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chagrin, from not being able to account for so unusual a motion of the water. The story, however, is devoid of foundation. (Vid. Aristoteles.)—From this rapid movement of the current, the Euripus derived its ancient name (ev, bene, and fitto, jacio). Livy's account of this strait appears the most rational. “A more dangerous station for a fleet,” observes this writer, “can hardly be found; besides that the winds rush down suddenly and with great fury from the high mountains on each side, the strait itself of the Euripus does not ebb and flow seven times a day, at stated hours, as report says; but the current changing irregularly, like the wind, from one point to another, is hurried along like a torrent tumbling from a steep mountain; so that, night or day, ships can never lie quiet.” (Liv., 28, 6.) The straits are now called, by a corruption of the ancient name, the straits of Negropont. Hobhouse visited the Euripus, and the account given by this intelligent traveller of its appearance in our own days is deserving of being cited. “What I witnessed of the Euripus was, that the stream flows with violence, like a mill-race, under the bridges, and that a strong eddy is observable on that side from which it is about to run, about a hundred yards above the bridges; the current, however, not being at all apparent at a greater distance, either to the south or north. Yet the ebbing and flowing are said to be visible at ten or a dozen leagues distance, at each side of the strait, by marks shown of the rising and falling of the water in several small bays on both coasts. The depth of the stream is very inconsiderable, not much more than four feet. The account which Wheler copied from the Jesuit Babin, respecting the changes of the Euripus, and which he collected on the spot, though not from his personal experience, he not being long enough in the place, was, that it was subject to the same laws as the tides of the ocean for eighteen days of every moon, and was irregular, having twelve, thirteen, or fourteen flowings and ebbings for the other eleven days; that is, that it was regular for the three last days of the old moon and the eight first of the new, then irregular for five days, regular again for the next seven, and irregular for the other six. The water seldom rose to two feet, and usually not above one; and, contrary to the ocean, it flowed towards the sea, and ebbed towards the main land of Thessaly, northward. On the irregular days it rose for half an hour, and fell for three quarters; but, when regular, was six hours in each direction, losing an hour a day. It did not appear to be influenced by the wind. A Greek of Athens, who had resided three years at Egripo, told me that he considered the changes to depend chiefly on the wind, which, owing to the high lands in the vicinity of the strait, is particularly variable in this place. The two great gulfs, for so they may be called, at the north and south of the strait, which present a large surface to every storm that blows, and receive the whole force of the Archipelago, communicate with each other at this narrow shallow channel; so that the Euripus may be a sort of barometer, indicative of every change, and of whatever rising and falling of the tide, not visible in the open expanse of waters there may be in these seas. I did not, however, see any marks of the water being ever higher at one time than at another. The Greek had observed also, that, when the wind was north or south, that is, either up or down the strait, the alteration took place only four times in the twenty-four hours; but that, when it was from the east, and blew strongly over the mountains behind Egripo, the refluxes took place more frequently, ten or twelve times; and that, in particular, immediately before the full of the moon, the turbulence and eddies, as well as the rapidity of the stream, were very much increased. There was never, at any season, any certain rule with respect either to the period or the number of changes. Those of the ancients who inquired into this menon S s s

were aware, that the story of the Euripus changing its course always seven times during the day was unfounded; and the account given of it by Livy (28, 6) corresponds, in some measure, with that of my Athenian informant. The bridge which anciently connected the main land and the island was considerably longer than that which at present serves the same purpose. We are informed, that the strait was made more narrow by a dike, which the inhabitants of Chalcis constructed to lessen the passage; and it is by no means improbable, that the whole of the flat on which the fortified part of Egripo now stands, and which is surrounded on the land side by a wide marsh, was formerly covered by the waters of the Euripus.” (Hobhouse's Journey, vol. 1, Lett. 29, p. 372, seqq., Am. cd.)

