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poet. (Strab., 20.) Wesseling thinks the authority of Strabo inferior to that of Herodotus; but Larcher inclines to the opinion that two different incursions are spoken of, an earlier and a later one. He makes the former of these anterior even to the time assigned by Strabo, and thinks it preceded by a short period the siege of Troy. He supposes this, moreover, to be the one alluded to by Euripides. (Iph. in Taur., 1115, seqq.—Larcher, ad Herod., 1, 6.) According to this view of the subject, Herodotus speaks merely of the latter of these two inroads. Volney maintains, in like manner, that there were two incursions of the Cimmerians, but he places the first of these in the reign of Ardys (699 B.C.), to which he thinks Herodotus alludes in the fifteenth chapter of his first book; and the second one in the time of Alyattes and Cyaxares, which he supposes to be the inroad alluded to by Herodotus in the one hundred and third chapter of the same book. (Volney, Suppl. a l'Herod., de Larcher, p. 75, seqq.) It appears much more reasonable, however, to refer all to but one invasion on the part of the Cimmerian race, commencing in the time of Ardys, and continued until the reign of Alyattes (616, B.C.), when these barbarians were expelled from the Asiatic peninsula. (Bühr, ad Herod., 1, 6.)—The account given by Herodotus is, that the Cimmerians, when they came into Asia Minor, took Sardis, with the exception of the citadel, and that they were finally expelled by Alyattes, the contemporary of Cyaxares. (Herod., 1, 15, seq.) The same historian makes the Cimmerians to have dwelt originally in the neighbourhood of the Palus Maeotis and Cimmerian Bosporus, and when driven out “from Europe,” as he expresses himself (êx ràc Eiopórmc), by the Scythians, to have fled along the upper shore of the Euxine to Colchis, and thence to have passed into Asia Minor. (Herod., 1, 103.) Niebuhr, with very good reason, insists that Herodotus has here fallen into an error, and that all the wandering races which have in succession occupied the regions of Scythia, have, when driven out by other tribes from the east, moved forth in a western direction towards the country around the Danube. The Cimmerians, therefore, must have come into Asia Minor from the east. As regards the name of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the same acute critic supposes it to have arisen from the circumstance of a part of the Cimmerian horde having been left in this quarter, and having continued to occupy the Tauric Chersonese as late as the settlement of the Greek colonies in these parts. (Niebuhr, Kleine Schriften, p. 365, seqq.)—The ancients differed in opinion as regarded the orthography of the name Cimmerii, some being in favour of Kępóēpuot, others of Xetušptot. (Hesych, s. v.–Eustath., ad Od., 10, 14.—Schol., ad loc.—Aristoph., Ran., 189. Etymol. Mag., p. 513. — Voss, Weltk., p. 14.) Modern scholars are in like manner divided as to the derivation of the term “Cimmerian” itself. It is maintained by some of these that the Greeks obtained their first knowledge of this race from the Phoenicians, and that hence, in all probability, the stories told of the gloom which enshrouded the Cimmerian land, and of the other appalling circumstances connected with this people, were mere Phoenician inventions to deter the Grecian traders from visiting them. In accordance with this idea, Bochart derives the word “Cimmerian” srom the Phoenician kamar, or kimmer, “tenebrosum.” (Geogr. Sacr., col. 591.-Compare Job, 3, 5.) Hence we read of Cimmerians, not only in Lower Asia, but also in the remotest west and north. “The Cimmerians,” says Eustathius, “are a people in the west, on the Oceanus: they dwell not far from Hades.” (Compare Tzetz., ad Lycophr., 695, and consult the article Avernus.) Another class of etymologists, however, deduce the word in question from the Celtic, and make the Cimmerii identical with the Kimri, whence the later Cimbri. (Volney, Suppl., &c., p. 75.) The Cim

