Obrazy na stronie

and pleasant plain, still called Gouteh Demesk, or the orchard of Damascus, and watered by a river called by the Greeks Bardine or Chrysorrhoas, the golden stream, now Baradi. The Syriac name of this stream was Pharphar. Damascus is supposed to have been founded by Uz, the eldest son of Aram: . (Gen., 10, 23.) However this may be, it subsisted in the time of Abraham, and may be reckoned one of the most ancient cities of Syria. It was conquered by David (2 Sam., 8, 6), but freed itself from the Jewish yoke in the time of Solomon (1 Kings, 11, 23, seqq.), and became the seat of a new principality, which often harassed the kingdoms of both Judah and Israel. It afterward fell, in succession, under the power of the Assyrians and Persians, and came from the latter into the hands of the Seleucidae. Damascus, however, did not flourish as much under the Greek dynasty as it had while held by the Persians. The Seleucidae neglected the place, and bestowed all their favour on the new cities erected by them in the northern parts of Syria; and here, no doubt, lies the reason why the later Greek and Roman writers say so little of the city itself, though they are all loud in their praises of the adjacent country. Damascus was seized by the Romans in the war of Pompey with Tigranes, B.C. 65, but still continued, as under the Greek dynasty, a comparatively unimportant place, until the time of Dioclesian. This emperor, feeling the necessity of a strongly fortified city in this quarter, as a depôt for munitions of war, and a military post against the frequent inroads of the Saracens, selected Damascus for the purpose. Everything was done, accordingly, to strengthen the place; extensive magazines were also established, and likewise numerous workshops for the preparation of weapons of war. (Malala, Chron., 11, É. 132.—Notitia Imperii.) It is not unlikely that the igh reputation to which Damascus afterward attained, for its manufacture of sword-blades and other works in steel, may have had its first foundations laid by this arrangement on the part of Dioclesian. The city continued from this time a flourishing place. In the 7th century it fell into the hands of i. Saracens, and was for some time after this the seat of the caliss. Its prosperity, too, remained unimpaired, since the route of the principal caravans to Mecca lay through it. It is now the capital of a pachalic. The Arabs call it El-Sham, and the Oriental name Demesk is known only to geographers. It is one of the most beautiful and pleasant cities of Asia, and is by the Arabs considered the first of the four terrestrial paradises. Its population is variously estimated from 80,000 to 200,000. Volney gives the former number, and Ali Bey the latter. The Christian population is estimated by Connor at about 20,000, including Greeks, Catholics, Latins, Maronites, Armenians, and Nestorians, but he says “this is a rough calculation. It is impossible to know the exact number.” (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 409, seq.) DAMAsippus, I. a praetor during the consulship of Papirius Carbo and the younger Marius, A.U.C. 671. As a follower of the Marian party, he indulged in many cruel excesses against the opposite faction, and also against such as were suspected of favouring it. He was put to death by Sylla. (Sallust, Cat., 51.— Well. Paterc., 2, 26.)—II. A character in Horace, who is there represented as having been at first a virtuoso, or dealer in antiques, but who, proving unfortunate in this branch of business, assumed the name and appearance of a Stoic philosopher. (Horat., Sat., 2, 3, 17, seqq.) DAMNii, one of the ancient nations of Scotland, whose country answered to the modern Clydesdale, Renfrew, Lennox, and Stirling. (Ptol.—Mannert, Geogr. vol. 2, p. 207.) DAMNoNir or DuMNoNii, a people of Britain, whose country * to the modern Devonshire and Cornl

wall. As the several tribes of the Damnonii submitted without much resistance to the Romans, and never joined in any revolt against them, their conquerors were under no necessity of building many forts or keeping many garrisons in their country. Hence it happens, that few Roman antiquities have been found here, and that the name of its people is seldom mentioned by the Roman writers. Mannert considers the name Dumnonii the more correct of the two. (Geogr., vol. 2, p. 195.) DAMöcles, one of the flatterers of Dionysius the Elder, of Sicily. Having in the course of conversation extolled the power and wealth of the tyrant, and the abundant means of felicity by which the latter appeared to be surrounded, Dionysius asked him whether he would like to make trial of this same state, which seemed to him so happy a one. Damocles eagerly assented, and the tyrant caused him to be placed on a purple couch, most beautifully adorned with various embroidery. Vessels of gold and silver, richly wrought, met his