Obrazy na stronie

Eleusis and Athens were long independent of each other. (Aglaoph., p. 214, 1351–Müller, Dorians, vol. 1, p. 201.) The worship of Ceres and Proserpina was the national and secret religion of the Eleusinians, from which the Athenians were of course excluded, as well as all other Greeks. But when Eleusis was conquered, and the two states coalesced, the Athenians became participators in the worship of these deities; which, however, remained so long confined to them, as to have given rise to a proverb ("Artukoi "EZevaivia), applied to those who met together in secret for the performance of any matter. (Aglaoph., p. 271.) Gradually, with the advance of knowledge, and the decline of superstition and national illiberality, admission to witness the solemn rites celebrated each year at Eleusis was extended to all Greeks of either sex and of every rank, provided they came at the proper time, had committed no inexpiable offence, had performed the requisite previous ceremonies, and were introduced by an Athenian citizen. (Aglaoph., p. 14, 28, 31.) These mysteries, as they were termed, were performed with a considerable degree of splendour, at the charge of the state, and under the superintendence of the magistrates; whence it follows, as a necessary consequence, that the rites could have contained nothing that was grossly immoral or indecent. (Aglaoph., p. 116.) There does not appear to be any valid reason for supposing, as many do, that a public discourse on the origin of things and that of the gods, and on other high and important matters, was delivered by the Hierophant, whose name would rather seem to be derived from his exhibiting the sacred things, ancient statues probably of the goddesses, which were kept carefully covered up, and only shown on these solemn occasions. The delivery of a public discourse would, in fact, have been quite repugnant to the usages of the Greeks in their worship of the gods; and the evidence offered in support of this supposition .s extremely feeble. But the singing of sacred hymns, in honour of the goddess, always formed a part of the service. (Aglaoph., p. 63, 193.-Muller, Prolegom., p. 250, seq.) The ancient writers are full of the praises of the Eleusinian mysteries, of the advantage of being initiated, i.e., admitted to participate in them, and of the favour of the gods in life, and the cheerful hopes in death, which were the consequence of it. Hence occasion has been taken to assert, that a system of religion little inferior to pure Christianity was taught in them. But these hopes, and this tranquillity of mind and favour of heaven, are easy to be accounted for without having recourse to so absurd a supposition. Every act performed in obedience to the will of Heaven is believed to draw down its favour on the performer. The Mussulman makes his pilgrimage to the Kaaba at Mecca, the Catholic to Loretto, Compostella, or elsewhere; and each is persuaded that, by having done so, he has secured the divine favour. (Aglaoph., p. 70, seq.) So the Greek who was initiated at Eleusis (the mysteries of which place, owing to the same in which Athens stood, and the splendour and magnificence with which they were performed, eclipsed all others) retained ever after a lively sense of the happiness which he had enjoyed, when admitted to view the interior of the illuminated temple, and the sacred relics which it contained, when, to his excited imagination, the very gods themselves seemed visibly to descend from their Olympian abodes, amid the solemn hymns of the officiating priests. Hence there naturally arose a persuasion, that the benign regards of the gods were bent upon him through after life; and, as man can never divest himself of the belief of his continued existence after death, a vivid hope of enjoying bliss in the life to come. It was evidently the principle already stated, of seeking to discover the causes of remarkable appearances, which gave origin to most of the ideas ors the recondite sense of the actions in N n

and ceremonies which took place in the Eleusinian mysteries. The stranger, dazzled and awed by his own conception of the sacredness and importance of all he beheld, conceived that nothing there could be without some mysterious meaning. What this might be he inquired of the officiating ministers, who, as various passages in Herodotus and Pausanias show, were seldom without a legend or Sacred Account (tepô: Żóyoc), as it was called, to explain the dress or ceremony, which owed, perhaps, its true origin to the caprice or sportive humour of a ruder period. Or if the initiated person was himself endowed with inventive power, he explained the appearances according, in general, to the system of philosophy which he himself had embraced. (Aglaoph., p. 180, seq.) It was thus that Porphyry conceived the Hierophant to represent the Platonic Demiurgus or creator of the world; the torchbearer (Ögöoixos) the sun; the altar-man (6 &ti Bajić) the moon; the herald (kipv;) Hermes; and the other ministers the inferior stars. These fancies of priests and philosophers have been formed by modern writers into a complete system, and Saint-Croix in particular describes the Eleusinian mysteries with as much minuteness as if he had been actually himself initiated. (Compare Warburton's Div. Legation.