Európa, I. one of the three main divisions of the ancient world. With the northern parts of this the ancients were very slightly acquainted, viz., what are now Prussia, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Russia. They applied to this quarter the general name of Scandinavia, and thought it consisted of a number of islands. From the Portuguese cape, denominated by mariners the Rock of Lisbon, to the Uralian Mountains, the length of modern Europe may be reckoned at about 3300 British miles, and from Cape Nord, in Danish Lapland, to Cape Matapan, the southern extremity of the Morea, it may be about 2350. As regards the limits of Europe, it may be remarked, that the chain of the Ural Mountains, the river of the same name, the Caspian Sea, and the lowest level of the isthmus between it and the Sea of Azof (a level indicated by the course of the Manytch and the Kuma), are boundaries between Europe and Asia in the part in which they are contiguous. That frontier ends at the Tanals or Don, which for a short space terminates the two continents. The remaining limits are more easily determined; they are the Sea of Azof, the Black Sea, the Bosporus, the Propontis, and the Hellespont. The line is taken across the Archipelago; Tenedos, Mytilene, Chios, Samos, Nicaria, Cos, and Rhodes, belong to Asia; Naxos, Stampalia, and Scarpanto, to Europe. The Mediterranean divides Africa and Europe; but it is not ascertained whether Malta, Gozo, Comino, Lampedosa, and Linosa are African or European islands. The Canaries, Madeira, and the Azores are, in a physical point of view, appendages of Africa, being parts of a submarine continuation from the chain ...” Atlas.—With respect to the name of Europe, it must be confessed that its etymology is altogether uncertain. Bochart derives the word #. the Phoenician Ur-appa, which he makes equivalent to the Greek Aevkompjaaroc, “ of a white or fair aspect;” and considers it as applying not only to the sister of Cadmus, but also to the Continent of Europe, from the fairer visages and complexions of its inhabitants: “quia Europaei Africanos candore faciei multum superant.” (Geogr. Sacr., 4, 33, col. 298.) M. Court de Gebelin, on the other hand, deduces the name from the Phoenician Wrab, i.e., “West,” as indicating the country lying in that direction with reference to Asia. His explanation, however, of the mode in which the same appellation came to be applied to the lunar divinity, is far less plausible: “Ce nom ne convint pas moins à la Lune; car on ne la voit que le soir; et lorsqu'on commence à l'apercevoir à la Néomenie, c'est toujours au couchant: d'ailleurs n'est elle pas la Reine de la Nuit elle fut donc appellee avec raison Europe.” (Monde Primitif, vol. 1, p. 250.)—As regards the T. of geographical discovery, it may be remarked, that the earliest notices of Europe are in the writings of the Greeks, who inhabited the southeastern corner of the continent. From this country the geographical knowledge of Europe extended by degrees to the west and north. Homer was acquainted with the countries round the AEgean Sea or Archipelago. He had also a pretty accurate general notion respecting those which lie on the south


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coast of the Black Sea; but what he says about the countries west of Greece, on the shores of the Mediterranean, is a mixture of fable and truth, in which the fabulous part prevails. It would seem that, in his age, these seas were not yet visited by his countrymen, and that he obtained his knowledge from the Phoenicians, who had probably for some time sailed to these regions, but who, according to the common policy of trading nations, spread abroad false accounts of these unknown countries, in order to deter other nations from following their track, and participating in the advantages of this distant commerce. It is probable, also, that the Phoenicians long excluded the Greeks from the navigation of the Mediterranean; for when the latter began to form settlements beyond their native country, they first occupied the shores of the AEge*n, and afterward those of the Black Sea. As the European shores of this last-mentioned sea are not well adapted for agriculture, except a comparatively small tract of the peninsula of Crimea, their early settlements were mostly on the Asiatic coasts, and, consequently, little addition was made by these colonies to the geographical knowledge of Europe. But the navigation of the Phoenicians was checked in the middle of the sixth century before Christ, apparently by their being subjugated by the Persians. About this time, also, the Greeks began to form settlements in the southern parts of Italy and on the island of Sicily, and to navigate the Mediterranean Sea to its full extent. Accordingly, we find that, in the time of Herodotus (450 B.C.), not only the countries on each side of the Mediterranean, and the northern shores of the Black Sea, were pretty well known to the Greeks, but