Obrazy na stronie

secuting edicts of Dioclesian, and to issue a new one, by which Christianity was encouraged, its teachers were honoured, and its adherents advanced to places of trust and influence in the state. After the overthrow of Maximin by Licinius, and his death at Nicomedia, Constantine and his brother-in-law were now the only two that remained of the six competitors for the empire; and the peace between them, which had seemed to be established on so firm a basis, was soon interrupted by a strife for sole supremacy. In the first war (A.C. 315) Constantine wrested Illyricum from his competitor. After an interval of eight years the contest was renewed. Licinius was beaten before Adrianople, the 3d July, 323, and Constantine the Great was recognised as sole master of the Roman world.—The seat of empire was now transferred to Byzantium, which took from him the name of Constantinople. Several edicts were issued for the suppression of idolatry; and their churches and property restored to the Christians, of which they had been deprived during the last persecution. A re-construction of the empire was effected upon a plan entirely new, and this renovated empire was pervaded by the worship and the institutions of Christianity. That much of the policy of the statesman was mixed up with this lo of the new religion can easily be imagined. ut still it would be wrong to make him, as some have done, a mere hypocrite and dissembler. The state of his religious knowledge, as far as we have any means of judging, was certainly very inadequate and imperfect; but he was well aware of the characters of the two conflicting religions, Christianity and Paganism, and the purity of the former could not but have made some impression upon his mind.—The private character of Constantine has suffered, in the eyes of posterity, from the cruel treatment of Crispus, his son by his first wise, whom he had made the partner of his empire and the commander of his armies. Crispus was at the head of the administration in Gaul, where he gained the hearts of the people. In the wars against Licinius he had displayed singular talents, and had secured victory to the arms of his father. But, from that moment, a shameful and unnatural jealousy stifled every paternal feeling in the bosom of the monarch. He detained Crispus in his palace, surrounded him with spies and informers, and at length, in the month of July, 326, ordered him to be arrested in the midst of a grand festival, to be carried off to Pola in Istria, and there put to death. A cousin of Crispus, the son of Licinius and Constantine's sister, was at the same time sent, without trial, without even accusation, to the block. His mother implored in vain, and died of grief. Fausta, the daughter of Maximian, the wife of Constantine, and the mother of the three princes who succeeded him, was shortly after stifled in the bath by order of her husband.—Constantine died at the age of sixtythree, at Nicomedia, May 22, 337, after a reign of thirty-one years from the death of his father, and of fourteen from the conquest of the empire. (Hetherington, Hist. of Rome, p. 236, seqq.—Sismondi, Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 76, seqq.—Encyclop. Metropol., div. 3, vol. 3, p. 74, seqq.)—Constantine left three sons, Constantine, Constans, and Constantius, among whom he divided his empire. The first, who had Gaul, Spain, and Britain for his portion, was conquered by the armies of his brother Constans, and killed in the twenty-fifth year of his age, A.D. 340. Magnentius, the governor of the provinces of Rhaetia, murdered Constans in his bed, after a reign of thirteen years; and Constantius, the only surviving brother, now become the sole emperor, A.D. 353, punished his brother's murderer, and gave way to cruelty and oppression. He visited Rome, where he displayed a triumph, and died in his march against Julian, who had been proclaimed emperor by his soldiers. Constantius, I. Chlorus, son of Eutropius, and

father of Constantine the Great, meriteu the title of Caesar, which he obtained, by his victories in Britain and Germany. He became the colleague of Galerius on the abdication of Dioclesian; and, aster bearing the character of a humane and benevolent prince, he died at York, and had his son for his successor, A.D. 306. —II. The third son of Constantine the Great. (Vid. Constantinus.)—III. The father of Julian and Gallus, was son of Constantius by Theodora, and died A.D. 337. —IV. A Roman general, who married Placidia, the sister of Honorius, and was proclaimed emperor, an honour he enjoyed only seven months. He died universally regretted, 421 A.D., and was succeeded by his son Valentinian in the West. CoNsualia, the festival of the god Consus. (Wid. Consus.) Constiles, two chief magistrates at Rome, chosen annually by the people. The office commenced aster the expulsion of the kings, and the first two consuls were L. Junius Brutus and L. Tarquinius Collatinus, A.U.C. 244. In the first ages of the republic the two consuls were always chosen from patrician families; but the people obtained the privilege, A.U.C. 388, of electing one of the consuls from their own body; and sometimes both were plebeians. The first consul from the plebeians was L. Sextius.