—Saint-Croir, Recherches sur les Mystères, &c.)—It is to be observed, in conclusion, with respect to the charges of impiety and immorality brought against the Eleusinian mysteries by some Fathers of the Church, that this arose from their confounding them with the Bacchic, Isiac, Mithraic, and other private mysteries, mostly imported from Asia, which were undoubtedly liable to that imputation. It must always be remembered, that those of Eleusis were public, and celebrated by the state. (Aglaoph., p. 116, 197, 202, 1263–Müller, Proleg., p. 248, seq.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 181, seqq.) Eleusis or Eleusin, I. an ancient city of Boeotia, which stood, according to tradition, near Copae and the Lake Copais, and was, together with another ancient city, named Athenae, mundated by the waters of that lake. (Strab.,407.) Stephanus of Byzantium reports, that when Crates drained the waters which had overspread the plains, the city of Athenae became visible (s. v. 'Atival). Compare Muller, Gesch. Hellenisch. Stämme und Städte, vol. 1, p. 57, seqq.—II. A city of Attica, equidistant from Megara and the Piraus, and famed for the celebration of the mysteries of Ceres. According to some writers, it derived its name from a hero, whom some affirmed to be the son of Mercury, but others of Ogyges. (Pausan., 1,38.— Compare Aristid., Rhet. Eleus., vol. 1, p. 257.) Its origin is certainly of the highest antiquity, as it appears to have already existed in the time of Cecrops (Strabo, 387), but we are not informed by whom, or at what period, the worship of Ceres was introduced there. Eusebius places the building of the first temple in the reign of Pandion (Chron., 2, p. 66); but, according to other authors, it is more ancient. (Clem. Alez., Strom., 1, p. 381–Tatian, ad Graec., c. 61.) Celeus is said to have been king of Eleusis when Ceres first arrived there. (Hom., Hymn. in Cer., 96. —Id, ibid., 356.—Id. ibid., 474.) Some etymologists suppose that Eleusis was so called, because Ceres, after traversing the whole world in pursuit of her daughter, came here (#284.60, remio), and ended her search. Diodorus Siculus (5, 69) makes the name Eleusis to have been given this city, as a monument to posterity, that corn and the art of cultivating it were brought from abroad into Attica; or, to use the words of the historian, “because the person who brought thither the seed of corn came from foreign parts.” At one period Eleusis was powerful enough to contend with Athens for the sovereignty of Attica. This was in the time of Eumolpus. The controversy was ended by a treaty, wherein it was stipulated ...' Eleusis should yield to the control of Athens, but that the sacred rites of Ceres should be celebrated at the former city. Ceres and Triptolemus were both worshipped here with peculiar solemnity, and here also was shown the Rarius Campus, where Ceres was said to have first sown corn. (Pausanias, 1, 38.) Dodwell observes, that the soil, though arid, still produces abundant harvests (vol. 1, p. 583). The temple of Eleusis was burned by the Persian army, in the invasion of Attica (Herod., 9, 65), but was rebuilt, under the administration of Pericles, by Ictinus, the architect of the Parthenon. (Strabo, 395.-Plut., Vit. Periclis.) Strabo says, that the mystic cell of this celebrated edifice was capable of containing as many persons as a theatre. A portico was afterward added by Demetrius Phalereus, who employed for that purpose the architect Philo. This magnificent structure was entirely destroyed by Alaric A.D. 396 (Eunap., Wit. Soph., p. 75), and has ever since remained in ruins. Eleusis, though so considerable and important a place, was classed among the Attic demi. (Strabo, l.c.) It belonged to the tribe Hippothoontis. (Steph. Byz., s.v. 'EAevatc.) Livy speaks of the citadel as being a sortress of some strength, comprised within the sacred precincts of the temple (31, 25.—Compare Scylaz, Periplus, p. 21); and Dodwell observes (vol. 1, p. 584), that the acropolis was elevated upon a rocky ridge, which rises to the north of the temple of Ceres.—Eleusis, now called Lessina, is an inconsiderable village, inhabited by a few Albanian Christians. (Chandler's Travels, c. 42.) The colossal statue of the Eleusinian Ceres, the work of Phidias, after hav. ing suffered many mutilations, was brought over to England by Dr. Clarke and Mr. Cripps in 1801, and now stands in the vestibule of the University Library at Cambridge. The temple itself was subsequently cleared by Sir Wm. Gell. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 360, seqq.) EleuthERAE, a city of Attica, on the road from Eleusis to Plataea, which appears to have once belonged to Boeotia, but finally became included within the limits of Attica. (Strabo, 412.) Pausanias reports (1,38), that the Eleutherians were not conquered by the Athenians, but voluntarily united themselves to that people, from their constant enmity to the Thebans. Bacchus is said to have been born in this town. (Diod. Sic., 3, 65.) This ancient site probably corresponds with that now called Gypto Castro, where modern travellers have noticed the ruins of a considerable fortress situated on a steep rock, and apparently designed to protect the pass of Cithaeron. (Dodwell's Tour, vol. 1, p. 283.-Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 407.) Eleutheria, a festival celebrated at Plataea in honour of Jupiter Eleutherius, or the asserter of liberty, by delegates from almost all the cities of Greece. Its institution originated in this: after the victory obtained by the Grecians under Pausanias over Mardonius, the Persian general, in the vicinity of Plataea, an altar and statue were erected to Jupiter Eleutherius, who had freed the Greeks from the tyranny of the barbarians. . It was farther agreed upon in a general assembly, by the advice of Aristides the Athenian, that deputies should be sent every fifth year from the dis. ferent cities of Greece to celebrate the Eleutheria, or festival of liberty. The Plataeans celebrated also an anniversary festival in memory of those who had lost their lives in that famous battle. The celebration was thus: at break of day a procession was made with a trumpeter at the head, sounding a signal for battle. After him followed chariots loaded with myrrh, garlands, and a black bull, and certain free young men, as no signs of servility were to appear during the solemnity, because they in whose honour the festival was instituted had died in the defence of their country. Toonio libations of wine and milk in large

eared vessels, with jars of oil and precious ointments. Last of all appeared the chief magistrate, who, though not permitted at other times to touch iron, or wear garments of any colour but white, yet appeared clad in purple, and, taking a water-pot out of the city chamber, proceeded through the middle of the town with a sword in his hand, towards the sepulchres. There he drew water from a neighbouring spring, and washed and anointed the monuments ; after which he sacrificed a bull upon a pile of wood, invoking Jupiter and Mercury, and inviting to the entertainment the souls of those happy heroes who had perished in the defence of their country. After this, he filled a bowl with wine, saying, “I drink to those who lost their lives in the defence of the liberties of Greece.”—There was also a festival of the same name observed by the Samians in honour of the god of Love.—Slaves also, when they obtained their liberty, kept a holyday, which they called Eleutheria. Eleuthèro-CILices, a name given to those of the Cilicians who had fied to the mountains when the Greek settlers established themselves in that country. The appellation, which means “Free Cilicians,” has reference to their independent mode of life. The Greeks, however, connected a fable with this. According to them, when Myrina, queen of the Amazons, was spreading her conquests over Asia Minor, the Cilicians were the only people that voluntarily surrendered to her, and hence they were allowed to retain their freedom. (Diod. Sic., 3, 55.) Xenophon also makes mention of the Cilician mountaineers (Anab., 1, 2), and of their having cut to pieces some Greek troops, a part of those in the army of Cyrus, who had lost their way. Cicero came in contact with them during his government in Cilicia, and partially reduced them under the Roman sway, but they soon after became as free and independent as ever. (Ep. ad Fam., 15, 4 ; ad Att., 5, 20.) Eleuthèro-LacôNes, a title conferred by Augustus on a considerable part of the Laconian nation, consisting of several maritime towns, for the zeal which the inhabitants had early testified in favour of the Romans. Enfranchisement and other privileges accompanied the title. (Strabo, 336.—Pausan., 3, 21.) Eleutheropólis, a city of Palestine, placed by the Itin. Ant. 24 miles northeast from Ascalon, and 20 miles southwest from Jerusalem. It was founded in the third century, but by whom is uncertain. (Amm. Marcell., 23, 1.) Hence, owing to its late foundation, no mention of it occurs in Ptolemy or Josephus. In the days of Eusebius and Jerome, however, it was an important and flourishing city, and these writers estimate the distances and positions of places from this and Ælia or Jerusalem. St. Epiphanius was born here. (Sozom., 6, 32.