Obrazy na stronie

tively pursued by that prince, who added Ambracia, Anactorium, and Leucas to the maritime dependencies of the Corinthians. (Strabo, l.c.—Aristot., Polit., 5, 9.) Cypselus was succeeded by his son Perlander. On the death of this latter, after a reign of forty-four years, according to Aristotle, his nephew Psammetichus came to the throne, but lived only three years. At his decease Corinth regained its independence, when a moderate aristocracy was established, under which the republic enjoyed a state of tranquillity and prosperity unequalled by any other city of Greece. We are told by Thucydides, that the Corinthians were the first to build war-galleys or triremes; and the earliest naval engagement, according to the same historian, was fought by their fleet and that of the Corcyreans, who had been alienated from their mother-state by the cruelty and impolicy of Periander. (Thucyd., 1, 13– Compare Herodot, 3, 48.) The arts of painting and sculpture, more especially that of casting in bronze, attained to the highest persection at Corinth, and rendered this city the ornament of Greece, until it was stripped by the rapacity of a Roman general. Such was the beauty of its vases, that the tombs in which they had been deposited were ransacked by the Roman colonists whom Julius Caesar had established there after the destruction of the city; these, being transported to Rome, were purchased at enormous prices. (Strabo, 381.) An interesting dissertation on these beautiful specimens of art will be found in Dodwell's Tour (vol. 2, p. 196). —When the Achaean confederacy, owing to the insatuation of those who presided over its counsels, became involved in a destructive war with the Romans, Corinth was the last hold of their tottering republic; and, had its citizens wisely submitted to the offers proposed by the victorious Metellus, it might have been preserved; but the deputation of that general having been treated with scorn, and even insult, the city became exposed to all the vengeance of the Romans. (Polyb., 40, 4, 1–Strabo, 381.) L. Mummius, the consul, appeared before its walls with a numerous army, and, after defeating the Achaeans in a general engagement, entered the town, now left without defence, and deserted by the greater part of the inhabitants. It was then given up to plunder, and finally set on fire; the walls also were razed to the ground, so that scarcely a vestige of this once great and noble city remained. Polybius, who witnessed its destruction, affirmed, as we are informed by Strabo (381), that he had seen the finest paintings strewed on the ground, and the Roman soldiers using them as boards for dice or draughts. Pausanias reports (7, 16), that all the men were put to the sword, the women and children sold, and the most valuable statues and paintings removed to Rome. (Vid. Mummius.) Strabo observes (l. c.), that the finest works of art which adorned that capital in his time had come from Corinth. He likewise states, that Corinth remained for many years deserted and in ruins; as also does the poet Antipater of Sidon, who describes in verse the scene of desolation. (Anal., vol. 2, p. 20.) Julius Caesar, however, not long before his death, sent a numerous colony thither, by means of which Corinth was once more raised from its state of ruin. (Strabo, 381.) It was already a large and populous city, and the capital of Achaia, when St. Paul preached the gospel there for a year and six months. (Acts, 18, 11.) It is also evident that, when visited by Pausanias, it was thickly adorned by public buildings, and enriched with numerous works of art (Pausan., 2, 2); and as late as the time of Hierocles, we find it styled the metropolis of Greece. (Synecd., p. 646.) In a later age, the Venetians o place from a Greek emperor; Mohammed II. took it from them in 1458 ; the Venetians recovered it in 1687, and fortified the Acrocorinthus again; but the Turks took it anew in 1715, and retained it until driven from the Peloponnesus.--An important feature in the scenery

around Corinth, was the Acrocorinthus, an account of which has been given in a previous article. (Wid. Acrocorinthus.) On the summit of this hill was erected a temple of Venus, to whom the whole of the Acrocorinthus, in fact, was sacred. In the times of Corinthian opulence and prosperity, it is said that the shrine of the goddess was attended by no less than one thousand female slaves, dedicated to her service as courtesans. These priestesses of Venus contributed not a little to the wealth and luxury of the city; whence arose the well-known expression, travröc àvépôt el; Kópavtsov tor' 6 stà oðc, or, as Horace ex. presses it (Epist., 1, 17, 36), “Non cuivis homini conting it adire Corinthum,” in allusion to its expensive pleasures.—Corinth was famed for its three harbours, Lechaeum, on the Corinthian Gulf, and Cenchrea and Schoenus on the Saronic. Near this last was the Diolcos, where vessels were transported over the isthmus by machinery. (Vid. Corinthi Isthmus.) The first of these is now choked with sand, as is likewise the port of Cenchreas. The shallow harbour of Schoenus, where was a quay in ancient times, has now almost disappeared. All these harbours are mere morasses, and corrupt the air of the city.