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by one of his vassals, Amorges, king of the Sacae, who gains a decisive victory over the Derbices, and annexes their land to the Persian empire. This account is so far confirmed by Herodotus, that we do not hear from him of any consequences that followed the suc'cess of the Massageta, or that the attention of Cambyses, the son and heir of Cyrus, was called away towards the North. The first recorded measure of his reign, on the contrary, was the invasion of Egypt. (Thirlwall's Greece, vol. 2, p. 172, seq.)—Thus much for the history of Cyrus, according to the generally received account. It is more than probable, however, that many and conflicting statements respecting his birth, parentage, early life, attainment to sovereign power, and subsequent career, were circulated throughout the East, since we find discrepances between the narratives of Herodotus, Ctesias, and Xenophon in these several particulars, that can in no other way be accounted for. It has been customary with most scholars to decry the testimony of Ctesias, and to regard him as a writer of but slender pretensions to the character of veracity. As far, however, as the history of Cyrus was concerned, to say nothing of other parts of his narrative, this opinion is evidently unjust, and its injustice will be placed in the clearest light if we com#. together the two rival statements of Ctesias and
erodotus. The account of the latter teems with fables, from which that of the former appears to be entirely free. It is far more consistent with reason, to believe with Ctesias that there was no affinity whatever between Cyrus and Astyages, than with Herodotus, that the latter was his maternal grandfather. Neither does Ctesias make any mention of that most palpable fable, the exposure of the infant; nor of the equally fabulous story respecting the cruel punishment of Harpagus. (Compare Bähr, ad Ctes., Pers., c. 2, and the words of Reineccius, Famil. Reg. Med. et Bactr., Lips., 1572, p. 35, “ab Astyage usurpata in Cyrum et Harpagi filium crudelitatis decantatam ab Herodoto fabulam plane rejicimus.") Nor need this dissimilarity between the statements of Ctesias and Herodotus occasion any surprise. The latter historian confesses, very ingenuously, that there were three different traditions in his time relative to the origin of Cyrus, and that he selected the one which appeared to him most probable (1,96). How unfortunate this selection was we need hardly say. Ctesias, then, chose another tradition for his guide, and Xenophon, perhaps, may have partially mingled a third with his narrative. AEschylus (Persa, v. 767) appears to have followed a fourth. (Compare Stanley, ad AEschyl., l.c., and Larcher, ad Ctes., Pers., c. 2.) With these several accounts, again, what the Armenian writers tell us respecting Cyrus is directly at variance. (Compare Recherches Curieuses sur l’Histoire Ancienne de l'Asie, par Cirbied et Martin, p. 64, seqq.) Among the modern scholars who have espoused the cause of Ctesias, his recent editor, Bähr, stands most conspicuous. This writer regards the narrative of Herodotus as savouring of the Greek love for the marvellous, and thinks it to have been in some degree adumbrated from the story of the Theban CEdipus and his exposure on Cithaeron; while, on the other hand, Xenophon presents Cyrus to our view as a young man, imbued with the precepts of the Socratic school, and exhibiting in his life and conduct a model for the imitation of others. The same scholar gives the following as what appears to him a near approximation to the true history of Cyrus. He supposes. Cyrus not to have been of royal lineage, but to have been by birth in the rank of a subject, and gifted with rare endowments of mind. He makes him to have first seen the light at the time when the Medes possessed the empire of Asia. The provinces or divisions of this empire he supposes to have been held by satraps or viceroys, whose power, though derived from the monarch, was hereditary among themselves.