-Compare Cellarius, Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 490.) Eleutho, a surname of Lucina, from her coming, when invoked, to the aid of women in labour. (Pind., Ol., 6, 72.) Elicius, a surname of Jupiter, worshipped on Mount Aventine. The Romans gave him this name, according to Ovid (Fast, 3,328), because they believed that they could, by a set form of words, draw him down (elicere) from the sky, to inform them how to expiate prodigies, &c. M. Salverte, in his curious and learned work on the Occult Sciences of the Ancients (Des Sciences Occultes, ou Essai sur la Magie, &c., Paris, 1829, 2 vols. 8vo), takes up this subject of Jupiter Elicius, and seeks to connect it with a knowledge of the art of drawing down the electric fluid from the clouds. Medals and traditions are the grounds on which he rests. “M. La Boessière,” he states, “mentions several medals which appear to have a reference to this subject. One described by M. Duchoul represents the temple of Juno, the goddess of the air: the roof which covers it is armed with pointed rods. Another, described and engraved by Pellerin, bears the legend Jupiter Elicius; the god appears with the lightning in his hand; beneath is a man guiding a winged stag: but we must observe, that the authenticity of this medal is suspected. Finally, other medals cited by Duchoul, in his work on the Religion of the Romans, present the exergue; XV. Viri Sacris Faciundis; and bear a fish covered with points placed on a globe or on a patera. M. la Boessière thinks, that a fish or a globe, thus armed with points, was the conductor employed by Numa to withdraw from the clouds the electric fire. And, comparing the figure of this globe with that of a head covered with erect hair, he gives an ingenious and plausible explanation of the singular dialogue between Numa and Jupiter, related by Valerius Antias, and ridiculed by Arnobius (lib. 5.),

robably without its being understood by either—The #. of the physical attainments of Numa deserves particular examination. At a period when lightning was occasioning continual injury, Numa, instructed by the nymph Egeria, sought a method of appeasing the lightning (fulmen piare); that is to say, in plain lan

uage, a way of rendering this meteor less destructive. #. succeeded in intoxicating Faunus and Picus, whose names in this place probably denote only the priests of these Etruscan divinities; he learned from them the secret of making, without any danger, the thundering Jupiter descend upon earth, and immediately put it in execution. Since that period, Jupiter Elicius, or Jupiter who is made to descend, was adored in Rome. Here the veil of the mystery is transparent: to render the lightning less injurious, to make it, without danger, descend from the bosom of the clouds: and the effect and the end are common to the beautiful discovery of Franklin, and to that religious experiment which Numa frequently repeated with success. Tullus Hostilius was less fortunate. “It is related,’ says Livy, ‘that this prince, in searching the memoirs left by Numa, found among them some instructions relative to the secret sacrifices offered to Jupiter Elicius. He attempted to repeat them; but in the preparations or in the celebration he deviated from the sacred rite. . . . Exposed to the anger of Jupiter, evoked by a defective ceremony (sollicitati prava religione), he was struck by the lightning and burned, together with his palace (i, 31.-Compare Plin., 2, 53.-Id., 38, 4). An ancient annalist quoted by Pliny, expresses himself in a more explicit manner, and justifies the liberty we take in departing from the sense commonly given to the sentences of Livy by his translators. Guided by the books of Numa, Tullus undertook to evoke Jupiter by the aid of the same ceremonies which his predecessors had employed. Having departed from the prescribed rite, he was struck by the lightning and perished. (Lucius Piso, ap. Plin., 28, 2.) For the words rites and ceremonies, substitute the words Poio process, and we shall perceive that the fate of Tullus was that of Professor Reichmann. In 1753 this learned man was killed by the lightning, when repeating too incautiously the experiments of Franklin.” (Salverte, vol. 2, p. 154.) The art thus veiled under the name of rites of Jupiter Elicius, and Zeic karatórno, M. Salverte considers as having been employed by the various imitators of thunder. Going back to the age of Prometheus, it affords an explanation of the fable of Salmoneus; it was employed by Zoroaster to kindle the sacred fire (Dion Chrysost., Orat. Borysth.), and perform, in the initiation of his followers, some of the miracles, of which a traditionary belief still exists in the East. It may be inferred, that in the time of Ctesias the same art was known in India, and that the Jews were not unacquainted with its effects would appear from some remarks of Michaelis cited by M. Salverte. He remarks, “1. That there is nothing to indicate that the lightning ever struck the temple of Jerusalem during the lapse of a thousand years. 2. That, according to the