—Before leaving this subject, it may not be amiss to say a few words in relation to the well-known Corinthian brass of antiquity. The common account is, that when Corinth was destroyed by the Romans, all the metals that were in the city melted and mixed together during the conflagration, and formed that valuable composition, known by the name of “Corinthian brass,” AEs Corinthium. This, however, bears the stamp of improbability on its very face. Klaproth rejects the account. He seems to think, and adduces the authority of Pliny in his favour, that it was merely a term of art, and applied to a metallic mixture in high estimation among the Romans, and, though of a superior quality, nearly resembling aurichalcum. This last was composed of either copper and zinc, or of copper, tin, and lead; the former of a pale yellow, the latter of a darker colour, resembling gold. The mixture by means of calamine was rendered tough and malleable. (Crombie's Gymnasium, vol. 2, p. 127, not.) Coriolinus, Caius Marcius, a distinguished Roman of patrician rank, whose story forms a brilliant legend in the early history of Rome. His name at first was Caius Marcius, but having contributed, mainly by his great personal valour, to the capture of Corioli, and the defeat of a Wolscian army, assembled for its aid, on the same day, he received for this gallant exploit the surname of Coriolanus. Not long after this, however, during a scarcity at Rome, he opposed the distribution of a supply of provisions, in part sent by Gelon, of Sicily, and advised the patricians to make this a means of recovering the power which had been wrested from them by the commons. For this and other conduct of a similar nature, he was tried in the Comitia Tributa, and condemned to perpetual banishment. Resolving, upon this, to gratify his vindictive spirit, Coriolanus presented himself as a suppliant to Tullius Aufidius, the leading man among . Woksci, was well received by him and the whole nation, and, war being declared, was invested, along with Aufidius, with the command of the Volscian forces. By his military skill and renown Coriolanus at once defeated and appalled the Romans, till, having taken almost all their subject cities, he advanced at the head of the Wolscian army against Rome itself, and encamped only five miles from it, at the Fossae Cluiliae. All was thereupon terror and confusion in the Roman capital. Embassy after embassy was sent to Coriolanus, to entreat him to spare his country, but he remained inexorable, and would only grant peace on condition that the Romans restored all the cities and lands which they had taken from the Volsci, and granted to the latter the freedom of Rome, as had been done in the case of the Latins. After all other means of conciliation had failed, a number of Roman females, headed by the mother and the wife of Coriolanus, proceeded to his tent, where the lofty remonstrances of his parent were more powerful than all the arms of Rome had proved, and the son, after a brief struggle with his irritated and vindictive feelings, yielded to her request, exclaiming at the saine time, “Oh mother, thou hast saved Rome, but destroyed thy son " The Volscian forces were then withdrawn, and Rome was thus saved, by female influence alone, from certain capture. On returning to the Volsci with his army, Coriolanus, according to one account, was summoned to trial for his conduct, and was slain in a tumult during the hearing of the cause, a faction having been excited against him by Tullius Aufidius, who was jealous of his renown. {b}. Hal., Ant. Rom., 8, 59.) According to another statement, he lived to an advanced age among the Wolscian people, often towards the close of his life exclaiming, “How miserable is the state of an old man in banishment" (Plut., in Wit.—Liv., 2, 33, seqq.) Niebuhr, who writes the name Cnaeus Marcius, on what he considers good authority, indulges in some acute speculations on the legend of Coriolanus. He thinks that poetical invention has here most thoroughly stifled the historical tradition. He regards the name Coriolanus as of the same kind merely with such appellations as Camerinus, Collatinus, Mugillanus, Vibulanus, &c., which, when taken from an independent town, were assumed by its Tpáševog, when from a dependant one by its patronus. The capture of Corioli belongs merely, in his opinion, to a heroic poem. As for Coriolanus himself, he thinks that he merely attended the Volscian standard as leader of a band of Roman exiles. He admits, however, that a recollection like the one which remained of him could not rest on mere sable, and that, in all probability, his generosity resigned the opportunity afforded him of taking the city, when Latium was almost entirely subdued, and when Rome ... was brought to a very low ebb by pestilence. (Niebuhr, Rom. Hist., vol. 2, p. 234, seqq., Cambr. transl.) Coriðll, an ancient city of the Volsci, between Velitra, and Lanuvium, from the capture of which C. Marcius obtained the surname of Coriolanus, according to the common account. (Wid., however, remarks at the end of the article Coriolanus.) We collect from Livy that it was situated on the confines of the territory of Ardea, Aricia, and Antium. (Liv., 2, 33, and 3, 71.) Dionysius speaks of Corioli as one of the most considerable towns of the Wolsci. (Ant. Rom., 6, 92.) Pliny (3, 5) enumerates Corioli among the towns of Latium of which no vestiges remained. A hill, now known by the name of Monte Giove, is thought, with some degree of probability, to represent the site of Corioli. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 84.) Cor Nella LEx, I. de Religione, enacted by L. Cornelius Sylla, A.U.C. 677. It restored to the sacerdotal college the privilege of choosing the priests, which, by the Domitian law, had been lodged in the hands of the people.--II. Another, de Municipiis, by the same: that the free towns which had sided with Marius should be deprived of their lands and the right of citizens; the last of which Cicero says could not be done. (Pro Dom., 30.)—-III. Another, de Magistratibus, by the same ; which gave the privilege of bearing honours and being promoted before the legal age, to those who had followed the interest of Sylla, while the sons and partisans of his enemies, who had been proscribed, were deprived of the privilege of standing for any office in the state.—IV. Another, de Magistratibus, by the same, A.U.C. 673. It ordained, that no person should exercise the same office until after an interval of ten years, or be invested with two different magistracies in one year; and that no one should be praetor before being quaestor, nor consul before being praetor.—W. " Another, de Magistratibus, by the same, A.U.C. 673.

It ordained, that whoever had been tribune should not afterward enjoy any other magistracy; that there should be no appeal to the tribunes; that they should not be allowed to assemble the people and make harangues to them, nor to propose laws; but should only retain the right of intercession. (Cic., de Leg., 3, 9.) —WI. Another, by the same. It allowed an individual, accused of having taken away the life of another by weapons, poison, false accusation, &c., the privilege of choosing whether he wished the judges to decide his case by voice or by ballot.—WII. Another, by the same, imposing the punishment of aqua et ignis interdictio on all such as were found guilty of forging testaments or any other writings, of debasing or counterfeiting the public coin, &c.—VIII. Another, imposing the same punishment as the preceding on all who had been guilty of extortion, &c., in their provinces. (Consult, as regards other “Cornelian Laws,” Heineccius, Antiq. Rom., ed Haubold, p. 650, &c.—Ernesti, Clav. Cic., s. v.–Adam's Rom. Antiq., p. 162, ed. Boyd.) CoRNELIA, I. daughter of Cinna. She was Julius Caesar's second wife, and mother of Julia the wife of Pompey. She died young. Plutarch says, it had been the custom at Rome for the aged women to have funeral panegyrics, but not the young. Caesar first broke through this custom, by pronouncing one upon Cornelia. This, adds the biographer, contributed to fix him in the affections of his countrymen : they sympathized with him, and considered him a man of good feeling, who had the social duties deeply at heart. (Plut., Wit. Caes., c. 5.)—II. Daughter of Metellus Scipio, married to Pompey after the death of her first husband Publius Crassus. She was remarkable for the variety of her accomplishments and the excellence of her private character. Plutarch makes her to have been versed, not only in the musical art, but in polite literature, in geometry, and in the precepts of philosophy. (Plut., Wit. Pomp., c. 55.) After the battle of Pharsalia, when Pompey joined her at Mytilene, Cornelia with tears ascribed all his misfortunes to her union with him, alluding at the same time to the unhappy end of her first husband Crassus in his expedition against the Parthians. (Compare Lucan, 8, 88.) She was also a witness, from her galley, of the murder of her husband on the shores of Egypt. (Plut., Wit. Pomp., c. 79.)—III. Daughter of Scipio Africanus Major, and mother of Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. Cornelia occupies a high rank for the purity and excellence of her private character, as well as for her masculine tone of mind. She was married to Sempronius Gracchus, and was left on his death with a family of twelve children, the care of whom devolved entirely upon herself. After the loss of her husband, her hand was sought by Ptolemy, king of Egypt, but the offer was declined. Plutarch speaks in high terms of her conduct during widowhood. Having lost all her children but three, one daughter, who was married to Scipio Africanus the younger, and two sons, Tiberius and Caius, she devoted her whole time to the education of these, and, to borrow the words of Plutarch, she brought up her two sons in particular with so much care, that, though they were of the noblest origin, and had the happiest dispositions of all the Roman youth, yet education was allowed to have contributed still more than nature to the excellence of their characters. Valerius Maximus relates an anecdote of Cornelia, which has often been cited. A Campanian lady, who was at the time on a visit to her. having displayed to Cornelia some very beautiful ornaments which