He makes Cambyses, the father, to have been one of these satraps; and Cyrus, the son, to have succeeded him. Their sway was over the Persians, whom they ruled with almost regal power. Cyrus at length revolted from the king of the Medes, and, by the aid of his immediate followers, obtained possession of the empire. In order, however, the better to keep in subjection the other nations composing the empire of Astyages, he wished to pass himself off as the son and law. ful successor of the dethroned monarch. Hence arose the nuptials of Cyrus and Amytis the wife of Astyages. (Compare, as regards the Persian custom of intermarriage, Creuzer, Fragm. Hist., p. 223.-Freinshem., ad Curt., 3, 11, 24, and 8, 2, 19.—Theodoret., Serm., 9, p. 614.—Bahr, ad Ctes., p. 91.) Hence, too, we may account for the circumstance of Astyages' not having been put to death, but being treated with great honour, and made the companion of Cyrus in his marches against those nations who would not acknowledge his sway. (Consult Bähr, ad Ctes., p. 86, seqq.; —Ctesias makes Cyrus to have reigned thirty years, and Herodotus twenty-nine. According to some authorities he died at a very advanced age. (Compare Xenophon, Cyrop., 8, 7, 1.) Scaliger, guided by Dinon and Ctesias, makes Cyrus to have reached the 218th year of the era of Nabonassar, i. e., B.C. 528. (De Emend. Temp., p. 402.)—The name Cyrus (Köpoc) is generally thought to have been deduced from a Persian word, meaning the Sun. (Plut., Wit. Artar., 1.) Coray (ad Plut., l.c.) informs us, that the Sun is still called Kour by the Persians., , (Compare Hesychius, s. v. Kūpoc . . . . dro row #2 sovo Töv yüp #2tov oł IIápoa, Kūpov Žáyovauv and Plethon., Schol. in Orac. Mag. Zoroastr., p. 68, lin. 3, a fine.) Ritter also adduces various authorities to show, that, among the ancient Persians, as well as other early Oriental nations, Kor and Koros denoted the Sun. (Vorhalle, p. 86, seqq.) Wahl had proved the same before him. (Vorder und Mittel-asicn, vol. 1, p. 599.) The Hebrew Khoresh (Cyrus) is traced by Gesenius also to the Persian. (Heb. Lez., s. v.) The previous name of Cyrus appears to have been Agradates (Strabo, 729), which Rosenmüller explains by the Persian Agah-dar-dad, i.e., “juris cognitionem habens,” “jus tenens ac servans.” (Rosenm., Handbuch, vol. 1, p. 367–Bähr, ad Ctes., p. 458.)—II. Commonly called “the Younger,” to distinguish him from the preceding, was the second of the four sons of Darius Nothus and Parysatis. According to the customs of the monarchy, his elder brother Artaxerxes was the legitimate heir apparent; but Cyrus was the first son, born to Darius after his accession to the throne; and he was also his mother's favourite. She had encouraged him to hope, that, as Xerxes, through the influence of Atossa, had been preferred to his elder brother, who was born while their father was yet in a private station, so she should be able to persuade Darius to set aside Artaxerxes, and declare Cyrus his successor. In the mean while he was invested with the government of the western provinces. This appointment he seems from the first to have considered as a step to the throne. He had, however, sagacity and courage enough to perceive, that, should he be disappointed in his first expectations, the co-operation of the Greeks might still enable him to force his way to the throne. It was with this view that he zealously embraced the side of Sparta in her struggle with Athens, both as the power which he found in the most prosperous condition, and as that which was most capable of furthering his designs. According to Plutarch (Wit. Artar, 2), Cyrus went to attend his father's sickbed with sanguine hopes that his mother had accomplished her purpose, and that he was sent for to receive the crown. On his arrival at court, however, he saw himself disappointed in his expectations, and found that he had only come to witness his father's death, and his o dCCQSsion to the throne. He accompanied Artaxerxes, whom the Greeks distinguished by the epithet of Mnemon, to Pasargada, where the Persian kings went through certain mystic ceremonies of o and Tissaphernes took this opportunity of charging him with a design against his brother's life. It would seem, from Plutarch's account, that one of the officiating
riests was suborned to support the charge ; though it is by no means certain that it was unfounded. Artaxerxes was convinced of its truth, and determined on putting his brother to death; and Cyrus was only saved by the passionate entreaties of Parysatis, in whose arms he had sought refuge from the executioner. The character of Artaxerxes, though weak and timid, seems not to have been naturally unamiable. The ascendency which his mother, notwithstanding her undissembled predilection for her younger son, exercised over him, was the source of the greater part of his crimes and misfortunes. On this occasion he suffered it to overpower both the suspicions suggested by Tissaphernes, and the jealousy which the temper and situation of Cyrus might reasonably have excited. He not only pardoned his brother, but permitted him to return to his government. Cyrus felt himself not obliged, but humbled, by his rival's clemency; and the danger he had escaped only strengthened his resolution to make himself, as soon