Obrazy na stronie

These were Lindus, Ialyssus, Camirus, Cos, Cnidus, and Halicarnassus. Other cities in the tract, called from them Doris, belonged to their confederacy; but the inhabitants of these six alone, as true and genuine Dorians, were admitted into the temple at Triope, where they exhibited solemn games in honour of Apollo Triopius. The prizes were tripods of brass, which the victors were obliged to consecrate to Apollo, and leave in the temple. When Agasicles of Halicarnassus won the prize, he transgressed this custom, and carried the tripod to his own house, on which account the city of Halicarnassus was ever afterward excluded from the Dorian confederacy. The Dorians were from that time known by the name of the five cities, or Pentapolis, and no longer by that of Hexapolis.-III. A goddess of the sea, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. She married her brother Nereus, by whom she had 50 daughters called Nereides. Her name is often used to express the sea itself. (Propert., 1, 17, 25.—Virg., Ecl., 10.—Hesiod., Theog.)—IV. A female of Locri, in Italy, daughter of Xenetus, whom Dionysius the Elder, of Sicily, married the same day with Aristomache. (Wid. Dionysius.) Doriscus, a plain in Thrace, near the mouth of the Hebrus, where, according to Herodotus (7,59), Xerxes numbered his land forces, as he was marching upon Greece. The mode in which his officers ascertained the amount of his troops was this: they drew up in cne place a body of 10,000 men; and making these stand together as compactly as possible, they traced a circle around them. Dismissing these, they enclosed the circle with a wall breast high; into this they introduced the army by bodies of 10,000 men each time. (Vid. Xerxes.) Dorse NNUs, or more correctly Dossennus, a Roman comic poet, and writer of Atellane fables, who enjoyed no mean reputation as a popular dramatist. (Compare Vossius, de Poet. Lat. incert. at., c. 7, p. 84.) Horace makes mention of him (Ep., 1, 2, 173.) He particularly excelled in drawing the characters of parasites; but, in consequence of the applause which these elicited from the lower orders, he would seem, from the censure of Horace, to have been tempted to go still farther, and push matters to extremes. The same poet also pleasantly alludes to his carelessness and negligence as a writer, by saying that he traversed the stage with his sock, or comic slipper, loose and untied. Seneca makes mention of the inscription on his tomb; from which epitaph some have inferred that he was distinguished as a moral writer. It ran as follows: “Hospes resiste, et sophiam Dossenni lege.” (Senec., Epist.,89, 6–Fabric., Bibl. Lat., vol. 3, p. 238, seqq.) Dorso, C. Fabius, a Roman, who, according to the old legend, when Rome was in the possession of the Gauls, issued from the Capitol, which was then besieged, to go and offer on Mons Quirinalis a stated sacrifice enjoined on the Fabian house. In the Gabine cincture, and bearing the sacred things in his hands, he descended from the Capitol and passed through the enemy without betraying the least signs of fear. When he had finished his sacrifice, he returned to the Capitol unmolested by the foe, who were astonished at his boldness, and did not obstruct his passage or molest his sacrifice. (Liv., 5, 46.) Dorus, a son of Hellen. (Wid. Doris.) Dorylaeum and DoRYLAEus, a city of Phrygia, now Eski-shehr, at the junction of the Bathys and Thymbris, two branches of the Sangarius, and on the confines of Bithynia. The plain of Dorylaeum is often mentioned by the Byzantine historians as the place of assemblage of the armies of the Eastern empire in their wars against the Turks; and it is described by Anna Comnena as being the first extensive plain of Phrygia after crossing the ridges of Mount Olympus, and after passing Leucae. For some remarks on the modern Eski-shehr, consult Walpole's Collection, vol.2, p. 205.