merians, therefore, who overran Asia Minor, will be a Celtic race. There is something extremely plausible in this supposition, and in this way, too, we may, without having recourse to Bochart's derivation, account for the existence of Cimmerii, or Celts, in the remote west. (Ukert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 26, not.) CIMMERiuM, a town in the interior of the Tauric Chersonese, northwest of Theodosia. It is now EskiKrim (Old Krim), on the river Tschuruck. (Mela, 1, 19.) CIMölus, one of the Cyclades, northeast of Melos. Its more ancient name was Echinusa, or Viper's Island, from the number of vipers which infested it before it was inhabited. It produced what was called the Cimolia terra, a species of earth resembling, in some of its properties, fuller's earth, though not the same with it. (Theophrast., de Lapid., 2, 107.Strabo, 484.) The ancients used it for cleaning their clothes. It was white, dense, of a loose texture, mixed with sand or small pebbles, insipid to the taste, and unctuous to the touch. The substance, according to Sir John Hill (ad Theophr., l. c.), which comes nearest to the Cimolian earth of antiquity, is the Steatite of the Soap-rock of Cornwall, which is the common matter of a great part of the cliff near the Lizard Point. Cimolus is now Kimoli, though more generally known by the name of Argentiera. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 405.) Cimon, I. son of Miltiades, and of Hegesipyle the daughter of Olorus, a Thracian prince. His education, according to Plutarch, was very much neglected, and he himself indulged, at first, in every species of excess. At his father's death he seems to have succeeded to a very scanty fortune, and he would perhaps have found it difficult to raise the penalty of fifty talents, which had been imposed upon his parent, and which the son was bound to pay to the public treasury, had not Callias, one of the wealthiest men of Athens, struck by the charms of his half-sister Elpinice, undertaken to discharge the sum as the price of her hand. (Wid. Callias, Elpinice.) Cimon, however, had attracted notice, and gained reputation, by the spirit which he displayed on the occasion of leaving the city on the approach of the Persians, when he was the foremost to hang up a bridle in the Acropolis, as a sign that he placed all . hopes in the fleet; and also by the valour with which he fought at Salamis. Aristides, in particular, saw in him a fit coadjutor to himself and antagonist to Themistocles, and exerted himself in his favour; and the readiness with which the allied Greeks, when disgusted by the arrogance of Pausanias, united themselves with Athens, was owing in a great measure to Cimon's mild temper, and to his frank and gentle manners. The popularity of Themistocles was already declining, while Cimon, by a series of successful enterprises, was rapidly rising in public favour. He defeated the Persians in Thrace, on the banks of the Strymon, took Eion, and made himself master of the whole country. He conquered the island of Scyros, the inhabitants of which were addicted to piracy; and brought thence to Athens what were deemed the bones of the national hero Theseus. He next subdued all the cities on the coast of Asia Minor, and went against the Persian fleet which lay at the mouth of the Eurymedon. The Persians, although superior in number, did not dare to abide an engagement, but sailed up the river to place themselves under the protection of their land forces. Cimon, however, provoked them to a battle, and, having defeated and sunk or taken two hundred ships, landed his men, flushed with victory, and completely routed the Persian army. Returning to Athens after these two victories thus achieved in a single day, he employed the perquisites of his command, and the resources which he had acquired from his successes over the barbarians, in the embellishment of

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his native city, and in relieving the wants of the indigent. He laid a part of the foundations of the long walls with magnificent solidity at his own charge, and the southern wall of the citadel was built with the treasures which he brought from Asia into the coffers of the state. He also set the example of adorning the public places of the city with trees, and, by introducing a stream of water, converted the Academy, a spot about two miles north of the city, from an arid waste into a delightful grove. (Vid. Academus.) He threw down the fences of his fields and orchards, that all who wished might enter and partake of their produce : he not only gave the usual entertainments expected from the rich to the members of his own borough, but kept a table constantly open for them. He never appeared in public without a number of persons attending him in good apparel, who, when they met with any elderly citizen scantily clothed, would insist on exchanging their warm mantles for his threadbare covering. It was the office of the same agents, respectfully to approach any of the poorer citizens of good character, whom they might see standing in the market-place, and silently to put some small pieces of money into their hands. This latter kind of expenditure was certainly of a mischievous tendency; and was not the less that of a demagogue, because Cimon sought popularity, not merely for his own sake, but for that of his order and his party.