--It was required that every candidate for the consulship should be forty-three years of age. He was always to appear at the election as a private man, without a retinue; and it was requisite, before he canvassed for the office, to have discharged the inferior functions of quaestor, a dile, and praetor. Sometimes, however, these qualifications were disregarded. M. Valerius Corvus was made a consul in his twenty-third year; Scipio Africanus the Elder in his twenty-fourth, and the Younger in his thirty-eighth; T. Quinctius Flamininus when not quite thirty; Pompey before he was full thirty-six.-The consuls were at the head of the whole republic; all the other magistrates were subject to them, except the tribunes of the commons. They assembled the people and senate, laid before them what they pleased, and executed their decrees. The laws which they proposed and got passed were usually called by their name. They received all letters from the governors of provinces, and from foreign kings and states, and gave audience to ambassadors. The year was named after them, as it used to be at Athens from one of the archons. Their insignia were the same with those of the kings (except the crown), namely, the toga practerta, sella curulls, the sceptre or ivory staff, and twelve lictors with the fasces and securis. Within the city, the lictors went before only one of the consuls, and that commonly for a month alternately. A public servant, called accensus, went before the other consul, and the lictors followed. He who was eldest, or had most children, or who was first elected, or had most suffrages, had the fasces first. When the consuls commanded different armies, each of them had the fasces and securis; but when they both commanded the same army, they commonly had them for a day alternately. Valerius Poplicola took away the securis from the fasces, i.e., he took srom the consuls the power of life and death, and only left them the right of scourging. Out of the city, however, when invested with military command, they retained the securis, i. e., the right of punishing capitally. Their provinces used anciently to be decreed by the senate after the consuls were elected or had entered on their office. But by the Sempronian law, passed A.U.C. 631, the senate always decreed two provinces to the future consuls before their election, which they, after entering upon their office, divided by lot or agreement. Sometimes a certain province was assigned to some one of the consuls, both by the senate and people, and sometimes again the people reversed what the senate had decreed respecting the provinces. . No one could be consul two following years; an interval of ten years must have elapsed previous to the second application; yet this regulation was sometimes broken, and we find Marius re-elected consul, after the expiration of his office, during the Cimbrian war. The office of consul became a mere matter of form under the emperors ; although, as far as appearance went, they who filled the station indulged in much greater pomp than had before been customary : they wore the toga picta or palmata, and had their fasces wreathed with laurel, which used formerly to be done only by those who triumphed. They also added the securis or axe to the fasces of their lictors—Caesar introduced a custom, which became a common one after his time, of appointing consuls for merely a part of a year. The object was to gratify a larger number of political partisans. Those chosen on the first day of January, however, gave name to the year, and were called ordinarii; the rest were termed suffecti. Under Commodus there were no less than twenty-five consuls in the course of a single year. Constantine renewed the original institution, and permitted the consuls to be a whole year in office. CoNsus, a Roman deity, the god of counsel, as his name denotes. His altar was in the Circus Maximus, and was always covered, except on his festival-day, the 18th August, called Consualia. Horse and chariot races were celebrated on this occasion, and the working-horses, mules, and asses were crowned with flowers, and allowed to rest. (Dion. Hal., 1, 33.—Plut., Quaest. Rom., 48.) Hence Consus has probably been confounded with Neptunus Equestris. o: was at the Consualia that the Sabine maidens were carried off by the Romans. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 529.) Cop/E, a small town of Boeotia, on the northern shore of the Lake Copais, and giving name to that piece of water. It was a town of considerable antiquity, being noticed by Homer in the Catalogue of the ships. (Il., 2, 502) Pausanias remarks here the temples of Bacchus, Ceres, and Serapis (9, 24.— Compare Thucyd., 4,94.