as possible, independent of the power to which he owed his life. Immediately after his return to Sardis, he began to make preparations for the execution of his design. The chief difficulty was to keep them concealed from Artaxerxes until they were fully matured ; for, though his mother, who was probably from the beginning acquainted with his purpose, was at court, always ready to put the most favourable construction on his conduct, yet Tissaphernes was at hand to watch it with malignant attention, and to send the earliest information of any suspicious movement to the king. Cyrus, however, devised a variety of pretexts to blind Tissaphernes and the court, while he collected an army for the expedition which he was meditating. His main object was to raise as strong a body of Greek troops as he could, for it was only with such aid that he could hope to overpower an adversary, who had the whole force of the empire at his command; and he knew enough of the Greeks to believe, that their superiority over his countrymen, in skill and courage, was sufficient to compensate for almost any inequality of numbers. In the spring of 401 B.C., Cyrus began his march from Sardis. His whole Grecian force, a part of which joined him on the route, amounted to 11,000 heavy infantry, and about 2000 targeteers. His barbarian troops were 100,000 strong. After directing his line of march through the whole extent of Asia Minor, he entered the Babylonian territory; and it was not until he reached the plain of Cunaxa, between sixty and seventy miles from Babylon, that he became certain of his brother's intention to hazard an engagement. Artaxerxes met him in this spot at the head of an army of 900,000 men. If we may believe Plutarch, the Persian monarch had continued to waver almost to the last, between the alternatives of fighting and retreating, and was only diverted from adopting the latter course by the energetic remonstrances of Tiribazus. In the battle which ensued, the Greeks soon routed the barbarians opposed to them, but committed an error in pursuing them too far, and Cyrus was compelled, in order to avoid being surrounded by the rest of the king's army, to make an attack upon the centre, where his brother was in person. He routed the royal body-guard, and, being hurried away by the violence of his feelings the moment he espied the king, he engaged with him, but was himself wounded and slain by a common soldier. Had Clearchus acted in conformity with the directions of Cyrus, and led his division against the king's centre, instead of being drawn off into P." of the flying enemy, the victory must
have belonged to Cyrus. According to the Persian custom of treating slain rebels, the head and right hand of Cyrus were cut off and brought to the king, who is said himself to have seized the head by the hair, and to have held it up as a proof of his victory to the view of the surrounding crowd. Thus ended." the expedition of Cyrus. Xenophon, who gives an account of the whole enterprise, pauses to describe the qualities and conduct by which this prince commanded love and respect, in a manner which shows how important the results of his success might have been for the welfare of Persia. The Greeks, after the battle, began to negotiate with the king through Tissaphernes, who offered to lead them home. . He treacherously violated his word, however; and having, by an act of perfidy, obtained possession of the persons of the Greek commanders, he sent them up to the king at Babylon, where they were all put to death. The Greeks were not, however, discouraged, though at a great distance from their country, and surrounded on every side by a powerful enemy. They immediately chose new commanders, in the number of whom was Xenophon, who has given so beautiful and interesting an account of their celebrated retreat. (Wid. Xenophon.) According to Diodorus and Diogenes Laertius, the expedition was undertaken by Cyrus in the 4th year of the 94th Olympiad. Larcher, on the contrary, in a dissertation inserted in the 17th vol. of the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, makes it to have been in the third year of that Olympiad, in the end of March or beginning of April. He makes the battle of Cunaxa to have been fought at the end of October, in the 4th year of the same Olympiad, and the time which the whole expedition occupied, including the retreat, down to the period when the Greeks entered the army of Thymbron, to have been two years. (Plut., Wit. Artar.—Xen., Anab–Thirlwall's Greece, vol. 4, p. 281, seqq.)—III. A large river of Asia, rising in Iberia and falling into the Caspian; now the Kur. This river waters the great valley of Georgia, and is increased by the Aragui, the Iora, probably the Iberus of the ancients, and the Alasan, which is their Alazo. When it reaches the plains of Shirvan, its waters are mixed with those of the Aras or Araxes. These two rivers form several branches, sometimes united and sometimes separated, so that it appears uncertain, as it was in the time of Strabo and Ptolemy, whether their mouths were to be considered as separate, or whether the Cyrus received the Araxes. (Plin., 4, 10.—Id., 6, 9.-Id., 10, 13.