—About 466 B.C., Cimon was sent to the Thracian Chersonese, of which the Persians still kept possession, and having driven them out, next reduced the island of Thasus, and took possession of the Thasian gold-mines on the neighbouring continent. Scarcely, however, had he returned to Attica, when an accusation was preferred against him of having been corrupted by the King of Macedonia, because he had refrained, not, according to the common account, from attacking the Macedonians then at ace with Athens, but from striking a blow at the hracian tribes on the frontier of that kingdom, who had recently cut off the Athenian settlers on the banks of the Strymon. (Vid. Amphipolis.) From this accusation Cimon had a very narrow escape. Having been sent, however, after this, with a body of troops to aid the Spartans before Ithome, and the latter having, after some interval, sent back their Athenian allies, whom they suspected of not lending them any effectual assistance, the irritation produced by this national insult sell principally upon Cimon, who was known to be an admirer of the Spartan character and constitution, and he was accordingly driven into exile. Subsequent events, however, made the Athenians feel the want of this able commander, and he was recalled and sent on an expedition against Egypt and Cyprus; but he was carried off by illness, or the consequences of a wound, in the harbour of Citium, to which place he was laying siege. His spirit, however, still animated his countrymen; for the fleet, when sailing home with his remains, gained a naval victory over a i. squadron of Phoenician and Cilician galleys near the Cyprian Salamis, and followed up this victory by another which they gained on shore, either over the troops which had landed from the enemy's ships, or over a land force by which they were supported.—Cimon was, beyond dispute, the ablest and most successful general of his day; and his victories shed a lustre on the arms of Athens, which almost dimmed the glories of Marathon and Salamis. In after times, Cimon's military renown was enhanced by the report of a peace which his victories had compelled the Persian king to conclude on terms most humiliating to the monarchy. These were, that the Persians fi agreed to abandon at least the military occupation of Asia Minor, to the distance of three days' journey on foot, or oné on horseback, from the coast, and to abstain from passing the mouth of the Bosporus and the Chelidonian islands into the western sea. This peace, of which Isocrates, De

mosthenes, Diodorus, and Plutarch speak, never took place. The silence of Thucydides is conclusive on the subject, to say nothing of the vague and contradictory statements of the very authors who do mention it. The fable seems to have sprung up, or to have acquired a distinct shape, in the rhetorical school of Isocrates, and to have been transmitted through the orators to the historians. (Plut., Wit. Cim.—Thirlwall's Greece, vol. 3, p. 2, seqq.) CINcia lex, was proposed by M. Cincius, a tribume of the people, A.U.C. 549. It enacted, that no one should take money or a present for pleading a cause. (Liv., 34, 4.—Tac., Ann., 11, 5.) Cincinnatus, L. Quintius, a Roman patrician, whose name belongs to the earlier history of the republic, and has a well-known and spirit-stirring legend connected with it. His son, Kaeso Quintius, had been banished on account of his violent language towards the tribunes, and the father had retired to his own patrimony, aloof from popular tumults. The successes of the AEqui and Volsci, however, rendered the appointment of a dictator necessary, and Cincinnatus was chosen to that high office. The delegates who were sent to announce this unto him, found the Roman noble ploughing his own fields; and from the plough he was transferred to the highest magistracy of his native state. The dictator laid aside his rural habiliments, assumed the ensigns of absolute power, levied a new army, marched all night to bring the necessary succour to the consul Minucius, who was surrounded by the enemy and blockaded in his camp, and before morning surrounded the enemy's army, and reduced it to a condition exactly similar to that in which the