that, following the track of the Phoenicians, they ventured to pass the Columns of Hercules, and to sail as far as the Cassiterides, or Tin Islands, by which name the Scilly Isles and a part of Cornwall must be understood. It is even reported, that some of their navigators sailed through the English Channel and entered the North Sea, and perhaps even the Baltic. It must be observed, however, that Herodotus professes himself totally unacquainted with the islands called Cassiterides (3, 115), and Strabo (p. 104, &c.) expresses a very unfavourable opinion of the alleged northern voyages of Pytheas. Thus a considerable part of the coasts of Europe was discovered, while the interior remained almost unknown. When the Romans began their conquests, this deficiency ...]” filled up. The conquest of Italy was followed by that of Spain and the southern parts of Gaul, and, not long afterward, Sicily, Greece, and Macedonia were added. Caesar conquered Gaul and the countries west of the Rhine, together with the districts lying between the different arms by which that river enters the sea. His two expeditions into Britain made known also, in some measure, the nature of that island and the character of its inhabitants. Thus, in the course of little more than two hundred years, the interior of all those countries was discovered, the shores of which had been previously known. In the mean time, nothing was added to the knowledge of the coasts, the Greeks having lost their spirit of discovery by sea along with their liberty, and the Romans not being inclined to naval enterprise. After the establishment of imperial power at Rome, the conquests of the Romans went on at a much slower rate, and the boundaries of the empire soon became stationary. This circumstance must be chiefly attributed to the nature of the countries which were contiguous to those boundaries. The regions north of the Danube are mostly plains, and at that time were only inhabited by wandering nations, who could not be subjected to a regular governinent. Such, at least, are the countries extending between the Carpathian mountains and the Black Sea, and therefore the conquest of Dacia by Trajan was of short continuance and speedily abandoned. The countries between the Alps

and the Danube were soon added to the empire; but, as the nations who inhabited the tracts north of that river had not given up a wandering life, they were enabled to elude the Roman yoke. The most important addition to the empire and to geographical knowledge was the conquest of England during the first century after Christ, to which, in the following century, the south of Scotland was added. Nothing seems to have been added afterward. The Geography of Ptolemy contains a considerable number of names of nations, places, and rivers in those countries which were not subjected to the Romans. Probably they were obtained from natives and from Roman traders, who had ventured to penetrate beyond the boundaries of the empire. But these brief notices are very vague, and in most cases it is very difficult to determine what places and persons are indicated. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 10, p. 79.)—II. A daughter of Agenor (called by some Phoenix) king of Phoenicia. Jupiter, becoming enamoured of her, according to the old legend, changed himself into a beautiful white bull, and approached her, “breathing saffron from his mouth,” as she was gathering flowers with her companions in a mead near the seashore. Europa, delighted with the tameness and beauty of the animal, caressed him, crowned him with flowers, and at length ventured to mount on his back. The disguised god immediately made off with his lovely burden, plunged into the sea, and swam with Europa to the Island of Crete, landing not far from Gortyna. Here he resumed his own form, and beneath a plane-tree caressed the trembling maid. The offspring of their union were Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpedon. Asterius, king of Crete, espoused Europa subsequently, and reared her sons. (Apollod., 3, 1–Hes., et Bacchyl., ap. Schol. ad Il., 12, 292.—Mosch., Id, 2.--Orld, Met., 2, 833, seqq.—Id, Fast., 5, 605–Keightley's Mythology, p. 455.) The fable of Europa is made by the mythological expounders of the old school to rest on an historical basis. In this they are decidedly wrong. Instead of perceiving that this and other legends of mythology bear only an analogy to the truth, that they are false when understood literally, but frequently true when interpreted metaphorically, they have taken them as narratives of real facts, embellished by credulity or a poetical imagination, and, having struck out the wonders, they took the caput mortuum which remained for real history. Thus, in the present instance, the foundation of the story of Europa is said to have been, that a commander of a Cretan vessel, either himself named Taurus, or whose vessel bore that title, carried off the Phoenician princess Europa, daughter of Agenor, from