-Mela, 3, 5–Strabo, 345.) Cyta, a city of Colchis, in the interior of the country, near the river Phasis, and northeast of Tyndaris. It was the birthplace of Medea, and its site corresponds at the present day to Kutais, the capital of the Russian province of Imerethi. The inhabitants, like the Colchians generally, were famed for their acquaintance with poisonous herbs and magic rites. Scylax calls the place Malé (Mážm), which Vossius changes to Cyta (Köra). Medea was called Cytaeis from this her native city. (Steph. Byz., s. v.-Cellar., Geog. Antiq., vol. 1, p. 308.) Cytaeis, a surname given to Medea by the poets, from her having been born at Cyta. (Propert., 2, 1, 73.) CythéRA, now Cerigo, an island on the coast of Laconia in Peloponnesus. It was particularly sacred to the goddess Venus, who was hence surnamed Cytherara, and who rose, as fables tell us, from the sea, near its coasts. Stephanus of Byzantium says, that the island derived its name Cythera from a Phoenician named Cytherus, who settled in it. Before his arrival it was called Porphyris or Porphyrissa, according to Eustathius (ad Dion. Perieg., 500), from the quantity of purple fish found on its shores; but the name of Cythera is as ancient as the time of Homer. (Od., 1, 80.) The fable respecting Venus' having arisen from
the sea in its vicinity, means nothing more than that her worship was introduced into the island by some maritime people, probably the Phoenicians. Cythera was a place of great importance to the Spartans, since an enemy, is in possession of it, would be thereby enabled to ravage the southern coast of Laconia. Its harbours also sheltered the Spartan fleets, and afforded protection to all merchant vessels against the attacks of pirates, whose depredations, on the other hand, would have been greatly facilitated by its acquisition. (Thucyd., 4, 53.) Hence the Argives, who originally held it, were driven out eventually by the Spartans. A magistrate was sent yearly from Sparta, styled Cytherodices, to administer justice, and to examine into the state of the island; and so important a position was it, that Demaratus expressly advised Xerxes to seize it with a part of his fleet, since by that means he would compel the Spartans to withdraw from the confederacy, and defend their own territories. Demaratus quoted, on this occasian, the opinion of Chilo, the Lacedæmonian sage, who had declared it would be a great benefit to Sparta if that island were sunk into the sea. Cythera (Cerigo) is now one of the Ionian islands. (Virg., AEn., 1, 262; 10, 5.—Pausan., 3, 33.−Ovid, Met., 4, 288; 15, 386.—Fast., 4, 15.— Herodot., 1, 29.) Cyther AEA, a surname of Venus, from her rising out of the ocean near the island of Cythera. Cyth Nos, an island between Ceos and Seriphus, in the Mare Myrtoum, colonized by the Dryopes. (Artem., ap. Strab., 485-Dicaearch., Ins., 27.) It was the birthplace of Cyadias, an eminent painter. The cheese of Cythnos, according to Stephanus and Julius Pollux, was held in high estimation among the ancients. The island is now called Thermia. It was also named Ophiussa and Dryopis. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 403.) CYTINEUM, the most considerable of the four cities of Doris in Greece. According to Thucydides (3, 95), it was situate to the west of Parnassus, and on the borders of the Locri Ozolae. A schines observes, that it sent one deputy to the Amphictyonic council. (De Fals. Leg., p. 43.) Cytórum, a city of Paphlagonia, on the coast between the promontory Carambis and Amastris. It was a Greek town of great antiquity, since Homer alludes to it (Il., 2,853), and is thought to have been founded by a colony of Milesians. According to Strabo (545), it had been a port of the inhabitants of Simope. In its vicinity was a mountain, named Cytorus, which produced a beautifully-veined species of box-tree. (Catullus, 4, 13.—Virg., Georg., 2, 437.) The ruins of the ancient city are found near a harbour called Quitros or Kitros. (Tavernier, Voyage, lib. 3, c. 6.) In the vicinity is a high mountain called Kutros or Kotru. (Abulfeda, tab. 18, p. 309.-Manmert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 23.) Cyzicus, I. an island off the northern coast of Mysia, nearly triangular in shape, and about five hundred stadia in circuit. Its base was turned towards the Propontis, while the vertex advanced so closely to the continent that it was easy to connect it by a double bridge. This, as Pliny reports, was done by Alexander. Scylax, however, says that it was always a peninsula, and his authority is followed by Mannert, who is of opinion that the inhabitants may, after the time of Scylax, have separated it from the mainland by a canal or ditch, for purposes of security. 32–Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 527.) It is certainly a peninsula at the present day, and there are no indications whatever of the bridges mentioned by Pliny and others. (Sestini, Viaggio, p. 502–Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 47.)—II. A celebrated city of Mysia, on the island of the same name, situate partly in the plain which extended to the bridges connecting the island with the continent, and partly on