—Strab., 406 and 410). Sir W. Gell points out, to the north of Karditza (the ancient Acraephia), “a triangular island, on which are the walls of the ancient Copae, and more distant, on another island, the village of Topolias, which gives the present name to the lake.” (Gell's Itin., p. 143.) And Dodwell speaks of a low insular tongue of land projecting from the foot of Ptous, and covered with the ruins of a small ancient city, the walls of which are seen encircling it to the water's edge. (Dodwell's Tour, vol. 2, p. 56.) Copiis Lacus, a lake of Boeotia, which, as Strabo informs us, received different appellations from the different towns situated along its shores. At Haliartus it was called Haliartius i. (Strabo, 410); at Orchomenus, Orchomenius. (Plin., 16, 36.) Pindar and Homer distinguish it by the name of Cephissus. That of Copais, however, finally prevailed, as Cope was situate near the deepest part of it. It is by far the most considerable lake of Greece, being not less than three hundred and eighty stadia, or forty-seven miles in circuit, according to Strabo (407). Pausanias states, that it was navigable from the mouth of the Cephissus to Copae (9,24). As this considerable extent of water had no apparent discharge, it sometimes threatened to inundate the whole surrounding country. Tradition indeed asserted, that near Copae there stood, in the time of Cecrops, two ancient cities, Eleusis and Athenae, the latter of which was situated on the river Triton, which, if it is the torrent noticed by Pausanias, was near Alalcomenae. (Strabo, 407–Pausan, l.c.). Stephanus Byzantinus reports, that when Crates drained the waters which had overspread the plains, the latter town became visible (s. v. 'Affval). Some writers have asserted, that it occupied the site of the ancient Orchomenus. (Stra

bo, l.c.—Steph. Byz., v. c.) Fortunately for the Boeotians, nature had supplied several subterranean canals, by which the waters of the lake found their way into the sea of Euboea. Strabo supposes they were caused by earthquakes. Their number is uncertain ; but Dodwell, who seems to have inquired minutely into the subject, was informed by the natives that there were as many as fifteen. He himself only observed four, one at the foot of Mount Ptous, near Acraephia, which conveys the waters of Copais to the Lake Hylica, a distance of about two miles. The other katabothra, as they are called by the modern Greeks, are on the northeastern side of the lake. Dodwell speaks of these subterranean canals as being in a calcareous rock, of a hard though friable quality, and full of natural caverns and fissures. (Dodwell's Tour, vol. 1, p. 238.) In consequence of some obstructions in these outlets, an attempt was made to cleanse them in the time of Alexander, and for this purpose square pits were cut in the rock in the supposed direction of this underground stream. Mr. Raikes saw some of these remaining. (MS. Journal.—Walpole's Memoirs, vol. 1, p. 304.) According to Dodwell (vol. 1, p. 240), “the general size of these pits is four feet square; the depth varies according to the unevenness of the ground under which the water is conducted to its outket. It is impossible to penetrate into these deep recesses, which are most of them filled with stones or overgrown with bushes; but it would not be difficult to ascertain their depth, and their direction might be traced by following the shafts, which extend nearly to the sea.”—Mr. Raikes gives the following account of the outlets where they empty into the sea. “From the mouth of the Larmi I rode along its banks, until, in about three miles, I came to a spot covered with rocks and bushes, in the middle of which the whole river burst with impetuosity from holes at the foot of a low cliff, and immediately assumed the form of a considerable stream. Above this source there is a small plain under cultivation, bounded to the west by a range of low rocky hills. From these a magnificent view of the Copaic Lake and the mountains of Pho. cis presents itself to the eye.” The same writer remarks, that “when the undertaking for clearing the katabothra, in the time of Alexander, was proposed, the rich and flourishing towns of the plain were reduced to a state of desolation by the encroachments of the lake, and under the despondency occasioned by a universal monarchy, sunk into complete decay. At present the rising of the waters in winter has turned a great portion of the richest soil in the world into a morass, and, should any permanent internal obstruction occur in the stream, the whole of this fertile plain might gradually become included in the limits of the Copaic ake.”—The Copaic Lake was especially famed for its eels, which grew to a large size, and were highly esteemed by the epicures of antiquity. (Archestr, ap. Athen., 7, 53.) We know from Aristophanes that they found their way to the Athenian market (Acharn, v. 880, seqq. Lysistr., v. 36); and we are informed by Dodwell (vol. 1, p. 237), “that they are as much celebrated at present as they were in the time of the ancients; o after bemg salted and pickled, are sent as delicacies to various parts of Greece.” Some which were extraordinarily large were offered up as sacrifices, and decorated like victims. (Athen., 7, 50—Compare Pausan., 9, 24–1. Poll., 6, 63.− Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 256.) Cophas, a harbour in Gedrosia, supposed by some to be the modern Gondel. (Compare the remarks of Wincent, Commerce of the Ancients, vol. 1, p. 252,