Romans had been placed. The baffled AEqui were glad to submit to the victor's terms; and Cincinnatus, thereupon returning in triumph to Rome, , , laid down his dictatorial power, after having held it only fourteen days, and returned to his farm. At an advanced age he was again appointed dictator, to restrain the power of Spurius Melius (vid. Melius), and again proved himself the deliverer of his country. (Val. Mar., 4, 4, 7–Liv., 3, 26.) CINEAs, a Thessalian, a minister and friend of Pyrrhus, and employed by the latter on many embassies. He had been a pupil of Demosthenes, and possessed considerable talents as an orator. Having been sent by Pyrrhus to Rome with proposals of peace, he compared the senate, on his return, to an assembly of kings, and a war with the Romans to a contest with another Lernaan hydra. (Plut., Wit. Pyrrh.) CINGüluM, a town of Picenum, southwest of Ancona. It surrendered to Caesar, though Labienus, then a great partisan of Pompey, had raised and constructed its fortifications at his own expense. The modern name is Cingolo. (Cas., Bell. Civ., 1, 15.-Cic., Ep. ad Att., 7, 11.-Sil. Ital., 10, 34.) CINNA, L. Cornelius, an adherent of Marius, who played a conspicuous part in the civil war between that leader and Sylla. Having attained to the consulship, after the proscription of Marius by his oppoment, t began to exert himself for the recall of the former, and accused Sylla, who was just going as proconsul to Asia, of maladministration. That commander, however, took no notice of the complaint. After the departure of Sylla, he brought forward once more the law of Sulpicius, which admitted the Italians into all the thirty-five tribes without distinction. A violent riot ensued, numbers were slain, and Cinna, with his chief partisans, was driven from the city by his colleague Octavius. The Italian towns, regarding the cause of Cinna as their own, received him with the utmost cordiality. He collected thirty legions, called the proscribed to his support, and with Marius, Sertorius, and Carbo, marched upon and took possession of Rome. A scene of bloodshed and lawless rapine now ensued, which has perhaps no rol in

ancient or modern times, and has deservedly procured for those who were the actors in it the unmitigated abhorrence of all posterity. Cinna and Marius, by their own authority, now declared themselves consuls for the ensuing year; but Marius dying, after having only held that office for seventeen days, Cinna remained in effect the absolute master of Rome. During the space of three years after this victory of his, he continued to hold possession of the government at home, a period during which, as Cicero remarks (De Clar. Orat., 62), the republic was without laws and without dignity. At length, however, Sylla, after terminating the war with Mithradates, prepared to march home with his army and punish his opponents. Cinna, with his colleague Carbo, resolved thereupon to cross the Adriatic, and anticipate Sylla by attacking him in Greece; but a mutiny of their troops ensued, in which Cinna was slain, B.C. 77. Haughty, violent, always eager for vengeance, addicted to debauchery, precipitate in his plans, but always displaying courage in their execution, Cinna attained to a power little less absolute than that afterward held by Sylla or Caesar: and it is somewhat remarkable, that his usurpation should have been so little noticed by posterity, and that he himself should be so little known, that scarcely a single personal anecdote of him is to be found on record. (Appian, Bell. Civ., 1, 64.—Well. Paterc., 2, 43, seqq.— Appian, B. C., 1, 74, “floo." Wit. Syll., 22Liv., Epit., 83, &c.)—II. One of the conspirators against Caesar (Plut., Vit. Caes.)—III. C. Helvius, a Roman poet, intimate with Caesar, and tribune of the commons at the time when the latter was assassinated. According to Plutarch, he went to attend the obsequies of Caesar, but, being mistaken by the populace for Cinna the conspirator, was torn in pieces by them. (Plut., Wit. Cars.) Helvius composed a poem entitled Smyrna (or Zmyrna), on which he was employed nine or ten years. Four fragments of it have reached us. It appears to have been characterized by considerable obscurity of meaning until the grammarian Crassitius wrote an able commentary upon it. (Sueton., Illustr. Gram., 18.) Some other fragments have also reached us of other productions of this poet. (Weichert, de C. Helv. Cinn. poet. Comment.