the city of Tyre : others again make her to have been borne away by some Cretan merchants, whose ship had the emblem of a white bull, and who intended her as a prize for their king Asterius, who had assumed the name of Jupiter! (Consult Banier's Mythology, vol. 3, p. 400, seqq.) The truth is, however, that Europa was nothing more than the lunar divinity or the moon. In order to make this more apparent, let us review the whole ground of this singular fable. We find the legend of Jupiter and Europa known already to Homer (Il., 14, 321) and Hesiod. (Schol. ad Il., 12, 397.) The old genealogical poet Asius (Pausan, 7, 4), and the Logographers Pherecydes (ed. Sturz, p. 111) and Hellanicus (p. 65), found already, in their time, a rich fund of materials in this fabulous legend. What Apollodorus, in particular, gives (3, 1), appears to have been taken from these writers. Antimachus and Anticlides are named as having written on this same subject (Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod, 2, 178), but more especially Eumelus (Schol. ad. Il., 6, 130) and Stesichorus. (Schol. ad Eurip., Phan., v. 674.—Compare Fragm. Stesich., ed. Suchfort, p. 13.) Amid such a number of writers, it is no wonder if the topic proved sufficiently attractive to occupy the attention of many of the later Greek and Roman authors. Hence we find it reappearing, aster some lapse of time, in Moschus (Idyll., 2), Lucian (Dial. Mar.—Opp., vol. 2, p. 125, ed. Bip.), and Achilles Tatius (de Am. Clit. et Leuc., 1, 1.—Compare also Anacreon, 0d., 35.Horat., Od., 3, 27.-Ovid, Met., 2,833.-Id., Fast., 5, 605. — Germanici Arat. Phaen., 533.) —The ancient writers themselves attempt an explanation of the fable, with which the mythological expounders of later days are in full accordance, as we have already observed. Thus Palaephatus (p. 72, ed. Fisch.) makes the individual who carried off Europa to have been called Taurus (compare Tzetzes, ad Lycophr., v. 1299, and Meursus, p. 250), and Julius Pollux says (Onomast., 1, 83) the ship in which she was carried away had a bull for its tapúamuov. If there be any ancient sable which requires, in its explanation, a careful separating of the earlier and original portions from what is of later addition, it is this of Europa. If we follow the narrative of Apollodorus, we will find the legend dividing itself into two distinct parts; the carrying off of Europa, and the search made for her by Cadmus, Cilix, &c. These two portions, however, are not necessarily connected with each other, as evidently api. from the former of the two having alone been andled by many writers.-What, now, were the ideas entertained by the earlier mythologists on the subject of this fable? Homer, in the well-known passage (Il., 14, 315) where he speaks of the reunion of Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida, merely mentions the daughter of Phoenix as having been one of the objects of Jupiter's love. This, most probably, was the earliest form of the legend; at least the bearing away of Europa by that deity appears to have been a later addition. According to Acusilaus (ap. Apollod., 2, 5, 7), it was a real bull that brought Europa to Crete; and, according to another authority, the animal was selected by Neptune for this purpose, and was sent to Sidon by Jupiter, for the purpose of carrying off the maiden (Nigidius, ap. Schol, ad Germ. Arat. Phoen., ed. Buhle, 2, p. 55), for which service he was afterward placed among the stars. (Eurip., Phryz. ap. Eratosth., cat. 14.— Theognis, Schol. ad Arat., p. 48, ed. Buhle.—Hygin., Poet. Astr., 21.) It is easy to perceive, that this mythus loses all its meaning the moment this bull becomes the transformed Jupiter. (Compare Gruber's Lericon, 2, p. 9.) We find, it is true, that even as early a writer as Hesiod is acquainted with the metamorphosis of Jupiter into a bull (Schol. ad Hom., Il., 12, 397, ed. Ald., 1521, p. 215), but this only shows at how early a period the addition to which we allude was made to the original fable. The germe of that fable, however, still remained, and was, in effect, simply this, Jove indulged his passion with Europa in Crete. The elucidation of the mythus mainly depends upon the clearing up of another question: what means the term Europa primitively, a land or a person 1 The former of these interpretations can in no way whatever be the true one. Homer and Hesiod, to whom Europa is known as the daughter of Phoenix, have no acquaintance with Asia and Europe as parts of the world. The Asian meadow or field ("Aavoc aetusov) in Homer (Iliad, 2, 461), is merely a small tract of land in the vicinity of the Cayster. The name of Asia only began to be more extensively applied as the interior of Lower Asia began to be better known to the Greeks. (Compare Hermann, ad Hymn. in Apoll., 250.) Europe, as a land, is entirely unknown to Homer: the first traces of the name are found in the Hymn to Apollo (v. 250, seqq., and 290, seqq.), where it is used in opposition to the Peloponnesus and the islands, and seems to indicate the remaining portion of what was subsequently called Hellas. It is more than probable that the appellation itself originated in Lower Asia. Compare the remarks of Buttmann, “Ueber die my