DösöN, a surname of Antigonus III., because he promised and never performed; 6&awy, in Greek, i.e., about to give; i.e., always promising. (Wud. Antigonus III.) DRAco, I. a celebrated Athenian legislator, who flourished about the 39th Olympiad, B.C. 621. Suidas tells us that he brought forward his code of laws in this year, and that he was then an old man. , Aristotle (Polit., 2, sub fin.) says, that Draco adapted his laws to the existing constitution, and that they contained nothing particular beyond the severity of their penalties. #. slightest theft was punished capitally, as well as the most atrocious murder; and Demades remarked of his laws, that they were written with blood, and not with ink. (Plut., Wit. Sol., c. 17.) Draco, however, deserves credit as the first who introduced written laws at Athens, and it is probable that he improved the criminal courts, by his transfer of cases of bloodshed from the archon to the ephetae (Jul. Pollux, 8, 124, seq.), since before his time the archons had a right of settling all cases arbitrarily, and without appeal; a right which they enjoyed in other cases until Solon's time. (Bekker, Anecd. Gratc., p. 449, l. 23.) It appears that there were some offences which he did not punish with death; for instance, loss of civil rights was the punishment of attempting to alter one of his laws. (Demosth., c. Aristocr., p. 714, Bekk.) Draco was an archon (Pausan, 9, 36, 8), and, consequently, an Eupatrid: it is not, therefore, to be supposed, that his object was to favour the lower orders, through his code seems to have tended to abridge the power of the nobles. The Athenians, it is said, could not endure the rigour of his laws, and the legislator himself was obliged to withdraw to the island of AEgina. Here he was actually suffocated in the the atre beneath the number of cloaks and garments which the people of the island, according to the usual mode of expressing approbation among the Greeks, showered upon him. He was buried in the theatre. On the legislation of Draco in general, consult Wachsmuth, Hellenische Alterthumsk, 2, 1, p. 239, seqq.–Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 9, p. 118. DRANc/E. Wid. Zarangaei. DRAvus, a river of Germany, rising in the Norican Alps. (Plin., 3, 25.-Strabo, 314.) It traverses the southern parts of Noricum and Pannonia, running from west to east, and falls into the Danube near the city of Comacum, or Erdent. It is now the Drave. Ptolemy calls it the Darus. The Greek copyists frequently allowed themselves the license of altering names and adding remarks, which only tended to show their own ignorance. So, in the present instance, they State . this river, which Ptolemy calls Darus, is the same with that named Daris by the barbarians, or the modern Drin. The truth is, Ptolemy means the Dravus, and no other. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 561.) DREPKNUM, I. a town of Sicily, north of Lilybaeum, and in the vicinity of Mount Eryx. Here Æneas, according to Virgil, lost his father Anchises. The more correct form of the name is Drepana (rù Apetravá). This place was founded in the beginning of the first Punic war by the Carthaginian commander Hamilcar, who removed hither the inhabitants of Eryx, and other laces adjacent. (Diod. Sic., 23, 9.) Drepanum and o: formed the two most important maritime cities held by the Carthaginians in Sicily. Off this place, near the AEgates Insulae, was fought the famous naval battle between the Romans commanded by Lutatius Catulus, and the Carthaginians under Hanno. The Romans gained a decisive victory, which put an end to the first Punic war. Drepanum was so called from the curvature of the shore in its vicinity resembling a scythe (öpéravov). It is now Trapani. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 384, seqq.)—II. A town of Bithynia, on the Sinus ** called by Constantine the Great, Hellenopolis.—III. A promontory on the Sinus Arabicus, below Arsinoë : it is now Ras-Zafrané. Drilo, a river of Illyricum, which falls into the Adriatic at Lissus. This is the largest of the Illyrian streams. Strabo (316) informs us, that it was navigable as far as the country of the Dardanii, which is a considerable distance from the sea, as they inhabited the southern part of what is now Servia. This river is formed principally by the junction of two others, the one distinguished in modern geography by the name of the white Drino, which rises in the chain of Mount Bertiscus (Strabon., Chrestom. ap. Geogr. Min., vol. 2, p. 99); the other flows from the south, out of the great lake of Ochrida, the ancient Lychnitis Palus, and unites with the former after a course of nearly sixty miles: this is commonly termed the Black Drino. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 41.) DRomus Achillis, a promontory near the mouth of the Borysthenes. (Strabo, 307.-Arrian, Peripl., p. 21.-Peripl. Anonym., p. 8.-Mela, 2, 1–Plin., 4, 26.) According to the old geographers, Achilles, having entered the Euxine with a hostile fleet, after ravaging the coast, landed on this promontory, and exercised himself and his followers in running and other gymnastics sports. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, É. 234.) It is a low, sandy, and uninhabited neck of and, resembling somewhat a sword in its shape. Strabo evidently exceeds the true measurement, when he states it to be one thousand stadia. Pliny only makes it eighty miles. Its modern name is said to be KossaOscharigatsh. (Wid. Leuce.) Druentius and DrueNtia (6 Apovévrwoc, Ptol.— & Apovévrtaç, Strabo), a river of Gaul, rising among the Alpes Cottiae, north of Brigantio or Briançon. It falls into the Rhodanus or Rhone, about three miles below Avenio or Arignon, after a course of one hundred and eighty miles, and is now called the Durance. Is is an extremely rapid river, and below the modern town of Sisteron it has been found impracticable to throw a bridge over it. Its inundations are frequent and very destructive. (Strab., 185.