account of Josephus (Bell. Jud., 5, 14), a forest of spikes with golden or gilt points, and very sharp, covered the roof of this temple; a remarkable feature of resemblance with the temple of Juno represented on the Roman medals. 3. That this roof communicated with the caverns in the hill of the temple, by means of metallic tubes, placed in connexion with the thick gilding that covered the whole exterior of the building. The points of the spikes there necessarily produced the effect of lightning-rods. . . . . How are we to suppose that it was only by chance they discharged so important a function; that the advantage received from it had not been calculated ; that the spikes were erected in such great numbers only to prevent the birds from lodging upon and defiling the roof of the temple! Yet this is the sole utility which the historian Josephus attributes to them. #. ignorance is an additional proof of the facility with which the higher branches of knowledge must be lost, so long as men, instead of forming them into an organized system of science, sought only an empirical art of operating wonders.” (Salverte, vol. 2, p. 166.—Foreign Quarterly, No. 12, p. 449, seqq.)

Eli Kc1, a name given to the school of philosophy established by Phaedo of Elis. (Laert, 2, 106.) It was instituted after the Socratic model by Phaedo of Elis, and was continued by Plistanus an Elian, and afterward by Menedemus of Eretria. (Enfield's His“g of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 204.)

LiMEA or EllM1ötis, a region of Macedonia, to

the east of Stymphalia. It was at one time independent, but was afterward conquered by the kings of Macedonia, and finally included by the Romans in the fourth division of that province. (Thucyd., 2, 99.Liv., 45, 30.) Though a mountainous and barren tract, Elimea must have been a very important acquisition to the kings of Macedonia, from its situation with regard to Epirus and Thessaly, there being several passages leading directly into those provinces from Elimea. The mountains which separated Elimea from Thessaly were the Cambunii Montes of Livy (42, 53), which cross nearly at right angles the chain of Pindus to the west, and that of Olympus to the east. Ptolemy has assigned to the Elimiota a maritime situation on the coast of Illyria, which cannot be correct (p. 81), but elsewhere he places them in the interior of Macedonia (p. 83), and writes the name Elymiota. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, there was a town named Elimea or Elimeum, which tradition reported to have been founded by Elymas, a Tyrrhenian chief (s. v. 'EApueta). Ptolemy calls it Elyma. Livy probably alludes to this city in his account of the expedition undertaken by Perseus against Stratus, when that prince assembled his forces and reviewed them at Elymea (43, 21). This capital of Elimiotis stood, perhaps, on the Haliacmon, not far from Greuno. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 200, seqq.)

É. I. a fore of the Peloponnesus, lying west of Arcadia. At the period of the Peloponnesian war, the name of Elis was applied to the whole of that northwestern portion of the peninsula situated between the rivers Larissus and Neda, which served to separate it from Achaia and Messenia. (Strabo,336.) But in earlier times, this tract of country was divided into several districts or principalities, each occupied by a separate clan or people. Of these the Caucones were probably the most ancient, and also the most widely disseminated, since we find them occupying both extremities of the province, and extending even into Achaia. (Strabo, 342.) Strabo affirms, that, according to some authors, the whole of Elis once bore the name of Cauconia. Next to these were the Epei, who are placed by Homer (Od., 15, 296) in the northern part of the province, and next to Achaia. Pausanias, who seems to have regarded them as indigenous, derives their name from Epeus, son of Endymion, one of the earliest sovereigns of the country; on his death his brother Ætolus succeeded to his crown; but, as he was shortly after forced to fly his country for an involuntary crime, the sovereignty devolved on Eleus, descended also from Endymion, who gave his name to the Elean people (5, 1). The former appellation, however, still continued to predominate, as we may infer from the poems of Homer, who mentions Elis as a district of the Epei, without ever naming the Elei. Strabo also states, that Elis did not become the capital of the country till after the Persian war, at which period it was formed into a city by the union of several smaller towns. Prior to the siege of Troy, the Epei are said to have been greatly reduced by their wars with Hercules, who conquered Augeas their king, and the Pylians commanded by Nestor. They subsequently, however, acquired a great accession of strength by the influx of a large colony from AEtolia, under the conduct of Oxylus, and their numbers were farther increased by a considerable detachment of the Dorians and Heraclidae. (Strabo, 354.