seqq.) &I. the goddess of plenty among the Romans, represented as bearing a horn filled with fruits, &c. Coptus, a city of Egypt, in the northern part of the

Thebais, and to the east of the Nile, from which river it stood some distance back in a plain. Under the Pharaohs its true name appears to have been Chemmis, and it would seem to have been at that time merely a place connected with the religious traditions of the Egyptian nation. Under the Ptolemies, on the other hand, not only the appellation for the place assumed more of a Greek form, but the city itself rose into commercial importance. The Arabian Gulf beginning to be navigated by the Greeks, and traffic being pushed from this quarter as far as India, Coptus became the centre of communication between this latter country and Alexandrea, through the harbour of Berenice on the Red Sea. It was well situated for such a purpose, since the Arabian chain of mountains, which elsewhere forms a complete barrier along the coast, has here an opening which, after various windings, conducts to the shore of the Red Sea. Along this route the caravans proceeded; and camels were also employed between Coptus and the Nile. The road from Coptus to Berenice was the work of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and 258 miles in length. It was raised above the level of the surrounding country.—Coptus was destroyed by the Emperor Dioclesian, for having sided with his opponent Achilleus. (Theophan., Chronogr., p. 4, ed. Paris.-Euseb., Chron., p. 178.) Its favourable situation for commerce, however, soon caused it again to arise, and Hierocles speaks of Coptus in the sixth century.—The modern name is Kest or Kuypt, a name which exhibits, according to some, the simple form of that word which the Greeks corrupted or improved into AEgyptus. Plutarch states (De Is. et Os., p. 356.—Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 405), that Isis, upon receiving the news of the death of Osiris, cut off one of her locks here, and that hence the place was called Coptus, this term signifying, in the Egyptian language, want or privation. Mannert suggests, that Coptus may have denoted in the Egyptian tongue a mixed population, a name well suited to the inhabitants of a large commercial city; and he conjectures, that the modern appellation of Kopts, as given to the present mingled population, which is supposed to be descended in part from the ancient Egyptians, may have reference to the same idea. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 365.) Cora, a town of Latium, southwest of Anagnia. It was a place of †. antiquity, and has preserved its name unchanged to the present day. Virgil (Æn., 6, 773) makes it to have been a colony from Alba, while Pliny (3, 5) says, it was founded by Dardanus, a Trojan. Cora suffered greatly during the contest with Spartacus, being taken and sacked by one of his wandering bands. (Flor., 3, 20.) It apparently, however, recovered from this devastation, as there are some fine remains of ancient buildings to be seen here, which must have been erected in the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. But Propertius and Lucan speak of Cora as the seat of ruin and desolation. (Propert., 4, 11.-Lucan, 7,392.-Nibby, Viag. Antiq., vol. 2, p. 207.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 105.) Coracesium, a maritime town of Pamphylia, southeast of Side. It is described by Strabo as a strong and important fortress, situate on a steep rock. Pompey took Coracesium in the piratical war. It is also incidentally noticed by Livy (33, 20. — Compare Scylur, p. 40.-Plin., 5, 27). Hierocles assigns Coracesium to Pamphylia, and D'Anville's map agrees with this. Others, however, to Cilicia; and Cramer's map places it in this latter country, just beyond the confines of Pamphylia. The site of Coracesium corresponds with that of Alaya. Capt. Beaufort describes it as a promontory rising abruptly from a low sandy isthmus. Two of its sides are cliffs of great height, and absolutely, perpendicular; and the eastern side, on which the town is placed, is so steep, that the houses seem to rest on each other. It