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 78.) Druidae, the ministers of religion among the ancient Gauls and Britons. Britain, according to Caesar, was the great school of the Druids, and their chief settlement was in the island called Mona by Tacitus, now Anglesey. The natives of Gaul and Germany, who wished to be thoroughly versed in the mysteries of Druidism, resorted to this island to complete their studies.—Many opinions have been formed respecting the origin of the name. The common derivation is from épêc, an oak, either from their inhabiting and teaching in forests, or, as Pliny states, because they never sacrificed but under an oak. But it is hard to imagine how the Druids should come to speak Greek. Some deduce the name from the old British word dru or drew, an oak, whence they take Öpic to be derived. This last derivation receives considerable support from a passage in Diodorus Siculus (5, 81), who, speaking of the philosophers and priests of Gaul, the same with the Druids, says that they were called Xapovíðat, a term which some of the commentators trace to the old Greek form cépovic (tôoc), a hollow oak. Wesseling, however, it must be acknowledged, condemns this reading, and is in favour of receiving into the text the form Apovićat, where others read Xapovićat. Among the many Oriental derivations which have been given, a favourite one is that from the Sanscrit term Druwidh, signifying poor, indigent. In historical conformity with this derivation, it has been urged that, among the Hindus, we may observe in the Sanniassi the professional mendicant, while among the Druids poverty was rather a merit than a disgrace.—The arguments in favour of the Oriental origin of the Druids are deserving of great “o. although too numerous to be here all 5 these latter were attached to some particular tree, with which they were born, and with which they died ; whereas the Dryades were the goddesses of the trees and woods in general, and lived at large in the midst of them. For though épic properly signifies an oak, it was also used for a tree in general. Oblations of milk, oil, and honey were offered to them, and sometimes the votaries sacrificed a goat. The derivation of the name Hamadryades is from dua, “at the same time,” and Öpic, “a tree,” for the reason given above. It is plain that Öpik and the Germanic tree are the same word. Apic has apparently this signification in Il., 22, 126.—Od., 19, 163.—Herod., 7, 218.-Soph., Trach., 768. In Nonnus, Öpic is constantly tree, and dpv6ets, wooden. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 237, not.) DRYMAEA, a town of Phocis, on the banks of the Cephissus, northeast of Elatea. (Pausan, 10, 34.) It was burned and sacked by the Persians under Xerxes, as we are informed by Herodotus (8, 33). Its position is uncertain. Some antiquaries place it at Dadi, others at Ogulnitza. (Compare Dodwell's Tour, vol. 2, p. 135.—Gell's Itin., p. 210.) DRyūpes, a people of Greece, in the vicinity of Mounts CEta and Parnassus. (Herodot., 1, 56 —Strabo, 434.) Dicaearchus, however (v. 30), extends their territory as far as the Ambracian gulf. They were so called, it is supposed, from Dryope, the daughter of Eurypylus, or, according to the poets, from a nymph violated by Apollo. Others derive the name, however, from Öpic, an oak, and Öip, a voice, on account of the number of oaks which grew about the mountains, and the rustling of their leaves. The inhabitants themselves, however, advocated their fabulous origin, and claimed to be the descendants of Apollo ; and therefore Hercules, having overcome this people, carried them prisoners to Delphi, where he presented them to their divine progenitor, who commanded the hero to take them with him to the Peloponnesus. Hercules obeyed, and gave them a settlement there, near the Asinean and Hermionian territories: hence the Asineans came to be blended with, and to call themselves, Dryopes. According to Herodotus, however, they passed into Euboea, and from thence into the Peloponnesus and Asia Minor (8, 73; 1,146). It is worthy of remark, that Strabo ranks the Dryopes among those chiefly of Thracian origin, who had, from the earliest period, established themselves in the latter country, towards the southern shores of the Euxine. (Strab., 586.) Dubis, a river of Gallia, rising at the foot of Mount Jura, and, after a course of 50 miles, falling into the Arar or Saone, near Cabillonum, the Inodern Chalons. It is now the Doubs or Dour. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 77.) The text of Caesar (B. G., 1, 38), where he makes mention of this river, is very corrupt, some MSS. reading Adduabis, others Alduadubis, and others again Alduadusius, Adduadubis, and Alduasdubis. Cellarius, following Valois (Walesius) and Wossius, gives Dubis as the true lection (Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 36), and this has been followed in the best editions. (Compare the remarks of Oberlinus, ad Caes., l. c., as to the origin of the corruption.) Dubris Poetus, a port of Britain, supposed to be Dorer. It was in the territory of the Cantii, and 14 miles from Durovernum. At Dubris, according to the Notitia Imperii, was a fortress, erected against the Saxon pirates. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 161–Cellarius, Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 331.) Duillia LEx, I. was brought forward by M. Duillius, a tribune, A.U.C. 304. It made it a capital crime to leave the Roman people without tribunes, or to create any new magistrate from whom there was no appeal. The punishment was scourging and beheading. (Liv., 3, 55.)—II. Another, A.U.C. 392, to regulate what interest ought to be paid for money lent, and fixing it at one per cent,