—Pausan., 5, 3.) Iphitus, descended from Oxylus, and a contemporary of Lycurgus, re-established the Olympic games, which, though instituted, as it was said, by Hercules, had been interrupted for several years. (Pausan., 5, 4.) The Pisata having remained masters of Olympia from the first celebration of the festival, long disputed its possession with the Eleans, but they were finally conquered, when the temple and presidency of the games fell into the hands of their rivals. . The preponderance obtained by the latter is chiefly attributable to the assistance they derived from Sparta, in return for the aid afforded to that power in the Messenian war. From this period we may date the ascendency of Elis over all the other surrounding districts hitherto independent. It now comprised not only the country of the Epei and Caucones, which might be termed Elis Proper, but the territories of Pisa and Olympia, forming the ancient kingdom of Pelops, and the whole of Triphylia, which, according to Strabo's view of the Homeric geography, constituted the greater part of Nestor's dominions. (Strabo, 355.) The Eleans were present in all the engagements fought against the Persians, and, in the Peloponnesian war, zealously adhered to the Spartan confederacy, until the conclusion of the treaty after the battle of Amphipolis, when an open rupture took place between this people and the Lacedæmonians, in consequence of protection and countenance afforded by the latter to the inhabitants of Lepraeum, who had revolted from them. (Thucyd., 5, 31.) Such was the resentment of the Eleans on this occasion, that they imposed a heavy fine on the Lacedæmonians, and prohibited their taking part in the Olympic games. They also made war upon Sparta, in conjunction with the Mantineans, Argives, and Athenians; and it was not till after the unsuccessful battle of Mantinea that this confederacy was dissolved. (Thucyd., 5, 81.) The Lacedæmonians, on the other hand, avenged those injuries by frequent incursions into the territory of Elis, the fertility of which presented an alluring prospect of booty to an invading army. They were beaten, however, at Olympia under the command of Agis (Xen., Hist. Gr., 3, 2, 16.—Pausan., 5, 4); and again repulsed before the city of Elis, whither they had advanced under Pausanias, in the 3d ear of the 94th Olympiad. (Diod. Sic., 14, 17.) At i. the Eleans, wearied with the continual incursions to which their country was exposed, since it furmished entire subsistence to the army of the enemy, gladly sued for peace, and renewed their ancient alliance with Sparta. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 3, 2.—Pausan., l. c.) Not long after, however, we find them again in arms, together with the Boeotians and Argives, against that power. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 7, 2.) . At the battle of Mantinea, they once more fought under the Spartan banners, jealousy of the rising ascendency obtained by

the Thebans having led them to abandon their interests. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 7, 5, 1.) Pausanias writes, that when Philip acquired the dominion of Greece, the Eleans, who had suffered much from civil dissensions, joined the Macedonian alliance, but refused to fight against the Athenians and Thebans at Chaeronea, and on the death of Alexander they united their arms with those of the other confederates, who carried on the war of Lamia against Antipater and the other commanders of the Macedonian forces. Some years after, Aristotimus, son of Damaretus, through the assistance of Antigonus Gonatas, usurped the sovereignty of Elis; but a conspiracy having been formed against him, he was slain at the altar of Jupiter Servator, whither he had fled for refuge. (Pausan, 5,4, 5.) During the Social war, the Eleans were the firmest allies of the AEtolians in the Peloponnesus; and though they were on more than one occasion basely deserted by that people, and sustained heavy losses in the field, as well as from the devastation of their territory and the capture of their towns, they could not be induced to desert their cause and join the Achaean league. (Polyb., 4, 5, seqq. —Id., 4, 59, seqq.—Id, 4, 71, seqq.—Id., 5, 17, seqq.) These events, described by Polybius, are the last in which the Eleans are mentioned as an independent people: for though they do not appear to have taken any part in the Achaean war, they were included with the rest of the Peloponnesus in the general decree, by which the whole of Greece was annexed to the Roman empire.