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OEchalia,” an epic poem commemorative of the exploits of Hercules. According to an ancient tradition, Homer himself was the author of this piece, and gave it to Creophylus as a return for the hospitable reception which he had received under his roof. (Strabo, 638.) In an epigram of Callimachus, however, Creophylus is named as the real author. (Strab., l.c.) It was among the descendants of Creophylus that Lycurgus found, according to Plutarch (Vit. Lycurg., 4), the Iliad and Odyssey. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 166.) CREsphontes, a son of Aristomachus, who, with his brothers Temenus and Aristodemus, conquered the Peloponnesus. This was the famous conquest achieved by the Heraclidae. (Wid. Aristodemus and Heraclidao.) CREstóNE, I. or Creston, a city of Thrace, the capital probably of the district of Crestonia. Dionysius of Halıcarnassus, and most of the commentators and translators of Herodotus, confound this city with Cortona in Umbria. (Compare Muller, Etrusker, vol. 1, p. 95–Larcher, Hist, d'Herodote.—Table Geogr., vol. 8, p. 149.) Herodotus speaks of Crestone as situate beyond the Tyrrhenians, and inhabited by Pelasgi (1, 67), speaking a different language from their neighbours. Rennel thinks that the reading Tyrrhenians is a mistake, and that Thermaeans should be substituted for it, as Therma, afterward Thessalonica, agrees with the situation mentioned by the historian. (Geography of Herodot., p. 45.) If, however, the text be correct as it stands, it shows that there was once a nation called Tyrrhenians in Thrace. This is also confirmed by Thucydides (4, 109. — Compare the elaborate note of Larcher, ad Herodot., l. c.)—II. A district of Thrace, to the north of Anthermus and Bolbe, chiefly occupied by a remnant of Pelasgi. (Herodot., 1, 57.) We are informed by Herodotus, that the river Ethedorus took its rise in this territory; and also that the camels of the Persian army were here attacked by lions, which are only to be found in Europe, as he remarks, between the Nestus, a river of Thrace, and the Achelous (7, 124, and 127). Thucydides also mentions the Crestonians as a peculiar race, part of whom had fixed themselves near Mount Athos (4, 109). The district of Crestone is now known by the name of Caradagh. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 240.) CRETA, one of the largest islands of the Mediterramean Sea, at the south of all the Cyclades. Its name is derived by some from the Curetes, who are said to have been its first inhabitants; by others, from the nymph Crete, daughter of Hesperus; and by others, from Cres, a son of Jupiter, and the nymph Idaea. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Kpfirm.) It is also designated among the poets and mythological writers by the several appellations of AEria, Doliche, Idaea, and Telchinia. (Pliny, 4, 12–Steph. Byz., s. v. Aepta.) According to Herodotus, this great island remained in the possession of various barbarous nations till the time of Minos, son of Europa, who, having expelled his brother Sarpedon, became the sole sovereign of the country (1, 173–Compare Hoeck, Kreta, vol. 1, p. 141). These early inhabitants are generally supposed to be the Eteocretes of Homer, who clearly distinguishes them from the Grecian colonists subsequently settled there. (0d., 19, 172.) Strabo observes that the Eteocretes were considered as indigenous; and adds, that Staphylus, an ancient writer on the subject of Crete, placed them in the southern side of the island. (Strab., 475.) Other authors, who concur in this statement of the geographer, would lead us to establish a connexion between this primitive Cretan race and the Curetes, Dactyli, Telchines, and other ancient tribes, so often alluded to with reference to the mystic rites of Crete, Samothrace, and Phrygia. (Strač, 466.) Mo according to the concurrent testimony - C C

of antiquity, first gave laws to the Cretans, and, having conquered the pirates who infested the AEgean Sea, established a powerful navy. (Herodot, 1, 171. —Id., 3, 122–Thucyd., 1, 4, seqq.—Ephor., ap. Strab, 476–Aristot, Polit., 2, 12.) In the Trojan war, Idomeneus, sovereign of Crete, led its forces to the war in eighty vessels, a number little inferior to that commanded by Agamemnon himself. According to the traditions which Virgil has followed, Idomeneus was afterward driven from his throne by faction, and compelled to sail to Iapygia, where he founded the town of Salernum. (AEm., 3, 121 and 399.) At this period the island appears to have been inhabited by a mixed population of Greeks and barbarians. Homer enumerates the former under the names of Achaei, 1)orians, surnamed Trichaices, and Pelasgi. The latter, who were the most ancient, are said to have come from Thessaly, under the conduct of Teutamus, posterior to the great Pelasgic emigration into Italy. (Andron., ap. Steph. Byz., s. v. Aćptov.) The Dorians are reported to have established themselves in Crete, under the command of Althamenes of Argos, aster the death of Codrus and the foundation of Megara. (Strabo, 481.