view on every side, and an exquisite banquet was served up by slaves of the most attractive mien, who were attentive to his every command. Damocles thought himself at the summit of human felicity; when, happening to cast his eyes upward towards the richly carved ceiling, he perceived a sword, suspended from it by a single horsehair, directly over his neck as he lay reclined at the banquet. All feeling of delight instantly left him; and he begged the tyrant to allow him to depart, since he no longer wished to enjoy this kind of felicity. , And thus was Damocles taught the salutary lesson, that little, if any, enjoyment is found in the possession of usurped power, when every moment is imbittered by the dread of impending conspiracy and danger. (Cic, Tusc., 5, 22Compare Philo, ap. Euseb., Prap. Evang, 8, 14, p. 391.-Macrob., ad Somn. Seip., 1, 10.-Sidon. Apoll., 2, 13.-Horat., Od., 3, 1, 17.) Damon, a Pythagorean philosopher of Syracuse, united by ties of the firmest friendship to Phintias (not Pythias, as the name is commonly given), another Pythagorean, of the same city. Dionysius the tyrant having condemned Phintias to death for conspiring against him, the latter begged that leave might be allowed him to go for a short period to a neighbouring place, in order to arrange some family affairs, and osfered to leave one of his friends in the hands of Dionysius as a pledge for his return by an appointed time, and who would be willing, in case Phintias broke his word, to die in his stead. Dionysius, quite sceptical as to the existence of such friendship, and prompted by strong curiosity, assented to the arrangement, and Damon took the place of Phintias. The day appointed for the return of the latter arrived, and public expectation was highly excited as to the probable issue of this singular affair. The day drew to a close, no Phintias came, and Damon was in the act of being led to execution, when, on a sudden, the absent friend, who had been detained by unforeseen and unavoidable obstacles, presented himself to the eyes of the admiring crowd, and saved the life of Damon. Dionysius was so much struck by this instance of true attachment, that he pardoned Phintias, and entreated the two to allow him to share their friendship. (Diod. Sic, fragm." lib. 10, vol. 4, p. 52, seqq., ed. Bip-Val. Maz., 4, 7, 1, ext, ed. Hase.—Pluto, de amic, mult., p. 93.) . Damophila, a poetess of Lesbos, intimate with Sappho. She composed a hymn on the worship of the Pergaean Diana. (Philostrat., Wit. Apollo"...], 20.) DAMoxinus, a boxer of Syracuse, excluded from the Nemean games for killing his opponent in a §. listic encounter. The name of the latter was Creugas, and the two competitors, after having consumed the entire day in boxing, agreed each to receive from the other a blow without flinching. Creugas first struck Damoxenus on the head, and then Damoxenus,

with his fingers unfairly stretched out, struck Creugas on the side : and such, observes Pausanias, was the hardness of his nails and the violence of the blow, that his hand pierced his side, seized on his bowels, and, drawing them outward, gave instant death to Creugas.-A fine piece of sculpture has come down to us, with this for its subject. (Pausan., 8, 40.) DANA, a large town of Cappadocia. D'Anville makes it to have been the same with Tyana, an opinion which is ably refuted by Mannert, who maintains that it lay more to the southeast, and coincided with the Tanadaris of Ptolemy. It is mentioned in Xenophon's Anabasis as being in the vicinity of the Cilician Gates (1, 2). The position of Tyana on Mannert's chart is north of the Cilician pass; in D'Anville's it is to the northeast. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 239,263.) DANKE, I. the daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedaemon. Acrisius inquired of the oracle about a son; and the god replied that he would himself have no male issue, but that his daughter would bear a son, whose hand would deprive him of life. Fearing the accomplishment of this prediction, he framed a brazen subterranean chamber (942 auov xúžkeov Ústö yiv), in which he shut up his daughter and her nurse, in order that she might never become a mother. (The Latin poets call the place of confinement a brazen tower.) But Jupiter had seen and loved the maiden; and, under the form of a golden shower, he poured through the roof into her bosom. Danae became, in consequence, the mother of a son, whom she and her nurse reared in secrecy until he had attained his fourth year. Acrisius then chanced to hear the voice of the child at play. He brought out his daughter and her nurse, and, putting the latter instantly to death, drew Danae privately, with her child, to the altar of Hercean Jove, where he made her answer on oath whose was her son. She replied that he was the offspring of Jove. Her father gave no credit to her protestations. Enclosing