she possessed, desired the latter, in return, to exhibit her own. The Roman mother purposely detained her in conversation until her children returned from school, when, pointing to them, she exclaimed, “These are my ornaments" (Haec ornamenta mea sunt —Wal. Maz., 4, init.) Plutarch informs us, that some persons blamed Cornelia for the rash conduct of her sons in after life, she having been accustomed to reproach them that she was still called the mother-in-law of Scipio, not the mother of the Gracchi. (Plut., Vit. T. Gracch., c. 8.) She bore the untimely death of her sons with great magnanimity, and a statue was afterward erected in honour of her by the Roman people, bearing for an inscription the words “Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi.” (Plut., Wit. C. Gracch., c. 4.) CoRNelius, a name indicating a member of the Gens Cornelia. The greater part of the individuals who bore it are better known by their surnames of Cossus, Dolabella, Lentulus, Scipio, Sylla, &c., which see. CornicijLUM, a Sabine town, which gave its name to the Corniculani Colles. It is one of those places of which no trace is left, and is only interesting in the history of Rome as being the most accredited birthplace of Servius Tullius. (Liv., 1, 39–Dion. Hall, 3, 50.-Plin., 3, 5.) The Corniculan hills are those of Monticelli and Sant' Angelo; and Corniculum itself may have stood on the site of the latter village, if we place Caenina at Monticelli. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 308.) Cornificius, I. Quintus, a contemporary of Cicero's, distinguished for talents and literary acquirements, who attained to some of the highest offices in the state. Catullus and Ovid both speak of his poetic abilities, and he appears to have been the friend of both. (Catull., 38.-Ovid, Trist., 2, 436.-Burmann, ad Ov., l.c.) Cornificius distinguished himself as Propraetor in the Illyrian war, and also as governor of Syria, and afterward of Africa. In this latter province he espoused the cause of the senate after Caesar's death, and received and gave protection to those who had been proscribed by the second triumvirate. He lost his life, however, while contending in this quarter against Sextius, who had been sent against him by Octavius. (Appian, Bell. Civ., 3, 85.-Id. ib., 4, 36; 4, 53; 4, 56.—Compare the account given by Eusebius, Chron. An. MoccccLxxvi.) Some modern scholars make this Cornificius to have been the author of the Treatise to Herennius, commonly ascribed to Cicero. (Wid. Herennius.) He is said also to have been an enemy of Virgil's, but this supposition violates chronology, since the poet only became eminent subsequent to the period when Cornificius died. (Heyne, ad Donat. Wit. Virg., § 67, p. clzxii.)—II. Lucius, a partisan of Octavius, by whom he was appointed to accuse Brutus, before the public tribunal at Rome, of the assassination of Caesar. (Plut., Wit. Brut, c. 27.) He afterward distinguished himself, as one of Octavius's lieutenants, by a masterly retreat in Sicily during the war with Sextus Pompeius. (Appian, Bell. Civ., 5, 111, seqq.) Corniger, a surname of Bacchus. Cornötus, L. Annaeus, a Greek philosopher, born at Leptis in Africa, who lived and taught at Rome during the reign of Nero. The appellation L. Annæus appears to indicate a client or freedman of the Seneca family. His tenets were those of the Stoic sect, and his name was not without distinction in that school of o He excelled in criticism and poetry; but is principal studies were of a philosophical character. His merits as a teacher of the Stoic doctrine sufficiently appears from his having been the preceptor of that honest advocate for virtue, the satirist Persius. Persius, dying before his master, left him his library, with a considerable sum of money; but Cornutus accepted only the books, and gave the money to the sisters of his pupil. The poet Lucan was also one of his pupils. Under Nero, Cornutus was driven into exile for his freedom of speech. The emperor having written several books in verse on the affairs of Rome, and his flatterers advising him to continue the poem, the * Stoic had the courage to remark, that he b b

doubted whether so large a work would be read; and when it was urged that Chrysippus had written as much, he replied, “His writings were useful to mankind.” After so unpardonable an offence against imperial vanity, the only wonder was that Cornutus escaped with his life. He composed some tragedies, and a large number of other works, the only one of which that has come down to us is the “Theory concerning the Nature of the Gods” (6ewpia trepi Tijo Tov Geov púaewc), or, as it is entitled in one of the MSS., “concerning Allegories” (repi 'AAAmyopian). Cornutus, in fact, in this production, seeks to explain the Greek mythology on allegorical and physical principles. The best edition is that given by Gale in his Opuscula (Cantabr., 1670, 12mo).-The name of this philosopher is sometimes, though less correctly, written Phurnutus. (Consult the remarks of Gale, Praef, ad Opusc., p. 2, seqq., and Martini, Disputatio de Cornuto, Lugd. Bat., 1825, 8vo.—Aul. Gell, 6, 2– Euseb., Eccl. Hist., 6, 19.—Enfield's Hist. Phil., vol. 2, p. 110.)