—Eustath. ad Il., 2, 645.) After the Trojan war and the expulsion of Idomeneus, the principal cities of Crete formed themselves into several republics, for the most part independent, while others were connected by federal ties. These, though not exempted from the dissensions which so universally distracted the Greek republics, maintained for a long time a considerable degree of prosperity, owing to the good system of laws and education which had been so early instituted throughout the island by the decrees of Minos. The Cretan code was supposed by many of the best-informed writers of antiquity to have furnished Lycurgus with the model of his most salutary regulations. It was founded, according to Ephorus, as cited by Strabo (480), on the just basis of liberty and an equality of rights; and its great aim was to promote social harmony and peace by enforcing temperance and frugality. On this principle, the Cretan youths were divided into classes called Agela, and all met at the Andreia, or public meals. Like the Spartans, they were early trained to the use of arms, and inured to sustain the extremes of heat and cold, and undergo the severest exercise; they were also compelled to learn their letters and certain pieces of music. The chief magistrates, called Cosmi (Köcuot), were ten in number, and elected annually. The Gerontes constituted the council of the nation, and were selected from those who were thought worthy of holding the office of Cosmus (Köquoc). There was also an equestrian order, who were bound to keep horses at their own expense. |...}. Aristot., Polit., 2, 7–Polyh., 6, 46.) But though the Cretan laws resembled the Spartan institutions in so many important points, there were some striking features which distinguished the legislative enactments of the two countries. One of these was, that the Lacedæmonians were subject to a strict agrarian law, whereas the Cretans were under no restraint as to the accumulation of moneyed or landed property; another, that the Cretan republics were for the most part democratical, whereas the Spartan was decidedly aristocratical. Herodotus informs us, that the Cretans were deterred by the unfavourable response of the Pythian oracle from contributing forces to the Grecian armament assembled to resist the Persians (7, 169). In the Peloponnesian war, incidental mention is made of some Cretan cities as allied with Athens or Sparta; but the island does not appear to have espoused collectively the cause of either of the belligerant parties. (Thucyd., 2, 85.) The Cretan soldiers were held in great estimation as light troops and archers, and readily offered their services for hire to such states, whether Greek or barbarian, as needed them. (Thucyd., 7, 57–Xen., Anab., 3, 3, 6.—Polyb., 4, S.–Id., 5, 14 ) 385

In the time of Polybius the Cretans had much degenerated from their ancient character, for he charges them repeatedly with the grossest immorality and the most hateful vices. (Polyh., 4, 47.-Id, ibid., 53.−ld, 6, 46.) We know also with what severity they are reproved by St. Paul, in the words of one of their own poets, Epimenides (Ep."Tit., 1, 12), Kpires àei peia: rat, kaka &mpia, yagrépec apyat.—The Romans did not interfere with the affairs of Crete before the war with Antiochus, when Q. Fabius Labeo crossed over into the island from Asia Minor, under pretence of claiming certain Roman captives who were detained there. (Lip., 37, 60.) Several years after, the island was invaded by a Roman army commanded by M. Antonius, under the pretence that the Cretans had secretly favoured the cause of Mithradates; but Florus more candidly avows, that the desire of conquest was the real motive which led to this attack (3, 7.—Compare Liv., Epit., 97). The enterprise, however, having failed, the subjugation of the island was not effected till some years later, by Metellus, who, from his success, obtained the agnomen of Creticus. (Liv., Epit., 99.-Appian, Ercerpt, de Reb. Cret.—Flor., 3, 7.) It then became annexed to the Roman empire, and formed, together with Cyrenaica, one of its numerous provinces, being governed by the same proconsul. (Dio Cassius, 53, 12. – Strabo, 1198.)— Crete forms an irregular parallelogram, of which the western side faces Sicily, while the eastern looks towards Egypt; on the north it is washed by the Mare