her and the boy in a coffer, he cast them into the sea, to the mercy of the winds and waves, a circumstance which has afforded a subject for a beautiful piece by the poet Simonides. The coffer was carried to the little island of Seriphus, where a person named Dictys drew it out in his nets (6tarva); and, freeing Danaë and Perseus from their confinement, treated them with the greatest attention. Polydectes, the brother of Dictys, reigned over the island." He fell in love with Danae; but her son Perseus, who was now grown up, was an invincible obstacle in his way. He had, therefore, recourse to artifice to deliver himself of his presence; and, feigning that he was about to become a suitor to Hippodamia, the daughter of CEnomaus, he managed to send Perseus, who had bound himself by a rash promise, in quest of the head of the Gorgon Medusa, which he pretended that he wished for a bridal gift. When Perseus had succeeded, by the aid of Hermes, in destroying the Gorgon, he proceeded to Seriphus, where he found that his mother and Dictys had been obliged to fly to the protection of the altar from the violence of Polydectes. He immediately went to the royal residence; and when, at his desire, Polydectes had summoned thither all the people, to see the formidable head of the Gorgon, it was displayed, and each became a stone of the form and position which he exhibited at the moment of the transformation. Having established Dictys as king of Seriphus, Perseus returned with his mother to Argos, and, not finding Acrisius there, proceeded to Larissa in Thessaly, whither the latter had retired through fear of the sulfilment of the oracle. Here he inadvertently killed Acrisius. (Vid. Acrisius, Perseus.)—There was a legend in Italy, that Ardea, the capital of the Rutulians, had been founded by Danaë. (Virg., AEn., 7, 372, 410.) It was probably caused by the similarity of

sound in Danaë and Daunia. Dauntis is the father of Turnus-An explanation of the legend of Danaë will be found under the article Perseus. (Apollod, 2, 4, seqq.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 414, seqq.) DANāi, a name originally belonging to the Argives, as being, according to the common opinion, the subjects of Danaus. In consequence, however, of the warlike character of the race, and the high renown acquired by them, Homer uses the name Danai (Aavaoi) as a general appellation for the Greeks, when that of Hellenes was still confined to a narrower range. (Wid. Danaús.) DANAides, the fifty daughters of Danaus, king of Argos. An account of the legend connected with their names will be found, together with an explanation of the same, under the article Danaus. DANAPERIs, another name for the Borysthenes, first mentioned in an anonymous Periplus of the Euxine Sea. It is now the Dnieper. The Dnieper rises in the Valdai hills, near the sources of the Duna, and, after a winding course of about 800 miles, falls into the Black Sea, a little to the east of the Dniester. In the lower part of its course the navigation is impeded by islands, and at one place, about two hundred miles from its mouth, by falls, which continue for nearly forty miles. A little above its mouth, the river widens into a kind of lake or marsh, called Liman, into which the Bog, the ancient Hypanis or Bogus, one of the principal tributaries of the Dnieper, discharges itself. As regards the root of the name Danaperis (Dan, Don), consult remarks under the article Tanais. (Plin., 4, 12–Mela, 2, 1–Ammian. Marcell., 22, 18.—Jornand., de Reb. Get., p. 5.) DANAstus, another name of the Tyras or Dniester. It is called Danastus by Ammianus Marcellinus (31, 3), Danastris by Constantine Porphyrogenitus (de administr. Imperio, c. 8), and Danaster by Jornandes (de Reb. Get, p. 84). The Dniester rises from a lake amid the Carpathian Mountains in Austrian Gallicia, and empties into the Black Sea after a course of about six hundred miles. The name Tyras (Túpac) occurs in Ptolemy, Strabo, Stephanus of Byzantium, and Scymnus of Chios. Herodotus gives the Ionic form Túpmc. (Herod., 4, 51.) As regards the root of the name (Dan, Don), consult remarks under the article Tanais. DANKus, a son of Belus and Anchinoë, and brother of AEgyptus. Belus assigned the country of Libya to Danaus, while to AEgyptus he gave Arabia. , Ægyp. tus conquered the country of the Moro and named it from himself. By many wives he became the father of fifty sons. Danaus had by several wives an equal number of daughters. Dissension arising between him and the sons of AEgyptus, they aimed at depriving him of his kingdom; and, fearing their vio: lence, he built, with the aid of Minerva, a fifty-oared vessel, the first that ever was made, in which he embarked with his daughters, and fled over the sea. He first landed on the Isle of Rhodes, where he set up a statue of the Lindian Minerva; but, not willing to abide in that