&o. I. a foot-racer of Elis, who carried off the prize at the Olympic games, B.C. 776. This date is remarkable, as being the one from which the Greeks began to count their Olympiads. Not that the Olympic games were now for the first time established, but the names of the victors were now first inscribed on the public registers. Some writers calculate the Greek Olympiads from the period of their re-establishment by Lycurgus, Iphitus, and Cleosthenes, and hence they make the first Olympiad of Coroebus correspond to the twenty-eighth of Iphitus. (Pausan, 5, 8.-Siebelis, ad loc. Larcher, Tahl. Chronol., vol. 7, p. 590– Id, Essai de Chronologie, p. 307.) According to Athenaeus, Coroebus was by profession a cook! (Athen., 9, p. 382, b. — Compare Casaubon, ad loc.) The Arundel Marbles make the first Olympiad of Coraebus coincide with the year 806 of the Athenian era, when AEschylus, the twelfth perpetual archon, was in his third year of office. (L’Art de Verifier les Dates, vol. 3, p. 173, Paris, 1819.) Delalande makes the true summer-solstice of the year 776 B.C., under the meridian of Pisa in Elis, to have taken place at 11h 15' 33” of the morning. (L’Art de Verifier, &c., vol. 3, p. 170.)—II. An architect, who lived in the age of Pericles. (Plut., Wit. Pericl., c. 13.)—III. A son of Mygdon, king of Thrace, who, from his love for Cassandra, offered his services to Priam, under the hope of obtaining the hand of his daughter. The prophetess, however, knowing the fate that awaited him, implored him to retire from the war; but he was inflexible, and fell by the hand of Peneleus the night that Troy was taken. (Virg., En., 2, 425.)

CoróNE, a city of Messenia, on the western shore of the Sinus Messeniacus. It is now Coron, and the gulf is called after it, the Gulf of Coron. . Its original name was Æpea; but this was changed to Corone after the restoration of the Messenians. It was in attempting to take this town, during the war occasioned by the secession of Messene from the Achaean league, that Philopoemen was made prisoner. (Liv., 39, 49.) Strabo reports that this place was regarded by some as the Pedasus of Homer. The haven of Corone was called the Port of the Achaeans. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 139)

CoroneA, a city of Boeotia, to the southeast of Chaeronea, on a branch of the Cephissus. It was a place of considerable antiquity and importance, and was said to have been founded, together with Orchomenus, by the descendants of Athamas who came from Thessaly. (Pausan., 9, 34.—Strabo, 411.) Several important actions took place at different times in its vicinity. Tolmides, who commanded a body of Athenian troops, was here defeated and slain by the Boeotians, which led to the emancipation of the whole province, after it had been subject to the Athenians *; the victorv


they obtained at OEnophyta. (Thucyd., 1,113.) The battle of Coronea was gained by Agesilaus and the Spartans against the Thebans and their allies in the second year of the 96th Olympiad, 394 B.C. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 4, 3, 8, seqq.—Plut., Wit. Agesil., 17.) This city was also twice taken by the Phocians under Onomarchus, and afterward given up to the Thebans by Philip of Macedon. (Demosth., de Pac., p. 62.-Philip., 2, p. 69.) The Coroneans, in the Macedonian war, having adhered to the cause of Perses, suffered severely srom the resentment of the Romans. (Polyb., 27, 1, 8, and 5, 2. —Lip., 42, 44, and 67.-Id., 43, Suppl., 1, 2.) The ruins of Coronea are observable near the village of Korumis, on a remarkable insulated hill, where there are “many marbles and inscriptions. On the summit or acropolis are remains of a very ancient polygonal wall, and also a Roman ruin of brick.” (Gell, Itin., p. 150.—Dodwell, vol. 1, p. 247.) CoRöNis, daughter of Phlegyas, and mother of AEsculapius by Apollo. She was put to death by the god for having proved unfaithful to him, but the off. spring of her womb was first taken from her and spared. (Vid. AEsculapius.) Corsi, I. the inhabitants of Corsica.-II. The inhabitants of part of northern Sardinia, who came originally from Corsica. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 479.) Corsica, an island of the Mediterranean, called by the Greeks Kūpwoo. Its inhabitants were styled by the same people Küpplot; by the Latins, Corsi. In later times the island took also the name of Corsis. (# Kopaic.—Compare Steph. Byz., s. v. Kopaig.