thische Verbindung von Griechenland mit Asien,” in the Memoirs of the Berlin Academy for 1818, p. 219, seqq.). In Euripides (Iph. in Taur., v. 627), the epithet et portóc occurs in the sense of “dark,” and with this the explanation of Hesychius coincides : Eipúrm, 20pa täc dioews, # akoretvm. The name Europe, then, will have been given by the Asiatics to the country which lay west of them, towards the evening (Ereb) sun, or the quarter of darkness. At what period this appellation was extended to the whole continent cannot now be ascertained (Ukert's Geogr., vol. 2, p. 210); as, however, Pherecydes already divided the earth into two hemispheres (Schol, ad Apoll. Rhod., 4, 1396), placing Europe in the north, and Asia, including Africa, in the south, we may suppose this arrangement to have been generally received about the time of the Logographers. Now it is manifest, from what has just been stated, that the original mythus of Europa had no symbolical reference whatever to the continent of that name. Before, however, proceeding farther in the examination of this fable, it becomes important to consider the lineage assigned to the female in question. Homer (Il., 14, 321) names her as the daughter of Phoenix; so also Hesiod, Bacchylides (Schol. Didymi, ed. Ald., 1521, p. 215), Asius (Pausan., 7, 4), and Moschus (Idyll., 2, 40). With the Logographers a discrepance presents itself. Some regard her as a daughter of Agenor, others still as the offspring of Phoenix (Schol, ad Apoll. Rhod., 3, 1186): that the former of these two accounts, however, is the more commonly-received one, appears in the extracts from the Logographers as made by Apollodorus (3, 1). In the original mythus, therefore, Europa is the daughter of Phoenix, in the later and altered legend she is the child of Agenor. Phoenix now, according to the custom observed in similar sables, of naming a land after its first monarch, becomes the king of Phoenicia, and hence the leading idea involved in the legend, that Europa came from Phoenicia. Let us now turn our attention more immediately to the being and person of Europa. The first passage that arrests our notice is one occurring in the treatise on the “Syrian Goddess,” ascribed to Lucian (Opp., ed. Bip., vol. 9, p. 87.) “There is in Phoenicia,” says the writer, “another large temple also, which is in the possession of the Sidonians, and which, as they say, is the temple of Astarte. Astarte I suppose to be the same with the moon. As, however, one of the priests told me, it was the temple of Europa, the sister of Cadmus. This daughter of King Agenor was honoured with a temple after her disappearance; and they have a sacred tradition (26).ov tepov) respecting her, that, being very beautiful, she was beloved by Jupiter, who changed himself into a bull and carried her away into Crete. I heard this also from other Phoenicians; and, moreover, the Sidonian money has represented on it Europa sitting upon the back of a bull, that is, of Jupiter. They do not all agree, however, in making the temple to be that of Europa.” In the case of so early a worship as that connected with the Sidonian temple, it is no won der if the accounts of later days exhibit some discrepances. According to the more common statement, the temple was that of Astarte, whom the writer just quoted makes identical with the moon. Creuzer has shown with great ability (Symbolik, vol. 2, p.65), that the greater part of the Syro-Phoenician goddesses conveyed the idea of the humid, receiving, fruit-yielding Earth, and the impregnated and in turn impregnating Moon. This last idea shows itself very clearly in the attributes of the Phoenician Astarte. Not only is she regarded by Lucian and others (Selden, de Diis Syr., p. 244) as identical with Selene, but she is even styled, on that account, the Queen of Heaven (Jerem., 7, 17); and the etymology given by Herodian, though of no value in itself, yet is of importance to the present discussion as showing the union of o with respect to Selene and Astarte. (botvuker & 'Aarposip2nv čvouáçoval, aežňvm rivat Ježovres. Herodian, 5, 6, 10.) This goddess had the principal seat of her worship in Sidon. (2 Kings, 23, 13.) As lunar goddess, Astarte had, among her other symbols, some of the attributes of the bull; she wore, says Sanchoniathon (ap. Euseb., Praep. Evang., 1, 10), the hide of a bull as an ornament for the head when she wandered over the earth. In all the physico-religious systems of Lower Asia there existed a great uniformity in the leading principles (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 11, seqq.), and throughout a large portion of this country the worship of the moon was firmly established. Without stopping to discover any traces of this in the Phrygian rites, or in those of the goddess of Comana, it will be sufficient to refer to Artemis Tauropolos, who would seem, in many respects, to have been the same with the Phoenician Astarte. (Compare Creuzer, Symtolik, vol. 4, p. 199.