—Bahr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 164.) CINNIANA, a town of Lusitania, in the northern or northwestern section of the country. Its precise situation has given rise to much dispute. According to some, it corresponds to Sutania, a deserted spot, six leagues east of Braga. Others, however, make it the same with certain ruins, called at the present day Chalcedonia, and lying near Caldas de Gerez, on the northern confines of Portugal. (Val. Mar., 6, 4, ert. 1.—Link, Reusen durch Portugall, vol. 2, p. 3, seqq. —Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 399.) CINYps and CINyphus (Kivulp, Herod.—Kívvó0s, Ptol., Strab.-Kuvíðtoo, Suid.), a small river of Africa, below Tripolis, falling into the sea southwest of the promontory of Cephalae. Herodotus (4, 198) speaks of the land around this river as being remarkably fertile, and equal to any other land in the production of corn. The water of this stream was conveyed by an aqueduct to the city of Leptis Magna. Bochart derives the name of the Cinyps or Cinyphus from the Phoenician Kinphod, “porcupine's river,” the porcupine being found, according to Herodotus (4, 192), in parts of the country watered by this stream, (Bochart, Geogr. Sacr., 1, 24, col. 486.) The modern name of the Cinyps is Wadi Quaham, and travellers describe the soil in its neighbourhood as being still remarkable for its fertility. (Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. 1, p. 927.Beechy's Travels, p. 71.) CINYRAs, a king of Cyprus, father, by Myrrha, of Adonis. (Wid. Adonis and Myrrha.) He bears his part in the myth of the sun-god, and his name appears to come from the Phoenician Kinnor, whence the

Greek Kuvápa, and also ru'vptoo, “to mourn” or “lament.” (Keightley's Mythology, p. 143.) Circeli, I. a promontory of Latium, below Antium, now Monte Circello. It was the fabled residence of Circe ; the adjacent country being very low, and giving this jo at a distance the appearance of an island. It would seem, that Hesiod's making the kings of the Tyrrheni to have been descended from Circe and Ulysses, led to the opinion that the island of that goddess was to be found on the Italian coast. An accidental resemblance in name also may have induced many to select this promontory as the place of her abode. Homer's account, however, of the isle of Circe does not at all suit this spot. The island was a low one, whereas this is a lofty promontory. The adjacent sea also is represented by the poet as boundless to the view, which is not the case as regards Circeii. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 621.) But, in truth, it requires too great a stretch of the imagination to believe that Homer, and the other poets who have sung of the charms of Circe, were describing places which had an actual existence. It is more than probable, that the fiction relative to the abode of Circe, received its application to the Italian coast subsequently to the period in which Homer wrote, when, from the celebrity of his poems, it became a matter of belief. (Clurer., Ital. Ant., vol. 2, p. 1000–Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 91.) Niebuhr, however, makes the sable indigenous in the neighbourhood of the mountain. (Rom. Hist, vol. 1, p. 66, 2d ed., Cambridge transl.)—The promontory of Circeii was famed for its oysters in the time of both Horace and Juvenal. (Horat., Sat., 2, 4, 33–Jur, 4, 140.)—II. A town of Latium, standing rather inland from the promontory just mentioned, probably on the site of the village of San Felice, where some ruins are said to be visible. (Corradini, Vet. Lat., 1, 9, p. 98–Pratilli, Via Appia, 1, 16, p. 113.) We first hear of this place in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus ; Dionysius informs us that it was colonized by his soldiers, as being an important place from its situation near the Pometinus Campus and the sea. (4,63.—Compare Liry, I, 56.) It is uncertain, however, whether the town existed before this period. Circeii appears to have been still extant in Cicero's time, for he mentions that Circe was worshipped there. (N. D., 3, 19.) It was assigned to Lepidus as the place of his exile by Augustus. (Suet., Aug., 16.) Circk, sister of Æetes king of Colchis, and daughter of the Sun and Perse, one of the ocean-nymphs. (Homer gives the mother's name as Perse, but Hesiod, Apollodorus, and others, Perseis.) Circe is celebrated for her skill in magic arts, and for her knowledge of subtile poisons. * to Homer (Od., 10, 135, seqq.), she dwelt in an island, attended by sour nymphs, and all persons who approached her dwelling were first feasted, and then, on tasting the