Creticum, and on the south by the Libyan Sea, which intervenes between the island and the opposite coast of Cyrene. The whole circumference of Crete was estimated at 4100 stadia by Artemidorus; but Sosicrates, who wrote a very accurate description of it, did not compute the periphery at less than 5000 stadia. Hieronymus also, in reckoning the length alone at 2000 stadia, must have exceeded the number given by Artemidorus. (Strabo, 474.) According to Pliny, the extent of Crete from east to west is about 270 miles, and it is nearly 539 in circuit. In breadth it nowhere exceeds 50 miles. Strabo observes, that the interior is very mountainous and woody, and intersected with fertile valleys. Mount Ida, which surpasses all the other summits in elevation, rises in the centre of the island; its base occupies a circumference of nearly 600 stadia. To the west it is connected with another chain, called the white mountains (Aevkū 6pm), and to the east its prolongation forms the ridge anciently known by the name of Dicte. (Strabo, 475, 478.) The island contains no lakes, and the rivers are mostly mountain-torrents, which are dry during the summer season.—It has been remarked by several ancient writers, that Homer in one passage ascribes to Crete 100 cities Il., 2, 649), and in another only 90 (Od., 19, 174), a variation which has been accounted for on the supposition, that ten of the Cretan cities were foundd posterior to the siege of Troy; but, notwithstand.ng this explanation, which Strabo o: from Ephorus, it seems rather improbable, that the poet should have paid less attention to historical accuracy in the Iliad than in the Odyssey, where it was not so much required. The difficulty may be solved by assuming, what has every appearance of being true, that the Odyssey was not the composition of Homer, but the work of a later age. Others affirmed, that during the siege of Troy the ten deficient cities had been destroyed by the enemies of Idomeneus. (Strabo, 479–Compare Hoeck, Kreta, vol. 2, p. 437.) The modern name of Crete is Candia. Chalk was produced in great abundance here, and was hence called Creta Terra, or simply Creta. The valleys or sloping plains in modern Candia are very fertile. , The greater portion of the land is not cultivated, but it might produce sugarcane, excellent wine, and the best kind of fruit; the exports are salt, grain, oil, honey,

silk, and wool. Crete abounds in wild fowl and disferent kinds of game. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 6, p. 166, Am. ed.—Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 356, seqq.) The best work on the history of ancient Crete is that of Hoeck (Kreta, 3 vols. 8vo, Göttingen, 1823–29). CRETE, I. the wife of Minos. (Apollod., 3, 1.)— II. A daughter of Deucalion. (Id., 3, 3.) CRETEs, the inhabitants of Crete. (Virg., AEn., 4, 146.) CRElisa, I. a daughter of Creon, king of Corinth, and wife of Jason. She received from Medea, as bridal presents, a diadem and robe, both of which had been prepared with magic art, and saturated with deadly poisons. On arraying herself in these, flames burst forth, and fed upon and destroyed her. Creon, the father of the princess, perished in a similar way, having thrown himself upon the body of his dying daughter, and being afterward unable to extricate himself from the embrace of the corpse. (Eurip., Med., 781, seqq. —Id. ib., 1156, seqq.) According to the scholast, she was also called Glauce. (Schol. ad Eurip., Med., 19.)—II. Daughter of Priam and Hecuba, and wife of AEneas. When Troy was surprised by the Greeks, she fled in the night with her husband, but they were separated during the confusion, nor was her absence observed until the other fugitives arrived at the spot appointed for assembling. Æneas a second time braved the perils of the burning city in quest of his wife. While he was distractedly seeking for her through every quarter of Troy, Creusa appeared to him as a deified personage, and appeased his alarm by informing him, that she had been adopted by Cybele among her own attendant nymphs; and she then exhorted him to pursue his course to Italy, with an intimation of the good fortune that awaited him in that land. (Virg., AEm., 2, 562, seqq.) Creusis or CREus A (Kpelot, or Kpeica), a town of Boeotia, which Pausanias (9, 32) and Livy (36, 21) term the harbour of Thespiae. It was on the confines of the Megarean territory, and a difficult and dangerous road led along the shore from thence to AEgosthena, a seaport belonging to the latter. Xenophon, on two occasions, describes the Lacedaemonians as retreating from Boeotia by this route, with great hazard and labour, before the battle of Leuctra, when under the command of Cleombrotus, and again subsequent to that bloody conflict. (Hist. Gr.,-5, 4, 17.—Ibud., 6, 4, 25.) Pausanias describes the navigation from the coast of the Peloponnesus to Creusa as dangerous, on account of the many headlands which it was necessary to double, and also from the violence of the winds blowing from the mountains (9, 32.-Compare Strabo, 405 and 409.