (Il, 7, 86.-Compare Il., 17, 432.-0d., 24, 82.-AEschyl., Pers., 880), has given rise to much discussion, and is one of those points which have a bearing on the long-agitated question respecting the site of Troy. Hobhouse undertakes to explain the seeming inconsistency of Homer's term, by showing that the Hellespont should be considered as extending down to the promontory of Lectum, the northern boundary of AEolia, and that the whole line of coast to this point from Abydus, was considered by Strabo as being the shores of the Hellespont, not of the Ægean. (Journey, Let. 42.—Vol. 2, p. 206, seqq., Am. ed.) The same writer observes, with regard to the breadth of the Hellespont, that it nowhere seems to be less than a mile across ; and yet the ancient measurements give only seven stadia, or eight hundred and seventy-five paces. Walpole, on the other hand, as cited by Clarke (Travels, vol. 3, p. 91, in notis, Eng. ed.), assigns to the epithet Tâatic the meaning of “salt,” or “brackush,” referring, in support of this conjecture, to Aristotle (Meteorol., 2, 3.—Op., cd. Duval, vol. 1, p. 556, D. et E.), who uses it three times in this sense, and to Hesychius. (Compare Herod., 2, 108, and Schweigh., ad loc.) This, however, is at best a very forced explanation. Homer appears to consider the Hellespont rather as a mighty river than a winding arm of the sea; and hence Toario, “broad,” becomes no inappropriate term, more especially if we take into the connexion the analogous epithets of dyāśāoor (“rapidly flowing”), and dreipov (“boundless”), which are elsewhere applied by him to the same Hellespont. (Il., 2,845.-Il, 24, 545.) Casaubon, in his commentary on Athenaeus, adduces the passage quoted above by Walpole, together with one or two others, likewise from Aristotle, in favour of Tržaric meaning “salt;” and a critic in the Edinburgh Review (vol. 21, p. 136), whom Blomfield quaintly designates as “censor quidam semidoctus,” seeks to advocate the same opinion. It has few if any advocates, however, at the present day. (Consult Blomf, Gloss. ad AEsch, Pers., 880.) —Some scholars suppose, that when Homer speaks of the “broad Hellespont,” he actually means the northern part of the AEgean. Thus, Heyne observes, “Homer always places the camp on the Hellespont, in the more extensive signification of that term, as meaning the northern part of the Ægean Sea (Il., 18, 150; 24, 346.-Od., 24, 82.-Il., 7, 86, &c.), and hence should be derived the explanation of the epithets träaric and &meipov.” (Beschreib., der Eb. von Troja, p. 250.) —Whether the denomination Hellespont was derived from 'EAAéc, Greece at large (Pind., Pyth., 7, 7– Id. ibid., 10, 29), or from "E224c, the province or city (Strab.,431), or from Helle, according to the popular legend, cannot now be ascertained.—Stephanus of Byzantium (p. 232, ed. Berkel) says the earlier name of the Hellespont was the Borysthenes (Bopvabévmc). (Compare Ritter, Vorhalle, p. 174.) Perhaps a careful investigation of the subject would lead to the conclusion, that Homer gives the name of Hellespont to the whole Propontis. (Classical Journal, vol. 16, p. 64.)—The Hellespont is celebrated for the love and death of Leander. (Wid. Hero, and Leander, and the remarks under the latter article). It is famed also for the bridge of boats which Xerxes built over it when he invaded Greece. (Wid. remarks under the article Abydus, I.) ellopia, a district of Euboea, in which Histiaea was situated. (Strab.,445.—Compare Herodot,8,23.) Helörus, I. a river of Sicily, near the southern extremity of the island, now the Abiso. It is mentioned by several of the ancient poets, on account of the remarkably fertile country, through which, it flows. (Virg., AEn, 3, 659.-Ovid, Fast, 4.487, &c.) Sil.

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