island, he proceeded to Argos, where Gelanor, who at that time ruled over the country, cheerfully resigned the government to the stranger who brought thither civilization and the arts. . The people took the name of their new monarch, and were called Danai (Aavaot). The country of Argos being at this time extremely deficient in pure and wholesome water (Vid. Inachus), Danaus sent forth his daughters in quest of some. As Amymone, one of them, was engaged in the search, she was rescued by Neptune from the intended violence of a satyr, and the god revealed to her a sountain called after her name, and the most famous among the streams that contributed to form the Lernean lake or marsh. The sons of Ægyptus came now to Argolis, and entreated their, uncle, to bury past enmity in oblivion, and to soon their cousins in marriage. Danais, retaining a perfect recollection of the injuries they had done him, and distrustsul of their promises, consented to bestow upon them his daughters, whom he divided among them by lot; but, on the wedding-day, he armed the hands of the brides with daggers, and enjoined upon them to slay in the night their unsuspecting bridegrooms. All but Hypermnestra obeyed the cruel orders of their father; and, cutting off the heads of their husbands, they flung them into Lerna, and buried their bodies with all due rites outside of the town. At the command of Jupiter, Mercury and Minerva purified them from the guilt of their deed. Hypermnestra had spared Lynceus, for the delicate regard which he had shown to her modesty. Her father, at first, in his anger at her disobedience, put her into close confinement. Relenting, however, after some time, he gave his consent to her union with Lynceus, and proclaimed gymnastic games, in which the victors were to receive his other daughters as the prizes. It was said, however, that the crime of the Danaides did not pass without due punishment in the lower world, where they were condemned to draw water, for ever, with perforated vessels. (Apollod, 2, 1, 4.—Hygin., fab., 168, 169, 170.-Schol. ad Il., 1, 42, et ad 4, 171.-Schol, ad Eurip., Hec., 872)—Thus much for the story of Danaús. The intimate connexion between this popular legend and the peculiar character of the Argive soil, which exhibited a striking contrast between the upper part of the plain and the low grounds of Lerna, has given rise to a bold and ingenious theory. Argos was greatly deficient in water (whence Homer calls it “thirsty,” Tožvóiptov), and the word Óavóc signifies “dry.” We have here, then, a simple derivation for the name Danai, namely, the people of the thirsty land of Argos; and, in the usual manner, the personification # their name is a hero, Danaús. Again, springs are daughters of the earth, as they are called by the Arabs: the nymphs of the springs are therefore daughters of Danaus, that is, of the thirsty land; and as a confirmation, in some degree, of this view of the subject, we may state, that four of the daughters of Danails, namely, Amymone, Peirene, Physadea, and Asteria, were names of springs. Still farther, a head (kpávn) is a usual name for a spring in many languages; and a legendary mode of accounting for the origin of founts is to ascribe them to the welling forth of the blood of some person who was slain on the spot where the spring emitted its waters. Thus the blood of Pentheus and Actaeon gave origin to springs on Cithaeron. (Philostrat., Icon., 1, 14.—Compare Welcker, Tril., p. 400.) The number fifty, in the case of the Danaides, is probably an arbitrary one, for we cannot discern in it any relation to the weeks of the year, as some endeavour to do. (Volcker, Myth. der Iap., p. 192, seqq.) It is to be observed, that the founts of the Inachus were in Mount Lyrceon or Lynceon (Schol. ad Apoll. Rh., 1, 125), and here, perhaps, lies the origin of Lynceus, who, in one form of the legend, fights with and vanquishes Danaus (Schol. ad Eurip., l.c.); that is, the stream from Mount Lynceon overcomes the dry nature of the soil. We see, therefore, that the physical legend may have existed long before there was any intercourse with Egypt; and, like that of Io, may have been subsequently modified so as to suit the new theory of an Egyptian colony at Argos. (Herod., 2, 91 ; 171, 182—Muller, Orchom., p. 109, seqq.—Id. Proleg., p. 184, seqq.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 409, scqq.) DANubius, the largest river of Europe except the Rha or Volga, and called in German the Donau, by us the Danube. Strabo and Pliny make it rise in the chain of Mons Abnoba, or the mountains of the Black Forest. According to modern accounts, it has its origin on the heights of the Black Forest, from three sources, o Brig-Ach and the Brige, which are both 12