forms, according to him, a natural fortress that might be rendered impregnable; and the numerous walls and towers prove how anxiously its former possessors laboured to make it so. (Beaufort's Karamanta, p. 172.-Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 320.) Coralli, a savage people of Sarmatia Europea, who inhabited the shores of the Euxine, near the mouths of the Danube. (Ovid, ez Pont., 4, 2, 37.) CoRAs, a brother of Catillus and Tiburtus (rid. Tibur), who fought against Æneas. (Virg., AEm., 7,672.) CoRAx, a Sicilian, whom the ancients regarded as the creator of the rhetorical art. Cicero, following Aristotle, says, that when the tyrants were driven out of Sicily, and private affairs began again to be taken cognizance of by the tribunals of justice, Corax and Tisias wrote on the rhetorical art, and penned precepts of oratory. In this way, according to him, the eloquence of the bar arose, the Sicilians being naturally an acute race and given to disputation. (Cic., Brut, c. 12.—Compare De Orat., 1, 20, and 3, 21.) Corax and Tisias must have lived, consequently, about 473 B.C., since this is the period when the Sicilians regained their freedom, of which they had been deprived by Gelon and the other tyrants who were contemporaneous with him. (Clavier, in Biog. Univ., vol. 9, p. 556.) CoRBülo, Cn. Domitius, a celebrated Roman commander, under Claudius and Nero. He was famed for his military talent, his rigid observance of ancient discipline, and for the success of his arms, especially against the Parthians. On account of his great reputation, he became an object of jealousy and suspicion to Nero, who recalled him, under pretence of rewarding his merit. When Corbulo reached Corinth, he met there an order to die. Reflecting on his own want of prudence and foresight, he fell upon his sword, exclaiming, “I have well deserved this " Thus perished, A.D. 67, the greatest warrior, and one of the most virtuous men of his time. Corbulo had written Memoirs of the wars carried on by him, after the manner of Caesar's Commentaries; but they have not reached our day. (Tacit., Ann., 11, 18.-Id. ib., 13, 35.Id. ib., 13, 14, &c.) CorbulöNIs Monumentum, a place in the northwestern part of Germany, among the Frisii, near the confines of the Chauci. It is supposed to answer to the modern Groningen. (Tacit., Ann., 11, 19.) Corcy RA, an island in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of Epirus, in which Homer places the fabled gardens of Alcinous. It is said to have been first known under the name of Drepane, perhaps from its similarity of shape to a scythe. (Apollon., Argon, 4,982.) . To this name succeeded that of Scheria, always used by Homer, and by which it was probably known in his time. From the Odyssey we learn, that this island was then inhabited by Phaeacians, a people who, even at that early period, had acquired considerable skill in nautical affairs, and possessed extensive commercial relations, since they traded with the Phoenicians, and also with Euboea and other countries.—Corcyra was in after days the principal city of the island, and was situated precisely where the modern town of Corfu stands. Scylax speaks of three harbours, one of which is depicted as beautiful. Homer describes the position of the city very accurately (Od., 6, 262). In the middle ages, the citadel obtained the name of Kopu%, from its two conical hills or crests, which appellation was, in process of time, applied to the whole town, and finally to the island itself. Hence the modern name of Corfu, which is but a corruption of the former. (Wordsworth's Greece, p. 263.) As, however, the island is designated in Boccacio by the appellation of Gurso, and as the modern Greek term is Korfo, some have imagined that the name Corfu originated in a Romaic corruption of the ancient word for Kolpo (<6%roc), “guls” or “bay,” which might well be applied to the harbour beneath the double summits. (Wordsworth, l.c.) Corfu forms at the present day one of the Ionian islands, and is the most important of the number. It is 70 miles in length by 30 in breadth, and contains a population of 30,000 souls. The olive arrives at greater perfection here than in any other part of Greece; but the oil obtained from it is acrid.—Corfu was for a long time considered as the stronghold of Italy against the attacks of the Mussulmans. The sollowing is a sketch of the history of this island. Its earlier periods are enveloped in the mist of uncertainty and conjecture. A colony of Colchians is said to have settled there about 1349 years before our era. It was afterward governed by kings of whom little is known. Homer has, indeed, immortalized the name of Alcinois. But it is not easy to draw a map of the Homeric Phaeacia, which shall coincide in its details with the localities of Corfu ; nor will the topographer find it a simple task to discover the natural objects connected in the Odyssey with the city of the Phaeacian king. In process of time, Corcyra, enriched and aggrandized by its maritime superiority, became one of the most powerful nations in Greece. (Thucyd., 1, 1.) The Corinthians, under Chersicrates, formed a settlement here in 753 B.C., and 415 years afterward it was captured by Agathocles of Syracuse, who gave it to his daughter Lanessa upon her marriage with Pyrrhus of Epirus. It was occupied by the troops of the Illyrian queen Teuta, about fifty-eight years after its seizure by Agathocles, but was soon after taken from her by the Romans, under the consul Cn. Flavius; and, although it had the privileges of a free city, it remained under the Romans for many centuries. In the time of Strabo it was reduced to extreme misery, owing to the vices of its administration and its want of moderation in prosperity. Corfu has for several centuries been celebrated for its powerful fortresses, to which great additions were made by the French, and subsequently by the English, in the hands of which latter people it, together with the other Ionian islands, at present remains. (Dodwell's Tour, vol. 1, p. 36, seqq.)