—Elis was by far the most fertile and populous district of the Peloponnesus, and its inhabitants are described as fond of agriculture and rural pursuits. (Polyb., 4, 73.) It is remarked by Pausanias (5, 5), that Elis was the only part of Greece in which the byssus was known to grow. Another extraordinary circumstance relative to this province was, that no mules were engendered in it, though they abounded in the adjoining countries. This phenomenon had been noticed before by Herodotus (4, 30), who reports that it was looked upon as resulting from the curse of Heaven—Elis was divided into three districts, Elis Proper, Pisatis, and Triphylia. The first of these occupied the northern section of the country, and has already been alluded to : the second, or Pisatis, was that part of the Elean territory through which flowed the Alpheus after its junction with the Erymanthus. It derived its name from the city of Pisa: the third, or Triphylia, formed the southern division. Some authors have derived the name of this portion of Elis from Triphylus, an Arcadian prince. (Polyb., 4, 77.) But others ascribe it with more probability to the circumstance of its inhabitants having sprung from three different nations (tpia púža), the Epei, the Minya or Arcadians, and the Eleans. (Strabo, 337.—Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 77, seqq.)—II. The capital of Elis, situated, as we learn from Strabo, on the Peneus, at the distance of 120 stadia from the sea. It was, like many other towns of Greece, at first composed of several detached villages, which, being united after the Persian war, formed one considerable city. It always, however, remained without walls; as it was deemed sacred, and under the immediate protection of the god whose festival was there solemnized. Hence, in early times, according to Ephorus, those troops which were obliged to traverse this country delivered up their arms on entering it, and received them again upon quitting the frontier. (Ap. Strabo, 357.-Compare Xen., Hist. Gr., 3, 2, 20.) But this primitive state of things was not of long duration: for we subsequently find the Elean territory as little respected as any other Grecian state by the powers at war with that republic; still the peace and tranquillity thus enjoyed for a time by the Eleans, together with the vast concourse of persons attracted by the Olympic games, greatly contributed to the prosperity and opulence of their city. The remains of Elis are now called Palacopoli, but they are inconsiderable, neither are they interesting from their state of preservation. (Compare the remarks of Chandler, Travels, vol. 2, ch. 74.—Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 316. —Gell, Itin. of the Morea, p. 32.—Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 88, seqq.) Elissa, another name for Dido. (Wid. Dido.) Ellopia, a district of Euboea, in the northern part of the island, in which Histiaea was situated. According to some, it derived its name from Ellops, a son of Ion, who settled here. (Strab., 445.) Elpinice, a daughter of Miltiades. and Cimon.) Ely Māis, a province of Persia, lying to the south of Media, and forming the northern part of the larger district of Susiana. It derived its name from the Elymai. These were originally seated in the north (Polyb., 5,44), but in process of time spread themselves over all the rest of Susiana, to the shores of the Persian Gulf. (Strab., Epit., 11, p. 1264, ed. Oron.) Elymais, the metropolis of the province, was famed for a rich temple, which Antiochus Epiphanes attempted to plunder; he was beaten off, however, by the inhabitants. The temple was afterward o by one of the Parthian kings, who found in it, according to Strabo, 10,000 talents. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 158.) ELYMiótis, a district of Macedonia, in the southwest, bordering on Thessaly and Epirus. Elysii CAMP1, the abode of the blessed in another world, where they enjoyed all manner of the purest pleasures. In the Homeric mythology, the Elysian fields lay on the western margin of the earth, by the stream of Oceanus, and to them the mortal relatives of the king of the gods were transported, without tasting of death, to enjoy an immortality of bliss. (Od., 4, 563, seqq.) In the time of Hesiod, the Elysian Plains had become the Isles of the Blessed, in the Western Ocean. (Op. et D., 169.). Pindar, who has left a glowing description of Elysium, appears to reduce the number of these happy islands to one. (Ol., 2, 129.) At a later day, a change of religious ideas ensued, brought about by the increase of geographical knowledge, and Elysium was moved down to the lower world, as the place of reward for the good. The poetical conceptions respecting Elysium made it a region blessed with perpetual spring, clothed with continual verdure, enamelled with flowers, shaded by pleasant groves, and refreshed by never-sailing sountains. Here the righteous lived in perfect felicity, communing with each other, bathed in a flood of light proceeding from their own sun, and the sky at eve being lighted up by their own constellations: “solemgue suum, sua sidera norunt.” (Virg., AEm., 6, 54.1.) Their employments below resembled those on earth, and whatever had warmly engaged their attention in the upper world, continued to be a source of virtuous enjoyment in the world below. (Virg., AEm., 6, 653.) EMAthia, the more ancient name of Macedonia. Polybius (fragm., 24, 8) and Livy (40, 3) expressly assert, however, that Emathia was originally called Pasonia, though Homer certainly mentions them as two distinct countries. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 226.) EMERITA AugustA, a town of Lusitania, below Norba Caesarea, on the northern bank of the Anas. It is now Merida. (Plin., 9, 41.) EMésa, an ancient city of Syria, situate near the eastern bank of the Orontes, southeast of Epiphania. It was the birthplace of the Emperor Heliogabalus, and contained a famous temple of the Sun, in which Heliogabalus was priest. It is now called Hems, and is merely a large ruinous town, containing about 2000 inhabitants, though formerly a strong and populous city. (Amm. Marcell., 26, 18.). EMödi Montes, part of a chain of mountains in Asia. Pliny (6, 16) states, that the Emodi Montes,

(Wid. Callias

and those of Imaus, Paropamisus, and Caucasus were connected together. That part of the chain which Alexander crossed in order to invade Bactriana was called Paropamisus, the more easterly continuation of the range was termed Emodi Montes, and its still farther continuation, even to the Eastern Ocean, was styled Imaus. (Wid. Imaus.) Empedocles, a native of Agrigentum in Sicily, who flourished about 450 B.C. He was distinguished not only as a philosopher, but also for his knowledge of natural history and medicine, and as a poet and statesman. After the death of his father Meto, who was a wealthy citizen of Agrigentum, he acquired a great weight among his fellow-citizens by espousing the pop ular party and favouring democratic measures. His cousequence in the state became at length so great, that he ventured to assume several of the distinctions of royalty, particularly a purple robe, a golden girdle, a Delphic crown, and a train of attendants, always retaining a grave and commanding aspect. The skill which he possessed in medicine and natural philosophy enabled him to perform many wonders, which he passed upon the superstitious and credulous multitude for miracles. He pretended to drive away noxious winds from his country, and thereby put a stop to epidemic diseases. He is said to have checked, by the power of music, the madness of a young man who was threatening his enemy with instant death; to have restored a woman to life who had lain breathless thirty days; and to have done many other things, equally astonishing, after the manner of Pythagoras. On account of all this, he was an object of universal admiration, so that when he came to the Olympic games the eyes of all the people were fixed upon him. Besides medical skill, Empedocles possessed poetical talents. The fragments of his verses are scattered throughout the ancient writers, and Fabricius is of opinion that he was the real author of that ancient fragment which bears the name of the “Golden Verses of Pythagoras.” Gorgias of Leontini, the well-known orator, was his pupil, whence it may seem reasonable to infer, that Empedocles was also no inconsiderable master of the art of eloquence. According to the common account, he threw himself into the burning crater of Ætna, in order that, the manner of his death not being known, he might afterward pass for a god; but the secret was discovered by means of one of his brazen sandals, which was thrown out from the mountain in a subsequent eruption of the volcano. This story is rejected, however, as fictitious by Strabo and other judicious writers. The truth probably was, as Timaeus relates, that, towards the close of his life, Empedocles went into Greece and never returned, whence the exact time and manner of his death remain unknown. According to Aristotle, he died at 60 years of ‘. masters in philosophy are variously given. By some, like the Eleatae generally, he is called a Pythagorean, in consequence of a resemblance of doctrine in a few unessential points. But the principles of his theory evidently show that he belongs to the Eleatic school, though the statement which makes him a disciple of Parmenides rests apparently upon no better foundation than a comparison of their systems; as, in like manner, the common employment of the mechanical physiology has led to an opinion that he was a hearer of his contemporary Anaxagoras. Empedocles taught, that originally All was one: God eternal and at rest; a sphere and a mixture (coalpoc, utyua), without a vacuum, in which the elements of things were held together in undistinguishable confusion by love (plåta), the primal force which unites the like to like. In a portion of this whole, however, or, as he expresses it, in the members of the Deity, strife (veikor), the force which binds like to unlike, prevailed, and gave the elements a tendency to separate themselves, whereby the first become perceptible as such, although **

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