more considerable than the third or the Donau, a feeble stream that is enclosed in a stone basin, and formed into a sountain in the court of the castle of Donau-Eschingen. It is, therefore, the first two that may be considered the source of the Danube. (Malte-Brun, vol. 7, p. 41, Am. ed.—Id., vol. 6, p. 288.) It is one of the few rivers which run from west to east, traversing Austria, Hungary, and part of Turkey in Europe, and, after a course of about 1620 miles, falls into the Black Sea. It is of irregular width, being sometimes confined between rocks and mountains, at other times so wide that it almost resembles a sea, and again broken and divided into small streams by numerous islands. It receives sixty navigable rivers, the largest of which is the OEnus or Inn, and 120 smaller streams. It is always yellow with mud, and its sands are everywhere auriferous. At its entrance into the Black Sea it is shallow; its waters are spread over an immense surface, and lie stagnating among an infinity of reeds and other aquatic plants. The current of the river communicates a whitish colour to the sea, and gives a freshness to it for nearly nine leagues, and within one league renders it fit for use. Pomponius Mela says it had as many mouths as the Nile, of which three were small and four navigable. Only two now remain, which can scarcely be entered by ships of considerable size or burden, the rest being choked up. The ancients gave the name of Ister to the eastern part of this river after its junction with the Savus or Saave. The Greeks and Romans were very imperfectly acquainted with the whole course of the stream, which was for a long period the northern boundary of the Roman empire in this quarter. This river was an object of worship to the Scythians. The river-god is represented on a medal of Trajan; but the finest figure of him is on the column of that emperor at Rome. (Mela, 2, 7.—Amm. Marcell., 22, 19.-Ptol., 3, 10. —Plin., 4, 12.—Dionys. Perieg., 301.) As regards the root of the name (Dan), consult remarks under the article Tanais. Daphnae, a city of Egypt, about sixteen miles from Pelusium, on the route to Memphis. (Anton., Itin., p. 162.) There was always a strong garrison in this place, to keep in check the Arabians and Syrians. It is now Safnas. (Herodot., 2, 30.) DAPHNE, I. a daughter of the Peneus, and the first love of Phoebus. This god, according to the poetic legend, proud of his victory over the serpent Python, beholding Cupid bending his bow, mocked at the efforts of the puny archer. Cupid, incensed, flew to Parnassus, and, taking his station there, shot his golden arrow of love into the heart of the son of Latona, and discharged his leaden one of aversion into the bosom of the nymph of the Peneus. Daphne loved the chace, and it alone, indifferent to all other love. Phoebus beheld her, and pursued. Exhausted and nearly overtaken, Daphne, on the banks of her father's stream, stretched forth her hands, calling on Peneus for protection and change of form. The river-god heard; bark and leaves covered his daughter, and Daphne became a bay-tree (öägvn, laurus). The god embraced its trunk, and declared that it should be afterward his favourite tree. (Ovid, Mct., 1, 452, seqq.—Hygin, fab., 203.)—The meaning of this legend is evident enough. It is only one of the many tales devised to give marvel to the origin of natural productions; and its object is to account for the bay. tree being sacred to Apollo. The great majority of the authorities place the legend in Arcadia, making Daphne the daughter of the Ladon by Earth (the natural parent of a plant), and add that it was her mother who changed her on her prayer. (Pausan., 8, 20Nonnus, 42,387–Schol. ad Il., 1, 14.—Stat., Theb., 4, 289, &c.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 118.)—II. A beautiful spot about forty stadia to the south of Antioch, near the Orontes, adorned with fair edifices, and containing a temple sacred to Apollo and Diana. The whole was surrounded with a thick grove of cypresses and bay-trees (6áðval), from the latter of which the place derived its name. Numerous fountains, too, imparted continual freshness to the grove and cooliness to the surrounding atmosphere. The luxurious citizens of Antioch made this a favourite place of retreat, and even the Roman governors often forgot amid the enjoyments of Daphne the cares of office. Pompey is said to have been so charmed by the place, and by the united beauties of nature and art with which it was adorned, that he considerably enlarged the limits of the grove, by the addition of many of the surrounding fields. The modern name of the place is Beit-el-Mar, “the house of water.” (Ammian. Marcell., 19, 2.-Id., 22, 31.—Sozomen, 5, 19.-Eu