detailed. Diogenes Laertius and Aristotle class the Druids with the Chaldeans, Persian Magi, and Indians, in which they are followed by other writers. The deities of the Sanscrit school are closely to be traced in the names of the Druidical gods. The importance which the Druids attached to bulls and oxen forms another very striking mark of coincidence. The Druidical mysteries also are said by Davies to have been nearly parallel to the rites of Bhawanee and Eleusis.

In the magic rod of the Druids we likewise discern the sacred staff of the Brahmins. Both possessed con

secrated beads; both made almost endless lustrations;

both wore linen tiaras: and Maurice remarks that the

circle, Brahma's symbol, and the crescent, that of Siva,

were both Druidical ornaments. So also there was a

striking resemblance between the notion entertained

by the Druids of a Supreme Being, and that found in

the sacred writings of the Hindus. – The Druids

formed a distinct caste, possessing the greatest au

thority, being the learned men and philosophers of the

nation, and having also very great authority in the

government of the state. Julius Caesar has left more

information concerning them than any other writer. According to him, they performed all public and private sacrifices, explained the doctrines of religion, distributed all kinds of rewards, administered justice at stated times, and determined the punishment which should be inflicted on offenders. Whoever opposed

their decisions was excommunicated by them, and

was thereby deprived of all share in public worship. They could even pronounce this curse against a whole people; and, in fact, their power had hardly any limits. They appointed the highest officers in all the cities, and these dared not undertake anything without their advice and direction. They were freed from taxes and all public burdens. Instruction in religious

and all other kinds of knowledge, the art of war alone excepted, was intrusted entirely to them. They gave oral instruction in the form of verses, which often had a hidden meaning, and which, though amounting to many thousands, were committed to memory by their pupils. According to Caesar, they believed in the immortality of the soul, and its transmigration through different bodies. They taught, moreover, the nature and motions of the heavenly bodies, the magnitude of

the universe and the earth, the nature of things, and the power of the gods. They also practised astrology, magic, and soothsaying. According to Pliny, they were not ignorant of natural philosophy and physic.

They had a wonderful reverence for the mistletoe, a parasitical plant, which grows, not from the earth, but on other plants, particularly the oak. This they looked upon as the holiest object in nature. They likewise esteemed the oak sacred. The Druids had a common superior, who was elected by a majority of votes from their own number, and who enjoyed his dignity for life. In their sacrifices, the Druids often immolated human victims. (Caes., B. G., 6, 13, seqq.

—Plin., 16, 44.) Caesar states that the members of the Gallic nobility might alone enter the order of the Druids. Porphyry, on the other hand (de Abstin., 4, 17), makes admission into this priesthood to have been open to all who could obtain the consent of their fellow-citizens. The severity, however, of a long and rigorous novitiate, occupying many years, would operate as an effectual barrier to the admission of many.— As regards the wisdom of which the Druids were the depositaries, it may be remarked, that, among all the early nations of antiquity, a sacerdotal caste of some kind or other appear, by observation of the stars and the phenomena of nature, to have formed for themselves a species of scientific religion, if it may be so termed, which was carefully treasured up by the sacred order, and rendered inaccessible to the people at large. Hence those oral traditions which were always con