-Ptol., p. 86). The position of Creusa seems to correspond with that of Liradostro, a well-frequented port, situated in a bay running inland towards the north, to which it gives its name. From Liradostro to Psato there is a path which winds around the western shore of the bay, at the base of Mount Cithaeron, and agrees very well with Xenophon's description. (Cramer's Ancient Grecce, vol. 2, p. 202, seqq.) - CRIMisus or Crimissus, I. a river of Sicily, in the western part of the island, flowing into the Hypsa. D'Anville makes the modern name Caltabellotta; but Mannert, the San Bartolomato. The orthography of the ancient word is given differently in different editions of Virgil. The true reading is Crimisus or Crimissus. (Consult Heyne, in War. Lect., ad Virg., AEn., 5, 38.-Cellarius, Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 794.) —II. or Crimisa, a promontory, river, and town of Brutium, north of Crotona. The modern name of the promontory is Capo dell' Alice; of the river, the Fiumenica; the modern Ciro answers to the city. This place was said to have been founded by Philoctetes after the siege of Troy. (Strab., 254.—Steph. Byz., s. v.–Lycophr., 911.)—III. The god of the river Crimisus in Sicily. He became, by a Trojan female, the father of Acestes or Ægestes. (Vid. AEgestes, and compare Serp., ad Virg., AEn., 1,550.) Crispinus, I. a native of Alexandrea in Egypt, of mean, if not servile, origin. According to the scholiast on Juvenal (1, 26), he was at first a paper-vender (raptoirážmc), but became afterward a great favourite with Domitian, and was raised to equestrian rank. He was a man of infamous morals. (Schol., in cod. Schurz., ad Jur., l. c.—Schott, Obs., 5, 35.)—II. A ridiculous philosopher and poet in the time of Horace, and noted for garrulity. According to the scholast (ad Horat., Serm., 1, 1, 120), he wrote some verses on the Stoic philosophy, and, on account of his verboseness and loquacity, received the appellation of dperažoyos. (Compare Döring, ad Horat., l. c.) Crispus, SALLUstius. Wid. Sallustius. Criss AEU's SiNUs, an arm of the Sinus Corinthiacus, on the northern shore. It extends into the country of Phocis, and had at its head the town of Crissa, whence it took its name. Its modern name is the Gulf of Salona, from the modern city of Salona, the ancient Amphissa, which was the chief town of the Locri Ozolae, and lay to the northeast of Delphi. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 151.) CrithEis, the reputed mother of Homer. Homerus.) Critias, one of the thirty tyrants set over Athens by the Spartans. He was of good family, and a man of considerable talents, but of dangerous principles. He applied himself with great success to the culture of eloquence, which he had studied under Gorgias, and Cicero cites him among the public speakers of that day. (Brut, 7–De Orat., 2, 22.) He appears also to have had a talent for poetry, if we may judge from some fragments of his which have reached us. Critias turned his attention likewise to philosophical studies, and was one of the disciples of Socrates, whom, however, he quarrelled with and left. (Xen., Mem., 1, 2.) Being after this banished from Athens for some cause that is not known, he retired to Thessaly, where he excited an insurrection among the Penesia, or serfs. (Consult Schneider, ad Xen., Hist. Gr., 2, 3, 36, et ad Xen, Mem., 1, 2, 24.) Subsequently to this he visited Sparta, and wrote a treatise on the laws and institutions of that republic. Returning to Athens along with Lysander, B.C. 404, he was appointed one of the thirty, his pride of birth and hatred of demagogues having pointed him out as a fit person for that office. After a cruel and oppressive use of the power thus conferred upon him, he sell in batttle against Thrasybulus and his followers. Plato, who was a relation of his, has made him one of the interlocutors in his Timaeus and Critias. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 2, 3–Id, 2, 4.) Crito, I. a wealthy Athenian, the intimate friend and disciple of Socrates. When that philosopher wos *: became security for him; and, after his condemnation, succeeded in bribing the keeper of the prison, so that Socrates, had he felt inclined, might easily have escaped. He is introduced, therefore, by Plato as an interlocutor in the dialogue called Crito, after his name. The remainder of his life is not known; but, as he was nearly of the same age with Socrates, he could not have long survived him. Crito wrote seventeen dialogues, which are lost. (Plat., Crit.—Suid., &c.)—II. A Macedonian historian, who wrote an account of Pallene, of Persia, of the foundation of Syracuse, of the Getae, &c. (Suid., s. v.)