—II. An island in the Adriatic, on the coast of Illyricum, termed Nigra (“Black”), in Greek Mážatva, to distinguish it from the more celebrated island of the same name. It is now Curzola. Apollonius accounts for the epithet just mentioned from the dark masses of wood with which it was crowned. (Argon., 4, 571.) Scymnus attributes to this island the honour of having received a colony from Cnidus in Asia Minor. (Scymn, v. 426.—Compare Scylar, p. 8.—Strabo, 315) Corptiba, a city of Hispania Baetica, on the right bank of the river Baetis, and about 1200 stadia from the sea. The river being navigable to this quarter, Corduba became, in consequence, a large and opulent commercial place. It was the birthplace of both the Senecas, and of the poet Lucan, and is now Cordova. (Strab., 141.-Plin., 3, 3.—Wernsdorff, Poet. Lat. Min, vol. 5, pt. 3, p. 1366.) CoRe I. (Köpm, “the maiden”), an Attic name for Proserpina. Some, not very correctly, derive the term from keipo, “to cut,” &c., and make it have reference to the “harvest.” (Journal Royal Institution, No. 1, p. 59.)—II. A Corinthian female, said to have been the inventress of plaster-casts. (Athenag., Leg. pro Christ, 14, p. 59.-Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Corrinium, the capital of the Peligni, in Italy, about three miles from the Aternus. During the Social war it took the name of Italica, and had the honour of being styled the capital of Italy. This arrangement, however, was of short continuance, as Corfinium appears to have seceded from the confederacy before the conclusion of the war. (Diod. Sic., Fragm., 37.) In later times we find it still regarded as one of the most important cities of this part of Italy, and one which Caesar was most anxious to secure in his enterprise

inst the liberties of his country. It surrendered to him after a short defence. (Bell. Civ., 1, 16.-Compare Florus, 4, 2–Appian, Bell. Civ., 2, 38.) The church of S. Pelino, about three miles from the town of Popoli, stands on the site of this ancient city, and the little hamlet of Pertinia occupies probably the place of its citadel. (D'Anville, An. Geogr., vol. 1, p. 173.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 500.) Corin NA, a poetess of Thebes, or, according to others, of Tanagra, distinguished for her skill in lyric verse, and remarkable for her personal attractions. She was the rival of Pindar, while the latter was still a young man; and, according to AElian (W. H., 13, 25), she gained the victory over him no less than five times. Pausanias, in his travels, saw at Tanagra a picture, in which Corinna was represented as binding her head with a fillet of victory, which she had gained in a contest with Pindar. He supposes that she was less indebted for this victory, to the excellence of her poetry than to her Boeotian dialect, which was more familiar to the ears of the judges at the games, and also to her extraordinary beauty. Corinna afterward assisted the young poet with her advice; it is related of her, that she recommended him to ornament his poems with mythical narrations; but that, when he had composed a hymn, in the first six verses of which (still extant) almost the whole of the Theban mythology was introduced, she smiled and said, “We should sow with the hand, not with the whole sack.” (Pausan., 9, 22.-Plut., de Glor. Ath.-Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 320.) She was surnamed “the Fly” (Mvia), as Erinna had been styled “the Bee.” This appellation of Mvia has deceived Clement of Alexandrea, who speaks of a poetess named Myia. (Strom., 4, 19.) The poems of Corinna were all in the Boeotian or AEolic dialect. Too little of her poetry, however, has been preserved to allow of our forming a safe judgment of her style of composition. The extant fragments refer mostly to mythological subjects, particularly to heroines of the Boeotian legends. These remains were given by Ursinus, in his Carmina novem illustrium feminarum, 1568; by Wolf in his Poetriarum octo fragmenta, 1734; and by Schneider in his Movaču ävöm, Giess., 1802, 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 295Möhnike, Gesch. Lit. der Gr, und R., p. 317.) Corinthi Isthmus, or Isthmus of Corinth, between the Saronicus Sinus and Corinthiacus Sinus, and uniting the Peloponnesus to the northern parts of Greece, or Gracia Propria. The ancients appear to have been divided in their opinions concerning the exact breadth of the isthmus. Diodorus (11, 16) and Strabo (335) say it was forty stadia, and Mela (2, 3) five miles, with which last Pliny agrees (4, 5). The real distance, however, in the narrowest part, cannot be less than six miles (or not quite five British miles), as the modern name of Heramilion