contents of her magic cup, converted into swine. When Ulysses had been thrown on her shores, he deputed some of his companions to explore the country; these, incautiously partaking of the banquet set before them, were, by the effect of the enchanted tion, transformed as above. When Ulysses himself, on hearing of their misfortune from Eurylochus, set out to release them or share their sate, he was met by Hermes, who gave him a plant named Moly (M&Av), potent against her magic, and directed him how to act. Accordingly, when she reached him the medicated cup, he drank of it freely, and Circe, thinking it had produced its usual effect, striking him with her ... bade him go join his comrades in their sty. But Ulysses, drawing his sword, threatened to slay her; and the terrified goddess bound herself by a solemn oath to do him no injury. She afterward, at his desire, restored his companions to their pristine form, and they all abode in her dwelling for an entre year. Circe is said to have had by Ulysses a son named Telegonus, who afterward unwittingly slew his own father. Hesiod, in his Theogony (1011), says Agrius and Latinus (not the king of Latium), “who, asar in the recess of the holy isles, ruled over all the renowned Tyrsenians.” Later writers took great liberties with the narratives of Homer and Hesiod. Thus, for example, Dionysius, the cyclographer, makes Circe the daughter of Æetes by Hecate, the daughter of his brother Perses. He goes on to say, that she was married to the king of the Sarmatians, whom she poisoned, and seized his kingdom; but, governing tyrannically, she was expelled, and then fled to a desert isle of the ocean, or, as some said, to the headland named from her in Italy. (Wid. Circeii.) The Latin poets thence took occasion to connect Circe with their own scanty mythology. It was fabled, for example, that she had been married to King Picus, whom, by her magic art, she changed into a bird. (Diod. Snc., 4, 45.-Eudocia, 261.-Schol. ad Apoll. Rh., 3, 200.-Ovid, Met., 14, 320, seqq.) Another legend made her the mother of Faunus, by the god of the sea. (Nonnus, 13, 328.) The herb Moly is said, by these late writers, to have sprung from the blood of a giant slain by the Sun, in aid of his daughter in her island. Its name, we are told, comes from the fight (u020c). Its flower is white, as the warrior was the Sun. (Ptol., Hephaest. ap. Phot, Cod., 190, vol. 1, p. 149, ed. Bekker.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 267.) Among other supernatural acts ascribed to &#. was her converting Scylla into a hideous sea-monster. (Wid. Scylla.)—Various theories have been started for explaining the fable of Circe and her transformation of men into swine. Heyne (Excurs. 1, ad Virg., AEm., 7, p. 103) thinks, that Homer merely gave an historical aspect, as it were, to an allegory invented by some earlier poet, and in which the latter wished to show the brutalizing influence of sensual indulgences. (Compare Wachsmuth, ad Athen., 2, 2, p. 218.) Creuzer (Symbolik, vol. 4, p. 22) sees in the name Circe (Kipkm) an allusion to some magic ring, since Kipkoç is the Doric form for spikoç, “a ring.” (Greg. Corinth., § 165.-Koen, ad loc.) J. C. Wolf (Mul. Graec., &c., fragm. 312) is in favour of another explanation, in support of which he cites Bochart (Geogr. Sacr., 1, 33) and Fabricius (Bibl. Grac., vol. 13, p. 120). The historians from whom Diodorus Siculus (2,106) derived his information, represent the knowledge of Circe and Medea as purely natural, and relating particularly to the efficacy of poisons and remedies. Hence, also, drugs which produced mental stupefaction, without impairing the physical powers, are thought by some to have given rise, in this and other cases, to the accounts of men being transformed into brutes. (Salverte, des Sciences Occultes, &c.—Foreign Quarterly Reniew, No. 12, p. 427 and 444.) Porphyry thought the meaning of the fable relative to Circe was this, that impure souls passed after death into the bodies of brutes, a doctrine taught by the school of Pythagoras. (Compare Heeren, ad Stob. Ecl. Phys. et Eth., 1, 52, vol. 1, p. 1047.) Circius, a violent wind blowing in the southern parts of Gaul, along the coast of the Mediterranean. Its fury was so great, that it carried off the roofs of dwellings, overthrew armed men, riders, and even loaded wagons. (Cato, Orig., lib. 3, ap. Aul. Gell., 2, 22.) It blew from the northwest. Its Gallic name was Kirk, i. e., “the impetuous” or “destructive.” In Armoric, kirk means impetuosity, and also a hurricane.