— III. An Athenian sculptor, who, with Nicolaus, one of his fellow-citizens, made a statue intended as a support to a building. This work, belonging to the class of Caryatides, is still extant, and forms part of the collection at the Villa Albani. Winckelmann (vol. 6, p. 203) thinks he flourished about the time of Cicero. (Sillig, Dict, Art., s. v.) and of literature. He became famed for his riches and munificence. Poets and philosophers were invited to his court, and, among others, Solon, the Athenian, is said to have visited his captital, Sardis. Herodotus relates the conversation which took place between the latter and Croesus on the subject of human felicity, in which the Athenian offended the Lydian monarch by the little value which he attached to riches as a means of happiness. (Herod., 1, 30.) This anecdote, however, appeared encumbered with chronological difficulties, even to the ancients (Plut., Wit. Sol., c. 27), and has given rise to considerable discussions in modern times. (Consult Larcher, Chronol. d'Herod., vol. 7, p. 205, seqq.—Clavier, Histoire des premiers temps de la Grèce, vol. 2, p. 324. — Schultz, Apparat. ad Annall. Crit. Rer. Gratc., p. 16, seqq.— Bähr, ad Herodot., 1, 30.) Not long after this, Croesus had the misfortune to lose his son Atys (vid. Atys); but the deep affliction into which this loss plunged him was dispelled in some degree, after two years of mourning, by a feeling of disquiet relative to the movements of Cyrus and the increasing power of the Persians. Wishing to form an alliance with the Greeks of Europe against the danger which threatened him, a step which had been recommended by the oracle at Delphi (Herod., 1,53), he addressed himself, for this purpose, to the Lacedæmonians, at that time the most powerful of the Grecian communities, and having succeeded in his object, and made magnificent presents to the Delphic shrine, he resolved on open hostilities with the Persians. The art of the crafty priesthood who managed the machinery of the oracle at Delphi is nowhere more clearly shown than in the history of their royal dupe, the monarch of Lydia. He had lavished upon their temple the most splendid gifts; so splendid, in fact, that we should be tempted to suspect Herodotus of exaggeration if his account were not confirmed by other writers. And the recipients of this bounty, in their turn, put him off with an answer of the most studied ambiguity when he consulted their far-famed oracle on the subject of a war with the Persians. The response of Apollo was, that if Croesus made war upon this people, he would destroy a great empire; and the answer of Amphiaraus (for his oracle, too, was consulted by the Lydian king), tended to the same effect. (Herod., 1, 53.) The verse itself, containing the response of the oracle, is given by Diodorus (Excerpt., 7, § 28), and is as follows: Kpoigos, "AAvv Ólaflèc, ueyážnv dprov karažūget, “Crasus, on having crossed the Halys, will destroy a great empire,” the river Halys being, as already remarked, the boundary of his dominions to the east. (Compare Cic., de Div., 2, 56.—Aristot., Rhet., 3, 4.) Croesus thought, of course, the kingdom thus referred to was that of Cyrus; the issue, however, proved it to be his own. Having assembled a numerous army, the Lydian monarch crossed the Halys, invaded the territory of Cyrus, and a battle took place in the district of Pteria, but without any decisive result. Croesus, upon this, thinking his forces not sufficiently numerous, marched back to Sardis, disbanded his army, consisting entirely of mercenaries, and sent for succour to Amasis of Egypt, and also to the Lacedaemonians, determining to attack the Persians again in the beginning of the next spring. But Cyrus did not allow him time to effect this. Having discovered that it was the intention of the Lydian king to break up his present army, he marched with all speed into Lydia, before a new mercenary force could be assembled, defeated Croesus (who had no force at his command but his Lydian cavalry), in the battle of Thymbra, shut him up in Sardis, and took the city itself after a siege of fourteen days, and in the fourteenth year of the reign of the son of Alyattes. With Croesus fell the empire of the Lydians. Herodotus relates two incredible stories connected with this event; one having reference to the dumb son of Croesus, who spoke for the first time

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Critol,Rus, I. a native of Phaselis in Lycia, who came to Athens to study philosophy, and became there, after the death of Ariston of Ceos, the head of the peripatetic school. He was sent by the Athenians, along with Carneades and Diogenes, on an embassy to Rome, B.C. 158, and acquired great reputation in that city, during his stay there, for his ability in speaking; a circumstance, however, which did not prevent his declaiming against the rhetorical art, which he considered prejudicial rather than useful. He lived more than eighty years. Critolaus strove to confirm, by new arguments, the doctrine of Aristotle respecting the eternity of the world. (Plut., de Ezil., p. 605.Cie., de Fun., 5, 5.—Stobatus, Eclog. Phys., 1, 1.— Philo, Mund. Incorrupt., p. 943.)—II. A general of the Achaeans, and one of the principal authors of the war between the Romans and his countrymen, which ended in the subjugation of the latter. (Polyb., 38, 2.