—Millin, Galerie Myth., vol. 1, pl. 34, Nr. 121.) It is curious to observe, moreover, that Artemis Tauropolos was worshipped on the shores of the Persian Gulf, the primitive seat,of the Phoenician race. (Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg., 609. —Compare Dupuis, Memoires de l'instit. nat., an. XII, Litt. et b. arts, vol. 5, p. 11.) Nor should we omit to notice, that, from the researches of Creuzer, the worship of Diana Luna would appear to have extended not only along the Persian Gulf, but also in various parts of middle Asia; and that the symbolical mode of representing this goddess was a female figure riding on a bull, with a crescent-shaped veil over her head. Such is the way in which she appears on a medal of the Island Icaria (Harduin, de Num. Antiq., p. 217), where this worship also prevailed. (Strab, 638.) It is extremely probable, that some early statue of Diana Luna, represented in precisely the same posture as the figure on the Icarian medal, gave rise to the mythus of the carrying away of Europa by a bull; and thus Europa belongs, as an imaginary personage, to the cycle of the lunar worship. #. place this in a still clearer light, let us turn our attention to the testimony afforded by ancient works of art. Achilles Tatius (p. 10.—Compare Plin., 36, 10) saw, in the Sidonian temple of Astarte, among the sacred offerings, a painting which had for its subject the carrying off of Europa. The description of this differs only in some collateral points from that of a painting preserved to us in the tomb of the Nasonii, of which Belloir makes mention. (Pictura: Antiquae sepulchri Nasoniorum in via Flaminia. —Graev., Thes. Ant. Rom., vol. 12, p. 1059.) The scene is laid on the shore near Sidon: the bull hastens with his lovely burden over the waves, and the playmates of Europa stand lost in astonishment and grief. The bearing away of Europa is the subject also of many sculptured stones that have come down to us. (Consult Montfaucon, Ant. Erpl., vol. 1, pl. 19, Nr. 4.—Gori, Museum. Florent., vol. 1, tab. 56, Nr. 9.— Augustini Gemma, ed. Gron., tab. 185.-Gemme Antiche, p. 2, tab. 27.—Winckelmann, Catal. de Stosch., p. 57. Thesaurus Brandenb., p. 195.)—Even the name Europa itself has reference to this female's identity with the moon. It is derived, most probably, from eiptions, “broad-visaged,” and alludes to the appearance of the moon when at its full. Her mother's name, moreover, is Tm2.8%aga, “she that enlightens from afar.” In Crete she subsequently marries 'Acriptor, “the Starry,” and gives birth to Minos, which connects her name with that of Pasiphaë (IIactosin), “she that enlightens all.”—The conclusion, then, to which we would come, is this, that the legend of Europa relates to the introduction of the lunar worship, by Phoenician colonists, into Crete. (Hock's Kreta, vol. 1, p. 83, seqq.)—The identity of Europa and the Moon is also recognised by Knight. (Inquiry into the Symb. Lang., &c.—Class. Journ, vol. 25, p. 247.) His words are as follows: “It is in the character of

the destroying attribute, that Diana is called TAYPO. IIOAA, and BOQN EAATEIA, in allusion to her be. ing borne or drawn by bulls; and it is probable that some such symbolical composition gave rise to the fable of Jupiter and Europa; for it appears that, in Phoenicia, Europa and Astarte were only different titles for the same personage, who was the deity of the Moon; comprehending both the Diana and Celestial Venus of the Greeks.”—III. A district of Macedonia, in which was situate the town of Europus. Some geographers make it to have been a part of Thrace; but without any good reason. It was also called Europia. (Wud. Europus.) Európus, a town of Macedonia, situate, according to Pliny (4, 10), on the river Axius, and in the district of Emathia. Ptolemy does not ascribe it to this district, however, but to one which he calls Matia (p. 84). But, according to Pliny, there was another Europus, situated on the river Rhaedias (perhaps Ludias), of which Strabo also speaks. (Strabo, 327.) Eurótas, I. a river of Laconia, and the largest in the Peloponnesus. It rises in Arcadia, near Asea, a little to the southwest of Tegea, and, after running a short distance, disappears under ground. On the opposite side of the mountains which separate Arcadia from Laconia, it reappears in the latter country, in the district of Belmina. It then traverses that province, and passes by Sparta to Helos, near which town it empties into the sea. (Strabo, 342.