the slope of Mount Arcton-oros. Its first foundation is ascribed by Conon to a colony of Pelasgi from Thessaly, under #. conduct of Cyzicus, son of Apollo, and Aristides speaks of the god himself as the sounder of the city. (Orat. Cyzic., 1, p. 114.) In process of time the Pelasgi were expelled by the Tyrrheni, and these again made way for the Milesians, who are generally looked upon by the Greeks as the real settlers, to whom the foundation of Cyzicus is to be attributed. (Conon, Narrat., 41.-Strab., 635.) Cyzicus became, in process of time, a flourishing commercial city, and was at the height of its prosperity, when, through the means of the kings of Pergamus, it secured the favour and protection of Rome. Florus speaks in the highest terms of its beauty and opulence; and Strabo assures us that it equalled in these respects, as well as in the wisdom of its political institutions and the firmness of its government, the most renowned cities of Asia. The Cyzicene commonwealth resembled those of Rhodes, Marseilles, and Carthage. They elected three magistrates, who were curators of the public buildings and stores. They possessed extensive arsenals and granaries, and care was taken to preserve the wheat by mixing it with Chalcidic earth. Owing to these wise and salutary precautions, they were enabled to sustain an arduous and memorable siege against Mithradates, king of Pontus, by both sea and land, until relieved by Lucullus. (Appian, Bell. Mithr., c. 73, seqq.—Plut., Wit. Lucuil, c. 9, seqq.—Strab., 575.) The Romans, in acknowledgment of the bravery and fidelity displayed by the Cyzicenians on this occasion, granted to them their independence, and greatly enlarged their territory. Under the emperors, Cyzicus continued to prosper greatly, and in the time of the Byzantine sway it was the metropolis of the Hellespontine province. (Hierocl., p. 661.) It was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, A.D. 943. Cyzicus gave birth to several historians, philosophers, and other writers. The coins of this place, called Kvæknvoi graripeg, were so beautiful as to be deemed a miracle of art. Proserpina was worshipped as the chief deity of the place, and the inhabitants had a legend among them, that their city was given by Jupiter to this goddess, as a portion of her dowry. The ruins of Cyzicus now pass by the name of Atraki. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, |. 40, seqq.)—III. A king of the Dolionians, a people who are said to have been the first inhabitants of the district of Cyzicus in Mysia. He was killed in a night encounter by the Argonauts, whom he had mistaken for enemies. (Vid. Argonautas.)
DAA; or DAHA: (called by Herodotus DAI), a people who dwelt on the southeastern borders of the Caspian Sea, in the province of Hyrcania. They seem to have been a roving nomadic tribe. Virgil (Æm., 728) styles them indomiti; and Servius, in commenting on the passage of the poet where the term occurs, states that they extended to the northern part of Persia. He must allude evidently to the incursions they were accustomed to make into the countries south of Hyrcania. (Compare Plin., 6, 17–Mela, 1, 2, and 3, 5.) Their country is supposed by some to answer to the modern Dahistan. (Plin., 6, 17.-Curt., 7, 4. —Herod., 1, 125.)
Dacia, a large country of Europe, bounded on the south by the Danube, which separated it from Moesia, on the north by Sarmatia, on the east by the Tyras and Pontus Euxinus, and on the west by the Iazyges Metanaste. It corresponded nearly to Walachia, Transylvania, Moldavia, and that part of Hungary which iies to the east of the Tibiscus or Teiss, one of the northern branches of the Danube. In A.D. 105, Trajan added this country to the Roman * He erected a stately bridge over the Danube, 3325 English feet in length. This Aurelian destroyed: his motive in so doing is said to have been the searlest the barbarians would find it an easy passage to the countries south of the Danube, for he had by a treaty abandoned to the Goths the Dacia of Trajan. (Wopisc., 33, 39.) On this occasion he named the province south of the Danube, to which his forces were withdrawn, Dacia Aureliani. (Vid. Moesia.) There were afterward distinguished in Dacia, the part bordering on the Danube and called Ripensis, and that which was sequestered in the interior country under the name of Mediterranea. This last was probably the same with what was more anciently termed Dardania. The Daci of the Romans are the same with the Getae of the Greeks. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 188, seqq.) From Dacus comes Davus, the common name of slaves in Greek and Roman plays. Geta was used in the same sense. The Daci were, in process of time, successively subdued by the Sarmatae, the Goths, and the Huns; and lastly, the Saxons, driven by the conquests of Charlemagne, established themselves in Dacia. The Saxons principally concentrated themselves in what is now Transylvania, corresponding to the ancient Dacia Mediterranea, a fertile region, surrounded with forests and metalliferous mountains. (Sambuco, Append. Rer. Hung. Bonfin., p. 760.) To their coming must be entirely attributed the origin of its cultivation. All its principal towns were built by them : traces of their language still remain; and it is from them that Transylvania received the name of Siebenburgen, or the Region of Seven Cuties. (Chron. Hung., c. 2, ap. Rer. Hung. Script., p. 31.-Clarke's Travels—Greece, Egypt, Holy Land, &c., vol. 8, p. 295, seqq.)