fined to the limits of the sanctuary, and those sacred

books which were closed against the profane crowd. Such were, among the Etrurians, the Acherontic and ritual books of Tages, containing the precepts of agriculture, legislation, medicine, the rules of divination, of meteorology, of astrology, and also a system of metaphysics: such were, among the Egyptians, the books of Hermes Trismegistus; such are, among the Hundus, the Vedas, the Pouranas, the Angas, with their innumerable commentaries; and such was the sacred wisdom of the Gallic Druids.-The ablest work on the ancient Druids is the splendid and elaborate production of Mr. Higgins. (The Celtic Druids, by Godfrey Higgins, Esq., F.S.A., 4to, London.) In this will be found a vast body of most interesting information respecting this ancient priesthood. “The Druids,” observes Mr. Higgins, “held the same doctrine, in effect, with Pythagoras, the worship of one Supreme Being, a state of future rewards and punishments, the immortality of the soul, and a metempsychosis. These doctrines, their hatred of images, their circular temples open at the top, their worship of fire as the emblem of the Sun, their observation of the most ancient Tauric festival (when the Sun entered Taurus), their seventeen-letter alphabet, and their system of oral instruction, mark and characterize the Druid in every age and every country of the world, by whatever name the priests of the country may have been known.” (Celtic Druids, p. 305.) The Druids exercised, as may well be imagined, great influence over the minds of their more ignorant countrymen. Tacitus (Ann., 14, 30) speaks of the summary punishment inflicted upon them by Suetonius Paulinus, in the reign of Nero. The island of Mona was taken by the Roman troops with great slaughter of the foe, the “. groves were cut down, and the Druids driven out. On the introduction of Christianity, the Druidical order gradually ceased, and the Druids themselves were regarded as enchanters by the early Christians. Drusilla, I. Livia, a daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, born at Augusta Treverorum (Treves) A.D. 15. She was far from inheriting the excellent qualities of her mother. Her own brother Caligula seduced her, and then gave her in marriage, at the age of seventeen, to Lucius Cassius Longinus, a man of consular rank. Subsequently, however, he took her away from her husband, and lived with her as his own spouse. This unhallowed connexion lasted until the death of Drusilla, A.D. 38, and at her decease Caligula abandoned himself to the most extravagant sorIow. Divine honours were rendered to her memory, and medals were struck in honour of her, with the title of Augusta. She was 23 years of age at the time of her death. (Sueton., Wit. Calig., 24.) Dio Cassius calls the name of her husband Marcus Lepidus, differing in this from Suetonius. He may possibly refer to a second husband, who may have been given her, for form’s sake, a short time before her death. (Dio Cass., 59, 3.)—II. A daughter of Agrippa, king of Judaea, remarkable for her beauty. She was at first affianced to Epiphanes, son of Antiochus, king of Comagene. But, on his declining to submit to the rite of circumcision and to Judaize, the marriage was broken off. She was then given to Azizus, king of Emesa. Not long after, however, Drusilla renounced the religion of her fathers, abandoned her husband, and espoused Antonius Felix, a freedman of the Emperor Claudius, and brother to Pallas the freedman of Nero. This is the Felix who was governor of Judaea, and is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. Drusilla was with Felix at Caesarea when St. Paul appeared before the latter. She had a son by her second husband, named Agrippa, who perished in the eruption of Vesuvius which took place during the reign of Titus. (Joseph., Jud. Ant., 19, 9.--Noldius, de Vita et gestis Herodum, p. 463, seqq.)—Tacitus (Hist., 5, 9) calls Drusilla *: granddaughter of Cleopatra and Antony, M. M.