— Dionys. Perieg., v. 459, et Eustath., ad loc.) The ancient writers represent it as mountainous and woody, and only well cultivated along the eastern coast, where the Romans had settlements. (Dionys. Perieg., v. 460.) Its natural products were resin, honey, and wax. (Diod. Sic., 5, 13.) The honey, however, had a bitter taste, in consequence of the bees deriving it from the yew-trees with which the island abounded. (Virg., Eclog., 9, 30.- Ovid, Am., 1, 12. — Diod. Sic., 5, 14.) It was to their feeding abundantly on this honey, however, that the longevity of the Corsicans was ascribed. (Compare Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg., v. 458.) The inhabitants were a rude race of mountaineers, indebted for their subsistence more to the produce of their flocks than to the cultivation of the soil. Seneca, who was banished to this quarter in the reign of Claudius, draws a very unfavourable picture of the island and its inhabitants; describing the former as rocky, unproductive, and unhealthy, and the latter as the worst of barbarians. He writes, however, under the influence of prejudiced feelings, and many allowances must be made. (Senec., de Consol. ad Help., c. 6, 8.) The Corsi appear to have derived their origin from Ligurian and Iberian (called by Seneca Spanish) tribes. Eustathius says that a Ligurian female, named Corsa, having pursued in a small boat a bull which had taken to the water, accidentally discovered the island, which her countrymen named after her. (Eustath., ad Dionys. Perieg., v. 458.-Compare Isidori Origines, 14, 6.) . The Phocaeans, on retiring from Asia, settled here for a time, and founded the city Aleria, but were driven out finally by the Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians. (Diod. Sic., 5, 13.) The Romans took the island from this latter people B.C. 231, and subsequently two colonies were sent to it; one by Marius, which founded Mariana, and another by Sylla, which settled on the site of Aleria. Mantinorum Oppidum, in the same island, is now Bastia; and Urcinium, Ajaccio, was the birthplace of Napoleon. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 505, seqq.) CoRs5te, a city of Mesopotamia, on the river Masca. D'Anville places it at the confluence of the Masca and Euphrates. The Masca, according to Xenophon (Anab., 1, 5, 4), flowed around the city in a circular

course. Mannert supposes it to have been nothing more than a canal cut from the Euphrates. (Wid. Masca, where notice is taken of an error in D'Anville's chart.) The site of Corsote appears to correspond, at the present day, to a spot where are the ruins of a large city, named Erzi or Irsah. (Rennell, Illustrations of the Anabasis, &c., p. 103.) CortóNA, a town of Etruria, a short distance northwest of the Lacus Thrasymenus, and fourteen miles south of Arretium. Its claims to antiquity were equalled by few other places of Italy. It is thought to have been built on the ruins of an ancient town called Corythus, and is known by that appellation in Virgil. (AEm., 3, 170.-ld, ibid., 7, 209; 9, 10; 10, 719.Compare Silius Italicus, 5, 123.) From the similarity of names, it was supposed by some to owe its origin to Corythus, the father of Dardanus. Others deduced the name from the circumstance of Dardanus having lost his helmet (köpwo) there in fighting. Both, however, are pronounced by Heyne to be mere fables. (Heyne, Excurs., 6, ad AEn., 3.) Perhaps the opinion most entitled to credit is that of Mannert, who makes the place to have been of Pelasgic origin. This, in fact, is strongly corroborated by the massy remains of the ancient walls, evidently of Pelasgic structure. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, moreover, who quotes from Hellanicus of Lesbos, an author somewhat anterior to Hesiod, states that the Pelasgi, who had landed at Spina on the Po, subsequently advanced into the interior of Italy, and occupied Cortona, which they fortified, and from thence formed other settlements in Tyrrhenia. On this account Cortona is styled the metropolis of that province. (Steph. Byz., s. v.– Compare Sil. Ital., 7, 174.) Cortona was one of the twelve cities of Etruria. (Muller, Etrusker, vol. 1, p. 345.) The Greek name of the place was Gortyn (Tópruv), and the Etrurian one Kortun, from which the Romans made Cortona. (Muller, Etrusker, vol. 2, p. 268.) The city still retains its ancient appellation of Cortona. It was colonized by the Romans (Dionys., 1, 26), at what period is uncertain; probably in the time of Sylla, who colonized several towns of Etruria. Cramer thinks, that some confusion of names must have given rise to the story of Dardanus coming from Italy to Troy, as alluded to by Virgil (AEm., 7, 205). It is known that there were several towns in antiquity of the name of Gyrton, Gyrtone, and Gortyna, in Thessaly, Boeotia, Arcadia, and Crete; countries all