DAcicus, I. a surname of the Emperor Trajan, from his conquest of Dacia. (Rasche, Lez. Rei Num, vol. 3, col. 27.)—II. A surname, supposed, but erroneously, to have been assumed by Domitian, on account of a pretended victory over the Dacians. The coins on which it occurs are Trajan's. (Achaintre, ad Juv., Sat., 6, 204.)
Dactyli. Vid. Idaei Dactyli.
DAEDALA, I. a town of Caria, near the confines of Lycia, and on the northern shore of the Glaucus Sinus. It was said to have derived its name from Daedalus, who, being stung by a snake on crossing the small river Ninus, died and was buried here. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Aatóaña.)—II. A mountain, in the vicinity of the city of the same name, and on the confines of Lycia. (Strabo, 664.)—III. Two festivals in Boeotia. One of these was observed at Alalcomenos by the Plataeans, in a large grove, where they exposed, in the open air, pieces of boiled flesh, and carefully observed whither the crows that had come to prey upon them directed their flight. All the trees upon which any of these birds alighted were immediately cut down, and with them statues were made, called Dadala, in honour of Daedalus.-The other festival was of a more solemn kind. It was celebrated every sixty years by all the cities of Boeotia, as a compensation for the intermission of the smaller festival for that number of years, during the exile of the Plataeans. Fourteen of the statues called Daedala were distributed by lot among the Plataeans, Lebadasans, Coroneans, Orchomenians, Thespians, Thebans, Tanagraeans, and Chaeroneans, because they had effected a reconciliation among the Plataeans, and caused them to be recalled from exile about the time that Thebes was restored by Cassander, the son of Antipater. During this festival, a woman in the habit of a bridemaid accompanied a statue, which was dressed in female garments, along the banks of the Eurotas. This procession was attended to the top of Mount Cithaeron by many of the Boeotians, who had places assigned them by lot. ho* altar of square pieces of wood, cemented
together like stones, was erected, and upon it were thrown large quantities of combustible materials. Afterward a bull was sacrificed to Jupiter, and an ox or heifer to Juno, by every one of the cities of Boeotia, and by the most opulent that attended. The poorest citizens offered small cattle; and all these oblations, together with the Daedala, were thrown in the common heap and set on fire, and totally reduced to ashes. The festival originated in this ; when Juno, after a quarrel with Jupiter, had retired to Euboea, and refused to return, the god went to consult Cithaeron, king of Plataea, to find some effectual measure to subdue her obstinacy. Cithaeron advised him to dress a statue in woman's apparel, and carry it in a chariot, and publicly to report it was Plataea, the daughter of Asopus, whom he was going to marry. The advice was followed, and Juno, informed of her husband's future marriage, repaired in haste to meet the chariot, and was easily united to him, when she discovered the artful measures he made use of to effect a reconciliation. (Pausan., 9, 3.) Plutarch composed an entire treatise on this festival, some fragments of which have been preserved by Eusebius (Prap. Evang., 3, 1, p. 83.—Plut., Op. ed. Hutten, vol. 14, p. 287), and agree with the account given in Pausanias, except that, in the narrative of Eusebius, Cithaeron is called Alalcomene, and Plataea, Daedala. (Stebelis, ad Pausan, l.c.) DAEDALUs, I. the name of a celebrated artist of antiquity, said to have been a native of Athens. In treating of him, it is requisite first to mention, that the statements of ancient writers respecting him cannot be understood as exhibiting the true history of an individual, but rather as obscurely intimating the origin and progress of the arts in Greece; and, in particular, the information which is afforded respecting the place of his birth, and the countries in which ..". seems to reflect light on the districts in which the arts were first cultivated. In noticing the accounts which have reached us, of the personal history of the artist Daedalus, the name itself first claims our attention. We learn from Pausanias (9, 3, 2), that all statues and images were anciently styled daíðaža, and as this designation was common long before the birth of the Athenian artist Daedalus, it is inferred that the name Daedalus was given to him on account of his productions. We have many similar instances of names given to individuals, to show either the origin of particular acts, or the talents, ingenuity, and other excellences of artists. Diodorus Siculus (4, 76, seqq.) and Pausanias (7,4, 5.