—Id., 38, 5, &c.) Criu-METópon (Kptoj Mérorov, i. e., “Ram's Front”), I. a promontory of the Tauric Chersonese, and the most southern point of that peninsula. It is now called Karadjebouroun, according to D'Anville, which signifies, in the Turkish language, Black-nose. Mannert, however, makes the modern name to be Ajadag, or the Holy Mountain.—II. A promontory of Crete, forming its southwestern extremity, now Cape Crio. (Plum., 4, 11.) Ron Yzi, a people between Mount Haemus and the Danube, in Lower Masia. Their territory lay in a northeastern direction from Philippopolis on the Hebrus. (Plin., 4, 12.) CrocodilöPolis, a city of Egypt. V.) Crocus, a youth who, being unable to obtain the object of his affections, the nymph Smilax, pined away, and was changed into the crocus, or “saffron.” Smilax herself was metamorphosed into the smilar, or “Oriental bindweed.” (Orid, Met., 4, 283.) Croesus, son of Alyattes, king of Lydia, and born about 591 B.C. He was the fifth and last of the Mermnada, a family which began to reign with Gyges, who dethroned Candaules. (Herod., 1, 14.) According to the author just quoted, Croesus was the son of Alyattes by a Carian mother, and had a half-brother, named Pantaleon, the offspring of an Ionian female. An attempt was made by a private foe of Croesus to hinder his accession to the throne, and to place the kingdom in the hands of Pantaleon; but the plot failed (Herod., 1, 92), although Stobacus (Serm., 45) informs us, that Croesus, on coming to the throne, divided the kingdom with his brother. Plutarch states, that the second wife of Alyattes, wishing to remove Croesus, gave a female baker in the royal household a dose of poison to put into the bread she made for Croesus. The woman informed Croesus, and gave the poisoned bread to the queen's children, and the prince, out of gratitude, consecrated at Delphia golden image of this female three cubits high. (Plut, de Pyth. Orac.—Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 580–Herod., 1, 51.) Croesus ascended the throne on the death of his father, B.C. 560, and immediately undertook the subjugation of the Greek communities of Asia Minor (the AEolians, Ionians, and Dorians), whose disunited state, and almost continual wars with one another, rendered his task an easy one. He contented himself, however, after reducing them beneath his sway, with merely imposing an annual tribute, and left their forms of government unaltered. When this conquest was effected, he turned his thoughts to the construction of a fleet, intending to attack the islands, but was dissuaded from his purpose by Bias of Priene. (Herod., 1, 27.), Turning his arms, upon this, against the nations of Asia Minor, he subjected all the country lying west of the river Halys, except Cilicia and Lycia; and then applied himself to the arts of peace, and to the patronage o,o Sciences

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when he saw a soldier in the act of killing his father, and, by the exclamation which he uttered, saved his parent's life, the soldier being ignorant of his rank; and the other being as follows: Croesus having been made prisoner, a pile was erected, on which he was placed in order to be burned alive. After keeping silence for a long time, the royal captive heaved a deep sigh, and with a groan thrice pronounced the name of Solon. Cyrus sent to know the reason of this exclamation, and Croesus, after considerable delay, acquainted him with the conversation between himself and Solon, in which the latter had discoursed with so much wisdom on the instability of human happiness. The Persian monarch, relenting upon this, gave orders for Croesus to be released. But the flames had already begun to ascend on every side of the pile, and all human aid proved ineffectual. In this emergency Croesus prayed earnestly to Apollo, the god on whom he had lavished so many splendid offerings; that deity heard his prayer, and a sudden and heavy fall of rain extinguished the flames' (Herod., 1, 86, seqq.) . This story must be decidedly untrue, as it is not possible to conceive that the Persians would employ fire, which to them was a sacred element, in punishing a criminal. Croesus, after this, stood high in the favour of Cyrus, who profited by his advice on several important occasions; and Ctesias says that the Persian monarch assigned him for his residence a city near Ecbatana. This prince, in his last moments, recommended Cresus to the care of his son and successor Cambyses, and entreated the Lydian, on the other hand, to be an adviser to his son. Croesus discharged this duty with so much fidelity as to give offence to the new monarch, who ordered him to be put to death. Happily for him, they who were charged with this order hesitated to carry it into execution; and Cambyses, soon after, having regretted his precipitation, Croesus was again brought into his presence, and restored to his former favour. The rest of his history is unknown. As he was advanced in years, he could not have long survived Cambyses. (Herod., 3, 36, seqq. —Compare Bähr, ad Ctes., p. 102, seqq.