sufficiently denotes. Ships were drawn, by means of machinery, from one sea to the other, near the town of Schoenus, over the narrowest part of the isthmus, which was called Diolkos. This could only be accomplished, however, with the vessels usually employed in commerce, or with lembi, which were light ships of war, chiefly used by the Illyrians and Macedonians. The tediousness and expense attending this process, and still more probably the difficulty of circumnavigating the Peloponnesus, led to frequent attempts, at various periods, for effecting a junction between the two seas; but all proved equally unsuccessful. According to Strabo (54), Demetrius Poliorcetes abandoned the enterprise, because it was found that the two gulfs were not on the same level. We read of the attempt having been made before his time by Periander and Alexander, and, subsequently to Demetrius, by Julius Cæsar, Caligula, Nero, and Herodes Atticus. “It appears somewhat surprising,” remarks Mr. Dodwell, “that these success. ive attempts should have failed or *

The art of perforating rocks was well understood and dexterously practised both in Italy and Greece at a very early period, and, therefore, no difficulty of this kind could have occasioned the abandonment of so useful a project, though Pausanias is of a different opinion. It was afterward begun with the greatest energy, and abandoned without any plausible motive, as no doubt the quantity of rock or earth to be removed, and all the associated impediments, must have been the subject of previous calculation. And if Demetrius was really convinced that the level of the Corinthian Gulf was higher than that of the Saronic, and that the adacent shore, with the neighbouring islands, would be inundated by the union of the two seas, those who came after him would not have persevered in so destructive an undertaking. Sesostris, and afterward Darius, were in the same manner deterred from finishing a canal from the Red Sea to the Nile, by an apprehension that Egypt would be inundated. (Strab.38–Id.,804.) Dio Cassius tells nearly the same story about digging the isthmus as that which is related to travellers at this day. He says that blood issued from the ground; that groans and lamentations were heard, and terrible apparitions seen. In order to stimulate the perseverance of the people, Nero took a spade and dug himself. (Dio Cass., 63, 16.-Compare Suet., Wit. Ner., 19.-Lucian, de perfoss. Isthm.) Lucian informs us, that Nero was said to have been deterred from proceeding, by a representation made to him, similar to that which Demetrius received respecting the unequal levels of the two seas. He adds, however, a more probable reason; the troubles, namely, that were excited by Windex in Gaul, and which occasioned the emperor's hasty return from Greece to Italy. (Lucian, de perfoss. Isthm. –0p., ed. Bip., vol. 9, p. 298.) It is probable, as far as the supernatural appearances went, that the priests at Delphi had some influence in checking the enterprise.” (Dodwell's Tour, vol. 2, p. 184.) Travellers inform us, that some remains of the canal undertaken by the Roman emperor are yet visible, reaching from the sea, northeast of Lechaeum, about half a mile across the isthmus. It terminates on the southeast side, where solid rock occurs, which, as Dr. Clarke thinks, must have opposed an insurmountable obstacle. (Trav., vol. 6, p. 562.) Sir W. Gell remarks, that the vestiges of the canal may be traced from the port or bay of Schoenus, along a natural hollow at the foot of a line of fortifications. There are also several pits, probably sunk to ascertain the nature of the soil, through which the canal was to be carried. The ground, however, is so high, that the undertaking would be attended with enormous expense. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 208.)—We hear also of various attempts made to raise fortifications across the Isthmus for the Peloponnesus when threatened with invasion. The first undertaking was made before the battle of Salamis, when, as Herodotus relates, the Peloponnesian confederates, having blocked up the Scironian way, collected together a vast multitude, who worked night and day, without intermission, on the fortifications. Every kind of material, such as stones, bricks, and timber, were employed, and the insterstices filled up with earth and sand. (Herodot, 8, 73.) Many years after, the LacedæmoJians and their allies endeavoured to fortify the isthmus from Cencbrea to Lechaeum against Epaminondas; but this measure was rendered fruitless by the conduct and skill of that general, who forced a passage across the Oneian Mountains. (Xen., Hist. Gr, 7, i.) Cleomenes also threw up trenches and lines from Acrocorinthus to the Oneian Mountains, in order to prevent the Macedonians, under Antigonus Doson, from penetrating into the peninsula. (Polyb., 2, 52. -Piot, de Cleom.)—The Isthmus of Corinth derived

eat celebrity from the games which were celebrated There every five years in honour of Palæmon or Melicerta, and subsequently of Neptune. (Pausan. 1,44.