trop., 6, 11.) foot, a festival in honour of Apollo, celebrated every ninth year by the Boeotians. It was then usual to adorn an olive bough with garlands of bay and flowers, and place on the top a brazen globe, from which were suspended smaller ones. In the middle were a number of crowns, and a globe of inferior size; and the bottom was adorned with a saffron-coloured garment. The globe on the top represented the Sun or Apollo; that in the middle was an emblem of the moon, and the others of the stars. The crowns, which were 365 in number, represented the sun's annual revolution. This bough was carried in solemn procession by a beautiful youth of an illustrious family, and whose parents were both living. (Pausan., 9, 10, 4.) Daphnis, a celebrated herdsman of Sicily, the son of Mercury by a Sicilian nymph. He was found by the shepherds, when an infant, lying among the baytrees (dàovat), and from this circumstance obtained his name. Pan taught him to sing, and play upon the pipe, the nymphs were his foster-parents, and the Muses inspired him with the love of song. According to Diodorus, he was the inventor of pastoral poetry. He also accompanied Diana in the chase, and, when the labours of the day were ended, was wont to delight the goddess with the sweet notes of his syrinx. Daphnis became eventually attached to a Naiad, who forbade him holding communion with any other female, under pain of loss of sight; and she bound him by an oath to that effect. A princess, however, contrived to intoxicate him : he broke his vow, and the threatened penalty was inflicted. According to Diodorus, however, the Naiad merely predicted that loss of sight would be the consequence of his proving unfaithful to her. Theocritus, in his first Idyl, represents him as pining away in death, and refusing to be comforted. (Serp. ad Virg., Eclog., 5, 20–Diod. Sic., 4, 84. —Schol, ad Theocr., Idyll., 1, 66.—Parthen., Erot., 29.-AElian, W. H., 10, 18.) Ovid says, that the Naiad turned him into a rock. (Met., 4, 276, seqq.— Keightley's Mythology, p. 240.) DAPHNus (gen.-untis : in Greek, Aadvoúc, -oivros), a town of the Locri Opuntii, situate on the seacoast, at the mouth of a river of the same name, near the frontiers of the Epicnemidian Locri. Strabo (424) places it twenty stadia from Cnemides. Into the river Daphnus the body of Hesiod was thrown after his murder. (Wid. Hesiodus.) DARKpus (called also Daras, gen. -atis), a river of Africa, rising to the northwest of the Palus Nigrites, on Mount Mandras, and falling into the Atlantic to the north of the promontory Arsinarium. It is supsed to be the same with the Senegal. (Bischoff und Möller, Wörteb, der Geogr., p. 405.) Gossellin, however, makes it correspond to the modern Darabin. (Recherches, vol. 3, p. 112.) DARDANIA, I. a district of Troas, in the north, called so from its inhabitants the Dardani. These derived their name from Dardanus, who built here the city of the same name. (Wid. Dardanus, I., II.) According

to the Homeric topography, the Dardani, who were subject to Anchises, and commanded by his son Æneas during the siege, occupied the small district which lay between the territory of Abydus and the Promontory of Rhaeteum, beyond which point the Trojan land, properly so called, and the hereditary dominions of Priam commenced. Towards the mainland, Dardania extended to the summit of Ida, and beyond that chain to the territory of Zelea, and the plains watered by the AEsepus on the north, and as sar as the territories of Assus and Antandrus to the south. (Strab., 592, 606.) It was more particularly in this inland district that the descendants of AEneas are said to have maintained themselves as independent sovereigns af. ter the siege of Troy. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 80, seq.)—II. A region of Illyria, lying south of the territory of the Scordisci. It comprehended the upper valleys of the Drilo, and extended to the borders of Paconia and Macedonia. The Dardani, its inhabitants, were often at war with the latter power, more particularly under the reign of its last two monarchs. Their country answers to the modern districts of Ipeck, Pristina, and Jacora, which are situate to the south of Servia, and form part of the pachalic of Scutari. Strabo describes these Dardani as a savage race, living mostly in caves formed out of mud and dirt, and yet possessing great taste for music, having from the earliest period been acquainted with both wind and stringed instruments. (Strab., 316.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 47.) DARnXNis or DARDANIUM, a promontory of Troas, south of Abydus, near which was situate the city of Dardanus. It is now called Cape Berbieri, or Kepos Burun. The Hellespont here begins to contract itself. (Strab., 587, 595.) DARDANUs, I, a celebrated hero, son of Jupiter and Electra, who came to Troas, according to some accounts, from Arcadia; according to others, from Italy. All, however, agree in fixing upon Samothrace as the spot in which he had formed his first principality, before he migrated to the foot of Mount Ida. (Apollod, 3, 12–Strab., 331.