making her, consequently, the daughter of Juba II., king of Mauritania. The Roman historian is in error, for Drusilla was of Jewish origin. And besides, history only assigns to Juba II. a son, named Ptolemy. (Töchon, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 12, p. 46.) Drusus, I. Claudius Nero, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and of Livia, was born B.C. 38, three months after his mother's marriage with Augustus. He served early in the army, and was sent, in 17 B.C., with his brother Tiberius, against the Rhaeti and Vindelici, who had made an irruption into Italy. He defeated the invaders, pursued them across the Alps, and reduced their country. Horace has celebrated this victory in one of his finest odes (4, 4). Drusus married Antonia Minor, daughter of Antony and Octavia, by whom he had Germanicus and Claudius, afterward emperor, and Livia or Livilla. In 14 B.C., being sent to quell an insurrection in Gaul, occasioned by the extortions of the Roman tax-gatherers, he succeeded by his conciliatory address. In the following year he attacked the Germans, and, carrying the war beyond the Rhine, he obtained a series of victories over the Sicambri, Cherusci, Catti, and Tencteri, and advanced as far as the Visurgis or Weser, for which the senate bestowed on him and his posterity the surname of Germanicus. In 9 B.C., Drusus was made consul, with L. Quintius Crispinus. He was soon after sent by Augustus against the Germans, crossed the Visurgis, and advanced as far as the Albis or Elbe. He imposed a moderate tribute on the Frisians, consistin of a certain quantity of hides, which, being afterwa aggravated by the extortion of his successors, caused a revolt in the reign of Tiberius. (Tacit., Ann., 4, 72.) He caused a canal to be cut, for the purpose of uniting the Rhine to the Yssel, which was known long after by the name of Fossa Drusi; and he also began to raise dikes to prevent the inundations of the Rhine, which were completed by Paulinus Pompeius, in the reign of Nero. Drusus did not cross the Albis, probably because he thought that he had advanced already far enough : he retired towards the Rhine, but, before he reached that river, he died, at the age of thirty, in consequence, as it was reported, of his horse falling upon him, and fracturing his leg. (Liv., Epit., 140.) Tiberius, who was sent for in haste, and found his brother expiring, accompanied his body to Rome, where his funeral was performed with the greatest solemnity. Both Augustus and Tiberius delivered orations in his praise. i. was much regretted by both the army and the Romans in general, who had formed great expectations from his manly and generous sentiments. (Tacit., Ann., 1, 3, seq; —Id ib., 2, 4' –Id. ib., 4, 72, &c.—Id. Hist., 5, 19, &c.—Sueton, Wit. Aug., 94.—Id., Wit. Tib., 7.-1d., Wit. Claud., 1, &c.)—II. Caesar, the son of the Emperor Tiberius by Vipsania daughter of Agrippa. He served with distinction in Pannonia and Illyricum, and was consul with his father, A.D. 21. In a quarrel he had with the imperial favourite Sejanus, he gave the latter a blow in the face. Sejanus, in revenge, seduced his wife Livia or Livilla, daughter of Drusus the elder and of Antonia; and the guilty pair got rid of Drusus by poison, which was administered by the eunuch Lygdus. The crime remained a secret for eight years, when it was discovered after the death of Sejanus, and Livia was put to death. (Tacit., Ann., 1, 24, &c.—Id. ib., 4, 3, seqq.)—III. Caesar, son of Germanicus and Agrippina, and brother to Nero Caesar and Caligula. He married AEmilia Lepida, who was induced by Sejanus to betray her husband. , Deluded himself by the arts of that evil minister, he conspired against the life of his brother, Nero Caesar, and was starved to death by order of Ti

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Duillius Nepos, C. a Roman consul, the first who obtained a victory over the naval power of Carthage, B.C. 260. After his colleague Cn. Corn. Scipio had been taken at sea by the Carthaginians in the first Punic war, Duillius proceeded, with a newly-built Romak fleet, to Sicily, in quest of the enemy, whom he met near the Lipari Islands; and, by means of grapplingirons, so connected the ships of the Carthaginians with his own, that the contest became a sort of land-fight. By this unexpected manoeuvre, he took eighty and destroyed thirteen of the Carthaginian fleet, and obtained a naval triumph, the first ever enjoyed at Rome. There were some medals struck in commemoration of this victory, and a column was erected on the occasion. This column (called Columna Rostrata, because adorned with beaks of ships) was, as Livy informs us, struck down by lightning during the interval between the sec ond and third Panic wars. A new column was erect ed by the Emperor Claudius, and the inscription restored, though probably modernized. It was buried afterward amid the ruins of Rome, until at length, in 1565, its base, which contained the inscription, was dug up in the vicinity of the Capitol. So much, however, was defaced, that many of the letters were illegible. This inscription has been restored, on conjecture, by the learning of modern scholars. (Compare Lipsius, Auctarium ad Inscript. Smetianas.—Ciaccomius, Col. Rostr. Inscr. in Graev. Thes, vol. 4, p. 1811.)