—Id., 9, 3, 2), together with other writers, say that he was born in Attica; but Ausonius (Mos., 301) designates him as a Cretan, probably because a large portion of his time was spent in the island of Crete. The name of his father is variously stated by different authors. Plato (Ion, p. 363) and Diodorus Siculus (4, 76, seqq.) give the name as Metiones. On the other hand, so (fab., 274), Suidas, Servius (ad Virg., ABn., 6, 14), and some other authorities, mention Eupalamus as his parent. Pausanias (9, 3, 4) calls the latter Palamus; and thus we have three names contended for by different authors, all of which imply descent from some skilful and ingenious person. . was celebrated for his skill in architecture and statuary. His nephew, named Talus or Perdix, showed a great genius for mechanics; having, from the contemplation of a serpent's teeth, invented the saw, and applied it to the cutting up of timber. Daedalus, jealous of his skill, and apprehensive of the rivalry of the young man, cast him down from the Acropolis and killed him. For this murder he was banished by the court of Areopagus, and he betook himself to Minos, king of Crete, for whom he built the Labyrinth. He also devised an ingenious species of dance for Ariadne, the daughter of that monarch (Ill., 18, 590); but, having formed the wooden cow for Pasiphaë, he incurred the disleasure of the king, and was thrown into prison. #. by means of Pasiphaë, escaped from confinement, he determined to flee from Crete; but, being unable to get away by sea, he resolved to attempt flight through the air. He made, accordingly, wings of feathers united by wax, for himself and his son Icarus. They mounted into the air; but Icarus ascending too high, and approaching too near the sun, its heat melted the wax, and the youth fell into the sea and was drowned. Daedalus arrived in safety in Sicily, where he was kindly received by Cocalus, king of that island, who took up arms in his defence against Minos, when the latter pursued him thither. (Apollod., 3, 15, 9.-Ovid, Met., 8, 103, seqq.—Philisti Fragm., 1, p. 145, ed. Göller.) Here, too, he was employed in erecting several great architectural works, some of which were extant even in the time of Diodorus. This author states that he died in Sicily, but others mention that he went to Egypt, where he left monuments of his ability (Scylax Peripl.); and others, again, assert, that he was a member of the colony which Aristasus is said by some to have established in Sardinia.-Thus much for the pretended history of Daedalus. It must be evident, that under the name of this artist are concealed facts respecting the origin of Grecian art, which took its rise in Attica, and then spread, under different circumstances, into Crete and Sicily. Dædalus, therefore (Öaiðazoo, “ingenious,” “inventice”), is merely a personification of manual art. He was the Eponymus of the class of Daedalids, or statuaries, at Athens, and there were various wooden statues, preserved till late times, and said to be the work of his hands. Icarus (from eiko, “to be like,” eixów, iseños) was a suitable name for his son, and the resemblance between it and the name of the Icarian Sea probably gave occasion to the legend of the flight through the air. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.–Keightley's Mythology, p. 398.) Daedalus is said to have introduced several improvements into the forms of ancient statues, by separating the legs, which before were closed together, and representing his statues in the attitude of moving forward; and also by opening the eyes, which were previously shut. Hence arose the fabulous statement, invented at a subsequent period, that Daedalus communicated motion to statues by an infusion of quicksilver. (Plat., Men., p. 97, ed. Stalb.-Aristot., Polit., 1, 4.--Suid., s. v. Aa164%ov trothuara-Böttiger, Andeutungen, p. 49.) Daedalus is mentioned as the inventor of the axe, plumbline, auger, and also of glue ; and likewise as the person who first introduced masts and sails into ships. (Plin., 7, 56.—Warr., Fragm., p. 325, cd. Bip.)—II. A statuary of Sicyon, who flourished in the 95th Olympiad, or 400–397 B.C. (Plin., 34, 8.—Sullig, Dict. Art., s. v.) —III. A statuary of Bithynia, author of an admirable figure of Zeic Xrpártos, which was preserved at Nicomedia. (Arrian, ap. Eustath., ad Dionys. Perieg., 796.) Thiersch thinks that he lived after the founding of Nicomedia. He certainly flourished when the arts had been brought to a high state of perfection in Greece. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) DAHAE. Wid. Daae. DALMAtía, a part of Illyricum, between the rivers Titius and Drinus, and the ranges of the Bebian mountains and Scardus. It derived its name from the Dalmates, a barbarous but valiant race, supposed to be of Thracian origin, and who were very skilful in navigating the sea along their coast, and extremely bold in their piracies. The modern name of the country is the same with the ancient. The capital, Dalminium or Delminium, was taken and destroyed by the Romans, B.C. 157; the country, however, was not completely subdued until the time of Augustus, who is said by Appian (Bell. Ill. c. 25) to have concluded the war ". person before he became emperor. AcF F
cording to Strabo, the Dalmatians had a peculiar custom of dividing their lands every eight years, and had no coined money. The geographer also informs us, that they possessed fifty towns, all of considerable size, several of which were burned by Augustus. Their capital he calls Dalmium, and derives from it the name of the nation. (Strab., 315.) The Romans, after their conquest of this country, divided it into Dalmatia Maritima and Mediterranea, and made it part of the province of Illyricum, forming the lower portion of Illyria Barbara. Dalmatia, however, is sometimes made to comprehend a much wider tract of country, namely, all Illyria Barbara, or the region between Istria and Dyrrhachium, the Adriatic Sea and the Danube. Dalmatia was the native land of several of the Roman emperors, who exerted themselves, accordingly, to improve its condition. Many cities, therefore, and splendid structures arose in various parts of it; and, after the new division of the Roman provinces under Constantine and Theodosius, Dalmatia became one of the most important parts of the enlpire. (Flor., 4. 12.Sueton. Wit. Tib., c. 9.-Id., Wit. Aug., c. 21.-Jornand., de Regn. Succ., p. 39, 58.-Id., de Reb. Get., p. 109, 128, 136.) DALMAtius, a nephew of Constantine the Great. He was invested by this emperor with the title of Casar, and commanded against the Goths in Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece. Dalmatius fell in a tumult of his own soldiers, A.D. 338, brought about by the intrigues of Constantius, after the death of Constantine. (Zosim..., 2, 39, seq.-Compare Crevier, Hist. des Emp., vol. 6, p. 395.) DALMiNium, the capital of Dalmatia, and from which the Dalmatae are said to have derived their name. It was situate to the east of the river Naro, and northeast of Narona. This place, like many other of the Dalmatian towns, was situate on an eminence. Hence, when it was attacked by the Romans, the usual machines could not be brought up against it, and the consul Figulus was compelled to dart burning brands from his catapultas. As the sortifications of the place were of wood, these were soon reduced to ashes, and with them a large part of the city itself. Strabo (315) and Stephanus of Byzantium write the name Dalmion (Adžulov). The reduction of this city by Figulus took place B.C. 119. (Appian, Bell. Ill., 11.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 7, p. 372.) DAMAscENA, or DAMAscăN# (h Aamaaxmi, xúpa), a name given to the region around Damascus, in Syria. (Plin., 5, 12.-Strab., 756.) DAM Ascius, a philosopher, a native of Damascus. He commenced his studies under Ammonius at Alexandrea, and completed them at Athens under Marinus, Isidorus, and Zenodotus. According to some, he was the successor of Isidorus. It is certain, however, that he was the last professor of New-Platonism at Athens. He appears to have been a man of excellent judgment, and to have had a strong attachment for the sciences, particularly mathematics. He wrote a work entitled 'Atropiat kai žūget; tepi Tôv Tpárov dipzów, “Doubts and solutions concerning the origin of things.” Of this only two fragments remain, one preserved by Photius, which forms a biographica sketch of Isidorus of Gaza; the other treating trept yevvmrod, “ of what has been procreated.” A Munich MS. is said to contain an unedited work of his, entitled 'Aroptat kai žáaeus eig röv II24rovoc IIapueviÖmy, “Doubts and solutions relative to the Parmenides of Plato.” (Aretin, Beiträge zur Gesch. und Lit., vol. 1, p. 24.—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 117, seq.) DAMAscus (in Hebrew Dammesek), one of the principal cities of Syria, in what was called Coele-Syria, a few miles to the east of Antilibanus, where the chain begins to turn off to the southeast, under the name of Carmel. It was beautifully situated in wo extensive