-Virg., AEm., 7, 207.) We may reconcile this variety of opinions respecting the native country of Dardanus, by supposing that he was a chief of that early race, who, under the name of Pelasgi, were so widely diffused, and more especially in those countries, each of which claimed to be the birthplace of the hero. The epoch of the arrival of Dardanus on the coast of Asia is too remote to be ascertained at pres-, ent with accuracy. Homer reckons five generations between Dardanus and Priam. (Il., 20, 230.) Plato, as we learn from Strabo (592), placed his arrival in the second epoch after the universal deluge, when mankind began to leave the summits of the mountains to which fear had driven them, and where they had led a barbarous and savage life, in caves and grots, like the Cyclopes of Homer. The Athenian philosopher deduced his reasoning from the passage in Homer, where the town founded by Dardanus is stated to have been built at the foot of Ida. (Il., 20, 215, seqq.)— The legend respecting Dardanus is as follows: Afflicted by the death of his brother Iasion, whom Jove had struck with lightning, Dardanus left Samothrace, and passed over to the mainland, where Teucer, the son of the river Scamandrus and the nymph Idaea then reigned over a people called Teucrians. He was well received by this prince, who gave him his daughter Batieia (Ill., 2,813) in marriage, and a part of his territory, on which he built a town called Dardanus. He had two sons, Ilus and Erichthonius, the former of whom died childless: the latter succeeded to the kingdom, and was remarkable for his wealth. By Astyoche, daughter of the Simois, Erichthonius had a son named Tros, who succeeded him on the throne. From Tros came Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes. The house of Priam were descended from Ilus; that of AEneas from Assaracus. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 76, seqq.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 483.)— II. An ancient city of Troas, founded by Dardanus. According to Homer, who calls it Dardania, it was situated at the foot of Mount Ida. (Il., 20, 215.Strah, 592.)—III. Another city of Troas, not to be confounded with the preceding. By whom it was built is uncertain. We know, however, that it existed in the time of Herodotus (5, 117), whq mentions its capture by the Persians, in the reign of Darius. In the narrative of Xerxes's march, he describes it as close to the sea, and conterminous with Abydus (7,43). Strabo reports, that the inhabitants were often compelled to change their abode by the successors of Alexander: he reports also, that peace was concluded here between Sylla and Mithradates. (Strab., 595Plut., Wit. Syll., c. 24.) The ruins of Dardanus are to be found between Kepos Burun and Derwend Tchemeh Burun. The name Dardanelles, which was in the first instance applied to the Turkish castles erected to defend the passage of the straits, and next to the straits themselves, is confessedly derived from this ancient city. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. ''. 82.) DAREs, I. a Trojan priest, mentioned by Homer (Il., 5, 9). It is †† pretended, by some of the ancient writers, that he wrote an Iliad, or history of the Trojan war, in prose; and Ælian (Var. Hist., 11, 2) assures us that it still existed in his day, without telling us, however, whether he himself had read it or not. There can be no doubt that Ælian was deceived, and that the work which he took for the production of Dares was the composition of some sophist of a much later age. However this may be, the Iliad of which Ælian speaks no longer exists; but we have a Latin work remaining, written in prose, which was for some time regarded as a translation from the Greek original, and was ascribed to Cornelius Nepos, though abounding with solecisms. The truth is, that this work is the production of an English poet, who flourished at the close of the 12th century. His name was Joseph, to which was sometimes added Daponius, from his having been born at Exeter in Devonshire, and at other times Iscanus, from the ancient name of Exeter, Isca. This Iliad, thus falsely ascribed to Dares, is not even translated from any Greek writer; it is merely the plan or prose outline of a Latin poem in six cantos, which Joseph Iscanus composed under the title De Bello Trojano.