Dulichium, the principal island in the group of the Echinades. Its name occurs more than once in the Odyssey as being well peopled and extensive. (Od., 1, 246; 16, 247.) Its situation, however, has never been determined by those who have commented on the poet; nor is it probable that much light can be thrown upon the subject at this distant period. Strabo (456), who has entered largely on the question, takes much pains to refute those who confounded it with Cephallenia, or considered it as a town of that island. He himself contends, that the Dolicha of his time, situated at the mouth of the Achelous, opposite to OEniadae, and 100 stadia from Cape Araxus, was the real Dullchium. (Compare Steph. Byz., s. v. Aovaixtov.– Eustath. ad Hom., Od., 1,246.) But it is very doubtful whether this place was ever of sufficient consequence to apply to Homer's description of that island. Dodwell, who has made some judicious observations on this head, thinks that Dulichium may have betn swallowed up by an earthquake; and mentions having been assured by some Greek sailors that there was, about two miles from Cephallenia, an immersed isl. and, extending out for seven miles. (Classical Tour, vol. 1, p. 107, seqq.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2,

. 27.)

p DuMNörix, a powerful and ambitious chieftain of the AEdui, and brother to Divitiacus. He was disasfected towards Caesar and the Romans, and, when the former was on the point of sailing sor Britain, and had ordered Dumnorix to accompany him, the 42duan, on a sudden, marched away with the cavalry of his nation, and directed his course homeward. He was pursued and put to death. (Cas., B. G., 1, 3–ld. ib., 1, 20. —Id. ib., 5, 6, seq.)

Durius, a river of Spain, rising in the chain of Mons Idubeda, near the sources of which are the ruins of ancient Numantia. (Strabo, 152.) Ptolemy (2, 5) calls it the Aopiac, and Dio Cassius (37, 52) the Aóptor. It flowed to the west, through the territories of the Arevaci and Vaccari, and formed a dividing line between the Lusitani and Vettones on the south, and the Callaici on the north. It empties into the Atlantic after a course of nearly 300 miles, but is navigable only seventy miles from its mouth, on account of the rapid current. Its modern name is the Douro. The sands of the Durius are spoken of by the ancients as being auriferous. (Sil. Ital, 1,234.) At the mouth of this river stood Calle, commonly styled Portus Calles, from a corruption of which last comes the modern name of Portugal. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 340–Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 290.) Durocasses (called also Drocae and Fanum Druidum), a city of the Eburovices, in Gallia Lugdunensis, southwest of Lutetia. In its vicinity was the principal residence of the Druids in Gaul. The modern name is Dreur. (Caes., B. G., 6, 13.-Thuan., Hist., 34, seq.) Durocortórum, the capital of the Remi, on the Wesle, one of the branches of the Axona or Aisne. It is now Rheims. (Caes., B. G., 6, 44.) DYMAE, the last of the Achaean towns to the west, situate about forty stadia beyond the mouth of the Peyrus or Pirus. Pausanias states (7, 18), that its more ancient name was Palea. Strabo is of opinion, that the appellation of Dyme had reference to its western situation, with regard to the other cities of the #. (maqāv čvauxorárm, ào' oi kai Toivoua). e adds, that it was originally called Stratos. (Strabo, 387.) The epithet of Cauconis, applied to this city by the poet Antimachus, would lead to the supposition that it was once occupied by the ancient Caucones. (Ap. Schol. Lycophron, v. 589.) Dymae is mentioned as one of the twelve towns of Achaia by Herodotus (1, 146). Its territory, from being contiguous to Elis and AEtolia, was frequently laid waste during the Social war by the armies of those countries then united. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 71.) DYRAs, a river of Thessaly, twenty stadia beyond the Sperchius, said to have sprung from the ground in order to assist Hercules when burning on Oeta. (Herodot., 7, 199. –Strabo, 428.) DYRus, the name given to Mount Atlas by the neighbouring inhabitants. ("Opoc oriv, 6trep of uiv ‘EAAme; "Aržavra kažotaw, ol Báp6.apot 68 Apty.— Strabo, 825.) Mr. Hodgson, in a pamphlet on the af. finities of the Berber languages, after observing that the Atlas chain of mountains was called by the ancient geographers, besides their common appellation, Dyris or Dyrim, and Adderis or Aderim, indulges in the following etymological remarks (p. 5, seqq). “These names appear to me to be nothing else than the Berber words Athraer, Edhrarin, which mean a mountain or mountains, differently corrupted from what they had been before they were changed to Atlas. Adrar, Athraer, Edhrarin, Adderis, or Adderim, are evidently the same word, with such variations as may naturally be expected when proper names pass from one lan; : to another. There is surely not more, nor peraps so much, difference between them as between Antwerpen and Amberes (the Spanish name for Antwerp), Mechlin and Malines, Lugdunum and Lyons, 'Odvocetic and Ulysses, Kapyov and Carthage. And if the Romans or the Greeks changed Adhrar and Edhrarin into Adderis, or in the accusative Adderim, why from Adderis might they not have made Adras, Atras, or Atlas ! The weight of probability, at least, seems to be in favour of this supposition.” (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 4, new series.) DyrrachíUM, now Durazzo, a city of Illyricum, previously called Epidamnus. (Vid. Epidamnus.)