more or less frequented at one time by the Pelasgi. This, he thinks, was the original form by which Cortona was first named ; for Polybius calls it Cyrtone (3,82), and it is known that the Etruscans and Umbri, who took their letters from the Pelasgi, never used the letter O. Now, according to some accounts, Dardanus came from Arcadia, and according to others, from Crete. Cramer suspects, however, that the Thessalian Gyrton ought to have the preference; for this city, in a passage of Strabo, though it is supposed to be mutilated, is entitled the Tyrrhenian (Strab., 330), and this might prove the key to the Italian origin of Dardanus, besides confirming the identity of the Tyrrheni with the Thessalian Pelasgi. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 215, not.) Corvinus, I. or Corvus, a name given to M. Walerius, from his having been assisted by a crow (corrus) while engaged in combat with a Gaul. (Wid. Valerius.)—II. Messala, a distinguished Roman in the Augustan age. (Wid. Messala.) CorybANTEs, the priests of Cybele, called also Galli. (Vid. Cybele.) In celebrating the festivals of the goddess, they ran about with loud cries and howlings, beating on timbrels, clashing cymbals, sounding pipes, and cutting their flesh with knives. Some derive the name from their moving along in a kind of dance, and tossing the head to and fro (dró roi koputróvrag Baively). According to Strabo (479), and Freret (Mem. de l'Acad. des. Inscr., &c., vol. 18, p. 34), the word Corybas is a Phrygian one, and refers to the wild dances in which the Corybantes indulged.— As regards the assertion commonly made, that the Corybantes were originally from Mount Ida, it may be remarked, that more correct authorities make Phrygia to have been their native seat. (Compare Rolle, Recherches sur le Culte de Bacchus, vol. 1, p. 246, seqq.) —The dance of the Corybantes is thought to have been symbolical of the empire exercised by man over metals, as also of the movements of the heavenly bodies. (Constant, de la Religion, vol. 2, p. 375, seqq.) The Corybantes are said to have been the first that turned their attention to metallurgy. (Sainte Croir, Mystères du Paganisme, vol. 1, p. 79.) Cory BAs, son of Iasion and Cybele, who introduced the rites of the mother of the gods into Phrygia, from the island of Samothrace. (Diod. Sic., 5, 49.) Corycides, a name applied to the nymphs who were supposed to inhabit the Corycian cave on Mount Parnassus. They were the daughters of the river-god Pleistus. (Ovid, Met., 1, 320.—Apoll. Rh., 2, 711. –Gierig, ad Ovid, l.c.) Coexcium ANtrum, I, a cave or grotto on Mount Parnassus, about two hours from Delphi, and higher sp the mountain. It is accurately described by Pausanias, who states, that it surpassed in extent every other known cavern, and that it was possible to advance into the interior without a torch. The roof, from which an abundance of water trickles, is elevated far above the floor, and vestiges of the dripping water (i. e., stalactites) are to be seen attached to it, says Pausanias, along the whole extent of the cave. The inhabitants of Parnassus, he adds, consider it as sacred to the Corycian nymphs and the god Pan. (Pausan., 10, 32.--Compare Strabo,417.) Herodotus relates (8, 36), that on the approach of the Persians, the greater part of the population of Delphi ascended the mountain, and sought refuge in this capacious recess. We are indebted for an account of the present state of this remarkable cave to Mr. Raikes, who was the first modern traveller that discovered its site. He describes the narrew and low entrance as spreading at once into a chamber 330 feet long by nearly 200 wide. The stalactites from the top hung in the most graceful ferms the whole length of the roof, and fell like drapery down the sides. (Raike's Journal, in Walpole's Collection, vol. 1, p. 312.)—II. A cave in Cilicia, near Corycus. (Vid. Corycus, II.) Corycus, I. a promontory of Ionia, southeast of the southern extremity of Chios. The high and rugged coast in this quarter harboured at one time a wild and daring population, greatly addicted to piracy; and who, by disguising themselves, and frequenting the harbours in their vicinity, obtained private information of the course and freight of any merchant vessel, and concerted measures for the purpose of intercepting it. The secrecy with which their intelligence was procured gave rise to the proverb, Toč 6' p' & Kopukaios #xposí;ero, “This, then, the Corycéan overheard,” a saying that was used in cases where any carefullyguarded secret had been discovered. (Compare Erasmus, Chil. 1, cent. 2, col. 76.) The modern name of the ridge of Mount Corycus is the Table Mountain, but the ancient appellation is still preserved in that of Kourko, which belongs to a bold headland forming the extreme point of jo. peninsula towards Samos. Pliny (5, 31) calls it Coryceon Promontorium. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 351.)—II. A small town of Cilicia Trachea, near the confines of Cilicia Campestris, on the seacoast, and to the east of Seleucia Trachea. It appears to have been a fortress of great strength, and a mole of vast unhewn rocks is carried across the bay for about a hundred yards. It served at one time as the harbour of Seleucia, and was then a place of considerable importance. The