—Dionys. Perieg., v. 411.) The Eurotas flowed to the east of Sparta, as we are informed by Polybius; its stream was full and rapid, and could seldom beforded. Eurotas, the third king after Lelex, enlarged and regulated its bed, drew a canal from it, drained the neighbouring country, and, from feelings of gratitude on the part of his subjects, had his name given to the stream. (Pausan., 3, 1.) The modern name is Basilipotamo (pronounced Vasilipotamo), and signifying the royal river, in allusion to certain petty princes, dependant upon the eastern emperors, who possessed a small kingdom in this quarter during the middle ages. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 8, p. 595.) Dodwell, however, states that the most common appellation for the Eurotas at the present day is Iri. (Class. Tour, vol. 2, p. 409.)—II. A river of Thessaly, called also Titaresius, rising in Mount Titarus, a branch of Olympus, and falling into the Peneus, a little above the vale of Tempe. Its modern name is the Saranta Poros. Its having been called Eurotas as well as Titaresius is stated by various authorities. (Compare Strabo, Epit. 7, p. 329, and the author of the Sibylline verses, 3, p. 227.) Although, however, the Titaresius fell into the Peneus, the waters of the two rivers did not mingle; as those of the Peneus were clear and limpid, while those of the Titaresius were impregnated with a thick unctuous substance, which floated like oil on the surface. Hence the fabulous account of its being a branch of the infernal Styx. (Strabo, 441–Hom., Il., 2, 751.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 369.) Eurus, a wind blowing from the southeast. It was sometimes called by the Latin writers Vulturnus. (Senec., Quast. Nat., 5, 16.) Those, however, who recognised only four winds, made Eurus the East wind, and attempted to confirm this opinion by a fictitious derivation of the name, making Eupor indicate drö tic so peov, “blowing from the east,” i.e., the point of the heavens where Aurora first appears. Eury Klus, a Trojan, son of Opheltius, and one of the followers of AEneas. Virgil has immortalized the inseparable friendship between him and Nisus. (Wid. Nisus. Bow. I. a herald of Agamemnon, in the Trojan war, who, with Talthybius, took Briseis away from Achilles, under the orders of that monarch. (Hom, Il., 1,320.)—II. Aherald of Ulysses. (Hom., Il., 2, 184.)

Euryblides, a Spartan, commander of the combined Grecian fleet at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis. He was appointed to this office, although Sparta sent only ten ships, by the desire of the allies, who refused to obey an Athenian. (Herod., 8, 3.— Bahr, ad loc.) An allusion to the famous scene between Eurybiades and Themistocles will be found under the latter article. (Wid. Themistocles.) Eurydice, I. the wife of Amyntas, king of Macedonia. She had, by her husband Alexander, Perdiccas and Philip, and one daughter called Euryone, who was married to Ptolemy Alorites. A criminal partiality for her daughter's husband, to whom she offered her hand and the kingdom, made her conspire against Amyntas, who must have fallen a victim to her infidelity, had not Euryone discovered it. Amyntas forgave her. Alexander ascended the throne after his father's death, and perished by the ambition of his mother. Perdiccas, who succeeded him, shared his fate; but Philip, who was the next in succession, secured himself against all attempts from his mother, and ascended the throne with peace and universal satisfaction. Eurydice fled to Iphicrates, the Athenian general, for protection. The manner of her death is unknown. (C. Nep., Vit. Iphicl, 3.)—II. A daughter of Antipater, and the wife of Ptolemy I. of Egypt, by whom she had several children. After the death of Alexander the Great, she proceeded to Alexandrea for the purpose of rejoining her husband, and she brought with her Berenice, her niece, who proved the source of all her misfortunes. For Berenice inspired Ptolemy with so strong a passion, that he took her as his second wife, and allowed himself to be controlled entirely by her influence. Eurydice and her children retired to the court of Seleucus, king of Syria. One of her daughters subsequently married Agathocles, son of Lysimachus; and another, Demetrius Poliorcetes. Ptolemy Ceraunus, the eldest of her sons, seized upon the kingdom of Macedonia. Eurydice followed him to that country, and contributed to conciliate towards him the minds of the Macedonians, through the respect which they entertained for the memory of her father Antipater. Ptolemy Ceraunus having been slain, B.C. 280, in a battle against the Gauls, Macedonia was delivered up to the ravages of these barbarians, and Eurydice fled for protection to the city of Cassandrea. In order to attach the inhabitants more strongly to her interests, she gave them their freedom; and they, through gratitude, established a festival called after her Eurydicea. The rest of her history is not known. —III. A daughter of Amyntas and Cynane. Herprevious name was Adea, afterward changed to Eurydice. (Arrian, ap. Phot, cod., 92—vol. 1, p. 70, ed. Bekker.) She married Aridaeus, the half-brother of Alexander, and for some time, through the aid of Cassander, defended Macedonia against Polysperchon and Olympias. Having been forsaken, at length, by her own troops, she j into the hands of Olympias, together with her husband. Both were put to death by that queen. (Justin, 14, 5.)