—Creuzer, Fragm. Hist, p. 207, seqq.—Nic. Damasc., in Ercerpt. Wales., p. 457, seqq.). The wealth of Croesus was proverbial in the ancient world, and one source of supply was in the gold ore washed down by the Pactolus from Mount Timolus in Lydia. (Compare Erasmus, chil. 1, cent. 6, col. 216.—Strab., 610,625.-Virg., AEn., 10, 141. —Senec., Phoen., 604.—Juvenal, Sat., 14, 298.) Crowl or CromN1, a town of Arcadia, in the district Cromitis, mentioned by Xenophon as a place of some strength. It is thought by Sir W. Gell to correspond with Crano, two hours and forty-seven minutes from Sinano, or Megalopolis. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 99) CRommyon, a small place in Corinthia, on the shore of the Saronic Gulf, south of the Megarean frontier. It" was celebrated in mythology as the haunt of a wild boar destroyed by Theseus. (Plut., Wit. Thes, Plat., Lach., p. 196—Strabo, 380.) Pausanias says it was named after Crommus, son of Neptune. From Thucydides (4, 44) it appears that Crommyon was 120 stadia from Corinth. The little hamlet of Canetta or Kinetta is generally thought to occupy the site of this ancient town. (Chandler's Travels, vol. 2, ch. 43.—Gell's Itin., p. 209.) Crophi, a mountain of Egypt, between Elephantina and Syene. Between this mountain and another called Mophi were the sources of the Nile, according to a foolish statement made to Herodotus by an Egyptian priest at Sais. (Herodot, 2, 28.) CrotöNA or Croto (Kps Tov), now Cotrone, a powerful city of Italy, in the Brutiorum ager, on the coast of the Sinus Tarentinus. Its foundation is ascribed to Myscelius, an Achaean leader, soon after Sybaris had been colonized by a party of the same nation, which was about 715 A.C. (Antioch., Syrac., ap. Strab., 262.) According to some traditions, the oriin of Crotona was much more ancient, and it is said to §. its name from the hero Croton. (Ovid, Metam., 15, 53.—Compare Heracl., Pont. Fragm., p. 20.Diod. Sic., 4, 24.) The residence of Pythagoras and his most distinguished followers in this city, together with the overthrow of Sybaris which it accomplished, and the exploits of Milo and of several other Crotoniat victors in the Olympic Games, contributed in a high degree to raise its fame. Its climate, also, was proverbially excellent, and was supposed to be particularly calculated for producing in its inhabitants that robust frame of body requisite to ensure success in gymnastic contests. Hence it was commonly said, that the last athlete of Crotona was the first of the other Greeks. (Strabo, 262.) This city was also celebrated for its school of medicine, and was the birthplace of Democedes, who long enjoyed the reputation of being the first physician of Greece. (Herodot, 3, 131.) However brilliant an epoch in the history of Crotona its triumph over Sybaris may appear, that event must be regarded also as the term of her greatness and prosperity ; for from this period it is said that luxury and the love of pleasure, the usual consequences of great opulence, soon obliterated all the good effects which had been produced by the wisdom and morality of Pythagoras, and conspired to enervate that hardihood and vigour for which the Crotoniatae had hitherto been so peculiarly distinguished. (Polyb., Fragm., 7, 1, and 10, 1.—Tim., ap. Athen., 12, 4.) As a proof of the remarkable change which took place in the warlike spirit of this people, it is said that, on their being subsequently engaged in hostilities with the Locrians, an army of 130,000 Crotoniatae were routed by 10,000 of the enemy on the banks of the Sagras. Such was, indeed, the loss they experienced in this battle, that, accordin to Strabo, their city henceforth rapidly declined, . could no longer maintain the rank it had long held among the Italiot republics. (Strabo, 261.) According to Justin (20, 2), it is true, a much earlier date ought to be assigfied to this event; but the accounts which Strabo has followed evidently regarded it as subsequent to the fall of Sybaris, and probability rather favours such an arrangement in the order of events. (Consult Heyne, de Civit. Gratc., prolus. 10, in Op. Acad., vol. 2, p. 184.) Dionysius the elder, who was then aiming at the subversion of all the states of Magna Græcia, having surprised the citadel, gained possession of the town, which, however, he did not long retain. (Liv., 24, 3.) Crotona was finally able to assert its independence against his designs, as well as the attacks of the Brutii; and when Pyrrhus invaded Italy, it was still a considerable city, extending on both banks of the AEsarus, and its walls embracing a circumference of twelve miles. But the consequences of the war which ensued with that king proved so ruinous to its prosperity, that above one .