modern name is Korghoz. About twenty stadia inland was the Corycian cave, celebrated in mythology as the fabled abode of the giant Typhoeus. (Pind., Pyth., 1, 31.-Id. ib., 8, 20.-AEschyl., P. v., 350, seqq.) In fact, many writers, as Strabo reports, placed Arima or Arimi, the scene of Typhaeus's torments, alluded to by Homer, in Cilicia, while others sought it in Lydia, and others in Campania. The description which Strabo has left us of this remarkable spot leads to the idea of its having been once the crater of a volcano. He says it was a deep and broad valley, of a circular shape, surrounded on every side by lofty rocks. The lower part of this crater was rugged and stony, but covered nevertheless with shrubs and evergreens, and especially saffron, of which it produced a great quantity, regarded as the best of all antiquity. There was also a cavity from which gushed a copious stream, which, after a short course, was again lost, and reappeared near the sea, which it joined. It was called the “bitter water.” (Strab., 671.) The account of Pomponius Mela is still more minute and elaborate. (Mela, 1, 13.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 336.) —III. A naval station, on the coast of Lycia, about thirty stadia to the north of Olympus. Strabo makes it a tract of shore (Köpukoc alyuazóc.—Strab., 666). Coryphasium, a promontory on the western coast of Messenia, north of Methone, now Cape Zonchio. There was a town of the same name on it, to which the inhabitants of Pylos retired after their town was destroyed. (Pausan., 4, 36.) Cos, an island of the AEgean, one of the Sporades, west of the promontory of Doris. Its more ancient names were Cea, Staphylus, Nymphaea, and Meropis, of which the last was the most common. (Thucyd., 8, 41.) The colonizing of this island must have taken place at a very early date, since Homer makes mention of it as a populous settlement. (Il., 2, 184; 14, 255.) The inhabitants were of Dorian origin, and closely connected with the Doric colonies on the main land. It is now called Stan-Co. Its chief city was Cos, anciently called Astypalaea. Strabo remarks, that the city of Cos was not large, but very populous, and seen to great advantage by those who came thither by sea. Without the walls was a celebrated temple of AEsculapius, enriched with many admirable works of art, and, among others, two famous paintings of Apelles, the Antigonus and Venus Anadyomene. The latter painting was so much admired that Augustus removed it to Rome, and consecrated it to Julius Caesar; and in consideration of the loss thus inflicted on the Coans, he is said to have remitted a tribute of one hundred talents which had been laid on them. Besides the great painter just mentioned, Cos could boast of ranking among her sons the first physician of antiquity, Hippocrates. The soil of the land was very productive, especially in wine, which vied with those of Chios and Lesbos. It was also celebrated for its purple dye, and for its manufacture of a species of transparent silk stuff, against the use of which by the Romans Juvenal in particular so strongly inveighs. The modern island presents to the view fine plantations of lemon-trees, intermixed with stately maples. (For a more particular account of it, consult Turner's Tour in the Levant, vol. 3, p. 41, seqq.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 220.) Cossa, I. (or Cossae), a town of Etruria, near the coast, on the promontory of Mount Argentarius, northwest of Centum Cellae. It was situate at a little distance from the modern Ansedonia, which is now itself in ruins. For a plan of this ancient city, consult Micali, L'Italia, &c., tav. 10, who gives also a representation of parts of its walls built of polygonal stones. (Compare Micali, Storia degli Antichi Popoli Italiani, tap. 4.) According to him, this is the only specimen of such construction to be found in Etruria. From Pliny (3, 5), we leam that Cossa was * by the

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