—IV. Wife of Orpheus. As she fled before Aristaus she was bitten by a serpent in the o and died of the wound. Her disconsolate husand determined to descend to the lower world, to endeavour to procure her restoration to life. Pluto and Proserpina listened to his prayer; and Eurydice was allowed to return, on the express condition that Orpheus should not look back upon her till they were arrived in the regions of day. Fearing that she might not be following him, the anxious husband looked back, and thereby lost her. (Vid. Orpheus.) Eury Médon, a river of Pamphylia, in Asia Minor, rising in the chain of Mount Taurus, and, after passing the city of Aspendus, falling into the Mediterranean below that place. (Scylar, p. 40–Mela, 1, 14.— Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 124.) Near it the Persians were defeated by the Athenians under Ci

mon, B.C. 470, in both a naval and land fight. The Persian ships were drawn up at the mouth of the river, to the number of 350, or, as some affirm, 600; but, on the first attack, they fled to the shore and were stranded. Simon then landed his forces, and, after a severe engagement, routed the enemy, and took their camp and baggage. (Plut., Wit. Cim.—Thucyd., 1, 100.) This signal victory annihilated the Persian navy. The Eurymedon is now the Capri-sou, and appears to have undergone considerable changes since ancient times, for the bar at the mouth is now so shallow as to be impassable to boats that draw more than one foot of water. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 281.) Euryphon, a Cnidian physician, a contemporary of Hippocrates, but probably older in years, since he is deemed the author of the Cnidian aphorisms which are quoted by Hippocrates. (Galen, Comment. in Hipp. de pictu acut., p. 43.) Euhypon, a king of Sparta, son of Soils. According to Pausanias (3, 7), his reign was so glorious a one, that his descendants were called from him Eurypontida, although the family belonged to the Proclide. Plutarch, however (Wit. Lycurg., c. 2), says that the change of name was owing to Eurypon's having relaxed the strictness of kingly government, and inclined to the interests of the people. (Consult Valckenaer, ad Theocrit. Adoniaz., p. 271.) EurysthéNrs, a son of Aristodemus, who reigned conjointly with his twin-brother Procles at Sparta. It was not known which of the two was born first; the mother, who wished to see both her sons raised on the throne, refused to declare it; and they were both appointed kings of Sparta by order of the oracle of Delphi, B.C. 1102. After the death of the two brothers, the Lacedæmonians, who knew not to what family the right of seniority and succession belonged, permitted two kings to sit on the throne, one of each family. The descendants of Eurysthenes were called Eurysthenidae, and those of Procles, Proclidae. It was inconsistent with the laws of Sparta for two kings of the same family to ascend the throne together, yet that law was sometimes violated by oppression and tyranny. Eurysthenes had a son called Agis, who succeeded him. His descendants were called Agidae. There sat on the throne of Sparta 31 kings of the family of Eurysthenes, and only 24 of the Proclidae. The former were the more illustrious. (Herodot., 4, 147; 6, 52.-Pausan., 3, 1.-C. Nep., Wit. Ages.) Eurysthe Nidze. Wid. Eurysthenes. Eurystheus, a king of Argos and Mycenae, son of Sthenelus and Nicippe the daughter of Pelops. Juno hastened his birth by two months, that he might come into the world before Hercules, the son of Alcmena, as the younger of the two was doomed by order of Jupiter to be subservient to the will of the other. (Wid. Alcmena.) The right thus obtained was cruelly exercised by Eurystheus, and led to the performance of the twelve celebrated labours of Hercules. The success of the hero in achieving these so alarmed Eurystheus, that he furnished himself with a brazen vessel, where he might secure himself a safe retreat in case of danger. Apollodorus says that it was a vessel of brass (ribov xažkov, Apollod., 2, 5, 1), which he constructed secretly under ground. It appears, in fact, to have been a subterraneous chamber, covered within with plates of brass. The remains of the treasury of Atreus at Mycenae indicate a building of a similar description, the nails which probably served to fasten plates of this metal to the walls still appearing. These nails consist of 88 parts of copper and 12 of tin. A similar explanation may be given of the brazen temple of Minerva at Sparta. Vid. Chalcioecus. (Gell's Itinerary, p. 33.) After Hercules had been translated to the skies, Eurystheus persecuted his children, and threatened with war Ceyx, king of Trachis, at whose court they had taken shelter. ey * to Ath

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