—Plut., Wit. Thes.) These continued in vogue when the other gymnastic exercises of Greece had fallen into neglect and disuse; and it was during their solemnization that the independence of Greece was proclaimed, after the victory of Cynoscephalae, by order of the Roman senate and people. (Polyb., 18, 29.—Liv., 33, 32.) After the destruction of Corinth, the superintendence of the Isthmian games was committed to the Sicyonians by the Romans; on its restoration, however, by Julius Cæsar, the presidency of the games again reverted to the Corinthian settlers. (Pausan, 2, 2.) CoRINthišcus SINUs, or Gulf of Lepanto, an arm of the sea running in between the coast of Achaia and Sicyonia to the south, and that of Phocis, Locris, and AEtolia to the north. Its gulf had the general appellation of Corinthian as far as the Isthmus, but it was divided into smaller bays, the names of which were sometimes poetically used for the entire gulf. Its different names were the Crissaean, Cirrhaean, Delphic, Calydonian, Rhian, and Halcyonian. Besides being now called the Gulf of Lepanto, the Sinus Corinthiacus is often known by the name of the Gulf of Nepaktos or Saloma. The victory of Don John of Austria, in 1571, over the Turks, has immortalized the name of the Gulf of Lepanto in modern history. (Dodwell's Tour, vol. 1, p. 111.) Corinthus, a famous city of Greece, now Corilo or Corinth, and situate on the isthmus of the same name. Commanding by its position the Ionian and Ægean seas, and holding, as it were, the keys of Peloponnesus, Corinth, from the pre-eminent advantages of its situation, was already the seat of opulence and the arts, while the rest of Greece was sunk in comparative obscurity and barbarism. Its origin is, of course, lost in the night of time; but we are assured that it already existed under the name of Ephyre long before the siege of Troy. According to the assertions of the Corinthians themselves, their city received its name from Corinthus, the son of Jove; but Pausanias does not credit this popular tradition, and cites the poet Eumelus to show that the appellation was really derived from Corinthus, the son of Marathon (2. l). Homer certainly employs both names indiscriminately, (Il., 2, 570; 13, 663.) Pausanias reports, that the descendants of Sysiphus reigned at Corinth until the invasion of their territory by the Dorians and Heraclidae, when Doridas and Hyanthidas, the last princes of this race, abdicated the crown in favour of Aletes, a descendant of Hercules, whose lineal successors remained in possession of the throne of Corinth during five generations, when the crown passed into the family of the Bacchiadae, so named from Bacchis, the son of Prumnis, who retained it for five other generations, After this the sovereign power was transferred to annual magistrates, still chosen, however, from the line of the Bacchiadae, with the title of Prytanes. Strabo affirms that this form of government lasted 200 years; but Diodorus limits it to ninety years: the former writer probably includes within that period both the kings and Prytanes of the Bacchiada, Diodorus only the latter. (Strabo, 378.-Diod. Sic., Frag.—Lar. cher, Chronol. d’Herodote, vol. 7, p. 519, 531.) The oligarchy so long established by this rich and powerful family was at length overthrown, about 629 B.C., by Cypselus, who banished many of the Corinthians, depriving others of their possessions, and putting other: to death. (Herodot., 5, 92.) Among those who fled from his persecution was Demaratus, of the family of the Bacchiadae, who settled at Tarquinii in Etruria, and whose descendants became sovereigns of Rome. (Strabo, 378.-Polyb., 6, 2–Dion. Hal., 3, 46Lic, 1, 34.) The reign of Cypselus was more pros. perous than his crimes deserved ; and the system of colonization, which had previously succeeded so well in the settlements of Corcyra and Syracuse, was act

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