# of its extent became deserted; the Æsarus, which flowed through the town, now ran at some distance from the inhabited part, which was again separated from the fortress by a vacant space. Such is the picture which Livy draws of the state of this city after the battle of Cannae, at which period almost all the Greek colonies abandoned the Roman cause. Crotona was then occupied by the Brutii, with the exception of the citadel, in which the chief inhabitants had taken refuge; these being unable to defend the place against a Carthaginian force, soon after surrendered, and were allowed to withdraw to Locri. (Liv., 24, 2 and 3.) Crotona eventually fell again into the hands of the Romans, A.U.C. 560, and a colony was established here. Pliny merely speaks of it as an Oppidum, without adding a single remark respecting its importance. It became a place of some consequence in the time of Belisarius, who made it, on account of its position, a chief point in his operations along the coast. (Procop., B. Goth., 3, 28, et

4, 26.) Its harbour, however, does not seem to have been any of the best, or well calculated to afford protection against storms and winds. It was rather what Polybius calls (10, 1) a summer-harbour. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 391, seqq.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 210.) Crotoni Atae, the inhabitants of Crotona. de Inv., 2, 1.) Crotoni Atis (# Kporaviãrus xúpa), a part of Italy, of which Crotona was the capital. (Thucyd., 7, 35.) Crustume RiuM or CRustumium, a town of the Sabines, in the vicinity of Fidenae, and, like Fidenae, founded by a colony from Alba. (Dion. Hal., 2, 53.) Its great antiquity is also attested by Virgil (Æm., 7, 629), and by Silius Italicus (8, 367). From Pliny (3, 5) we learn that the Crustumini were vanquished by Romulus, and that a settlement was formed in their territory. The fertility of their lands is extolled by more than one writer. Their city, however, was not finally conquered till the reign of the elder Tarquin. (Liv., 1, 38.) The name of Crustumini Colles appears to have been given to the ridge of which the Mons Sacer formed a part, since Warro, speaking of the secession of the Roman people to that hill, terms it Secessio Crustumerina. (L. L., 3, 1.) The tribe called Crustumina evidently derived its name from this ancient city. (Liv , 42, 34.) The ruins of Crustumerium are said to exist in a place now called Marcigliano Vecchio. (Vulp., Vet. Lat., lib. 18, c. 17.— Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 303, seqq.) Ctesias, I. a Greek historian and physician of Cnidus, who flourished in the time of Artaxerxes Mnemon. (Suidas, s. v.—Xen., Anab., 1, 8, 27–Diod. Suc., 1, 32.) He was of the family of the Asclepiades, who possessed the art of healing as a patrimony, inherited from their great progenitor Æsculapius. (Galen, vol. 5, p. .# 51, ed. Basil.) Ctesias assisted at the battle of Cunaxa, B.C. 401, but it is not precisely known whether he was in the army of Cyrus or in that of Artaxerxes. He merely states that he healed the wound received by the latter during the conflict. In speaking, however, of the death of ë. the Grecian commander, which took place a short time after the battle, he informs us, that he was then the physician of Parysatis, the mother of Artaxerxes, which would render it very probable that he was from the first in the suite of the king, and not in that of his brother. (Compare Bähr, ad Ctes., p. 16, Proleg.) He passed, after this, seventeen years at the court of Persia. Ctesias composed a History of Assyria and Persia, entitled IIepairá, in 23 books, written in the Ionic dialect. In writing this, he obtained great assistance, as well from the oral communications of the Persians as from the archives of the empire, to which he states that he had access, and in which appear to have been deposited those royal documents which Diodorus Siculus calls Baathukai 6196épat. These annals contained rather the history of the court and the monarchs of Persia than that of the state itself. What we possess at present of the history of Ctesias, induces the belief, that it was precisely in this circle of events that the work of Ctesias just mentioned was principally taken up. It is by means of quotations given by Athenæus, and more particularly by Plutarch, that we are made acquainted with some fragments of the first six books, which turned entirely on the history of Assyria. We have an extract, in a somewhat more complete order, from the seventeen books that immediately follow: Photius has placed it in his Bibliotheca. Ctesias wrote also a history of India ('Ivöuká), in one book, from which Photius has also copied an extract.—On many points Ctesias is in contradiction with Herodotus, whom he accuses of dealing in fable 5 and also with Xenophon. He has been charged, in his turn, with being, on many occasions, negligent of the truth. What has principally injured the* o:

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