—The work just mentioned, as well as that of Dictys Cretensis, forms the original source of a famous romance of chivalry, which met with extraordinary success during the middle ages, and in the centuries immediately subsequent to the invention of printing. These works of Dares and Dictys having fallen into the hands of a Sicilian named Guido dalle Colonne, a native of Messina, and a celebrated lawyer and poet of the 13th century, he conceived the idea of giving them that romantic air which would harmonize with the spirit of the age, when chivalry had now acquired its greatest lustre. He consequently intercalated the narratives of the pretended poets of Phrygia and Crete with various adventures, suited to the taste of the age, such as tournaments, challenges, single combats, &c. His work having met with considerable success, he composed, in Latin prose, a romance of the war of Troy, in which he also introduced the war of the Seven against Thebes, and the expedition of the Argonauts. #. confounds together history and mythology, Greek and Arabian manners; his heroes are acquainted with alchymy and astronomy, and come in contact with dragons, griffons, and other fabulous monsters. His romance was translated into almost every European language, and excited a general enthusiasm. Hence the desire which at that time seized the great families of Europe of claiming descent from one of the heroes of Trojan story; and hence the eagerness, on the part of the monks, to compose genealogies :

consisting of Greek and Roman names which had some analogy with the names of the sovereign princes of the middle ages. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 3, seqq.) This same work of Dares Phrygius was the source whence Conrad of Würzburgh, in the latter half of the 13th century, derived the materials of the poem which he composed in like manner on the war of Troy. (Koberstein, Grundriss der Deutsch Nationalit, $46, not. 3.)—II. One of the companions of Æneas, celebrated as a pugilist, though conquered in the funeral gaines of Anchises by the aged Entellus. (Virg., AEm., 5, 369, seqq.) This Dares, or a Trojan of the same name, was slain by Turnus in Italy. (AEn., 12, 363.) DARicus, a Persian coin of the purest gold. According to Harpocration and Suidas, it weighed two drachmas, and hence it was equivalent in value to 20 Attic drachmas of silver. Five Darics were consequently equal to an Attic mina of silver. (Wurm, de pond., &c., p. 58.) Reckoning the Attic drachma at 17 cents, 5.93 mills, Federal currency, the value of the Daric will be 3 dolls., 51 cts., 8.64 mills. The Daric was the gold coin best known at Athens; and when we consider the great number that are recorded to have been employed in presents and bribes alone, exclusive of the purposes of traffic, it would seem extraordinary that so few should have reached modern times, if we did not know that, upon the conquest of Persia, they were melted down, and recoined with the type of Alexander. Very few Persian Darics are now to be seen in cabinets. There is one in Lord Pembroke's, which weighs 129 grains; and there are three in the cabinets at the British Museum, weighing about 128} grains each. The purity of the gold in the Persian Daric was remarkable. Bathélemy found it to be in one, -33, or 0,9583 (Mem. de l'Acad, des Inscr., vol. 21); and yet, if we credit Patin (Hist. Num., c. 7), this was exceeded by the purity of the gold coins of Philip and his son Alexander, which he makes = 23 carats, 10 grains, or 0.979. (Wurm, l.c.) The Daric had on one side the figure of an archer crowned, and kneeling upon one knee; upon the other a sort of quadrata incusa, or deep cleft. Knight sees in the figure upon the Persian Daric, not an archer, but a type of Hercules-Mithras, or the sun. (Inquiry, Ś 131.Class. Journ., vol. 25, p. 49.) Common parlance, however, made the figure to be an archer; and hence arose the witticism of Agesilaus, who said that he had been driven out of Asia by thirty thousand archers, meaning so many Darics distributed among the Greek cities by the Persian king. Who the Darius was from whom the coin received its name has never been clearly ascertained. According to the scholiast on Aristophanes (Eccles, 589), and also Harpocration and Suidas, the Daric did not obtain this appellation from the son of Hystaspes, but from a more ancient king of the name of Darius. Hence some writers are led to infer that Darius the Mede, who is mentioned by Daniel (5, 31), was the same with the Cyaxares of whom Xenophon speaks. (Compare Prideaur, Hist. Connect., 2, 538.—Hutchinson, ad Xen., Cyrop., 5,2, 3.—Perizon., ad AElian, W. H., 1, 22.) Wesseling, however, maintains the contrary, and ascribes the origin of the coin in question to the son of Hystaspes; 1st, because we find no mention made by the Greeks of any more ancient Darius than the one just alluded to ; and, 2d, because, as the lineage of the monarch is given by Herodotus, Darius, the son of Hystaspes, appears to have been the first who bore the name. Zeune conjectures (what, in fact, seems more than probable), that Darius, the son of Hystaspes, only corrected, and gave his name to an ancient coinage already existing. Müller also speaks of the Daric as having been coined by Darius Hystaspis. (Public Econ. of Athens, vol. 1, p. 32.)—The silver coins which go by the name of Darics are in truth miscalled. The earliest of them, if we may credit Herodotus (4, 166), were struck by

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