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Baetis. (Mela, 3, 1.)—III. A city of Hispania Tarra

conensis, near the river Tamaris. It is supposed to coincide with the modern village of Muros, near the mouth of the Tambre. Others, however, are in favour of the harbour of Obre, at the mouth of the Tamaro. (Bischoff und Möller, Wörterb, der Geogr., p. 446.) Ebor Acum, a city of Britain, in the territory of the Brigantes, now York. Eboracum was, next to Londinium or London, the most important city in the whole island. It formed a convenient post, and place of arms, for the Romans during the continual wars waged by them against the northern nations of Britain. Septimius Severus died here. The modern city can still show many vestiges of Roman power and magnificence. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 123.) EbüDAE, the western isles of Britain, now Hebrides. Ptolemy (2, 2) places them to the north of Hibernia, and makes them five in number. The name Ebuda, was borrowed by the Romans from the Greek appellation 'Ebovčai. Two of the five properly bear the name of Ebudae; the remaining three were called Maleus, Epidium, and Ricina. Pliny (4, 16) calls them all Hebrides Insulae. “Ebudes,” says Salmasius, “Mela nullas recenset, et nullas Emodas Ptolemaeus. Wiz same mihi dubium est, quin Emodar, vel Emuda, et Ebudæ eacdem sint.” (Salmas. ad Solin., 1, 22.) EburóNes, I. a nation of Belgic Gaul, to the west of the Ubii and the Rhine, and to the south of the Menapii. Their territory corresponded to the present country of Liége (le pays de Liége). Under the conduct of Ambiorix they defeated Sabinus and Cotta, the lieutenants of Caesar, having induced them to quit their winter-quarters, and then having attacked them on the route. Caesar inflicted a to rible retaliation, desolating the country, and almost annihilating their race. The Tungri afterward took possession of the vacated seats of the Eburones. The capital of the Eburones was Aduatuca. This was rebuilt by the Tungri, and is now Tongres. (Caes., B. G., 2, 4, seqq.—Id. ib., 5, 26, seqq.—Id. ib., 6, 33.) Ebisus (E60waoc, Gronor. ad Strab., ed Ozon., p. 216.—Boödoc, Dionys. Perieg.), one of the Pityuso, or Pine-islands, so named by the Greeks from the number of pine-trees which grew in them (trirvo, pinus). The island of Ebusus was the largest of the number, and very fertile in the production of vines, olives, and large figs, which were exported to Rome and elsewhere. (Compare Mela, 2, 7–Plin., 3, 5. —Id., 15, 9.-Fest. Arien., v. 621.) It was famed also for its wool: but that no poisonous animal existed here is a mere fable of former days. Some of the ancient writers call it simply Pityusa. (Duod. Sic., 5, 16.—Compare Livy, 28, 37, who, however, in another place (22, 20), names it Ebusus.) Agathemerus (Geogr., 1, 5) speaks of the larger Pityusa in contradistinction to the smaller. It is about forty miles from the Mediterranean coast of Spain, and is now named, by a slight corruption, Ivica. It still produces abundance of corn, wine, oil, fruit, &c., and a great deal of salt is made in it by natural evaporation. Its size is 190 square miles; the population about 15,000. Diodorus (l.c.) compares this island, in point of size, with Corcyra. The chief place on the island was Ebusus, which had an excellent harbour, and was inhabited in part by Phoenicians. (Diod. Suc., 5, 16–Sil. Ital., 3, 362.) Ecbat ANA (Örum), I. the capital of Media, situate, according to Diodorus (2, 3), about twelve stadia from Mount Orontes. The genuine orthography of the word appears to be Agbatana ('Aybárava). Stephanus of Byzantium says that this form 'Aybárava was employed by Ctesias. Bähr, however, the latest editor of Ctesias, retains'Ex64rava, not because he thinks it the true reading, but from a reluctance to change the form of the word in opposition to the MSS. But the same editor, in his Herodotus (1,98), adopts 'Ayáárava with Wesseling, for here the Mi,” it.

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