(Compare Adelung, Mithradates, vol. 2, p. 53.-Cam

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long-circular building, erected for exhibiting shows and games. The most ancient and celebrated of these structures, of which there were many in the Roman capital, was the Circus Maximus. It was built by Tarquinius Priscus, and afterward, at different times, magnificently adorned. This structure lay between the Palatine and Aventine hills. Its length was three stadia (21874 feet), and the breadth a little over one stadium, with rows of seats all around, rising one above another. The lowest of these seats were of stone, and the o: of wood, and separate places were allotted to the senators and equites. It is said to have contained at least 150,000 persons, or, according to others, above double that number; according to Pliny, 250,000; some moderns say 380,000. Its circumference was one mile. It was surrounded with a ditch or canal, called Euripus, 10 feet broad and 10 feet deep, and with porticoes 3 stories high; both the work of Caesar. The canal served to supply it with water in naval exhibitions. For some interesting remarks on the ancient Circi in general, consult the work of Burgess (Description of the Circus on the Via Appia, near Rome, &c., Lond, 1828, 12mo). CIRRhA, a town of Phocis, at the head of the Crissaan Gulf. It served as the harbour of Delphi, and was situated close to the mouth of the river Pleistus, which descends from Parnassus. Pausanias (10, 37) reckoned sixty stadia from the city of Delphi to Cirrha. This writer, however, seems to have confounded the town of which we are here speaking with Crissa, a city that had ceased to exist in his time, but which formerly stood more inland, between Cirrha and Delphi. Strabo (418), who clearly distinguishes them, informs us that Cirrha was situate on the sea, and opposite to Sicyon; and that the distance thence to Delphi was eighty stadia. The Cirrhean plain and port, says AEschines (in Ctes., p. 69.—Compare Pausan., 10, 38), which are now accursed, were formerly inhabited by the Cirrhaei and Acragallidae, a nefarious race, who violated the sanctity of the temple of Delphi, and ransacked its treasures. The oracle, on being consulted by the Amphictyons, declared that a war of extermination was to be carried on against these offenders, and that their land was never thereafter to be placed in a state of cultivation. This decree was executed in the time of Solon, who took an active part in the expedition. The port of Cirrha was then demolished, and its territory declared accursed, according to the form prescribed by the oracle; but this edict was afterward violated by the Amphissians, who tilled the land and repaired the port. It is evident, that Cirrha still existed in the time of Pausanias, as he mentions the temples of Apollo, Diana, and Latona, as well as several statues worthy of notice. The ruins of Cirrha are pointed out by Sir William Gell, near the village of Xeno Pegadia, on a very gentle eminence on the coast, close to the many beds of the Pleistus. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 153, seqq.) Cirtha and Cirta, a city of Numidia, about 48 miles from the sea, on a branch of the river Ampsagas. It was intended as the royal residence, and being, in fact, the only city originally in the country and erected by Carthaginian workmen, it hence took the Punic name of Cartha, or “the city.” It was the residence of Syphax, Masinissa, and the other rulers of the land. When Caesar had landed in Africa, and was in great danger of being overpowered by Scipio and Juba, a certain Sittius, who had fled from Rome into Africa, and was roaming along the latter country with a predatory band, having made a sudden attack upon Cirta, took it, and compelled Juba to return and defend his kingdom. Caesar being thus relieved, when the war was over, gave Cirta as a reward to Sittius, with a part of the adjacent country. The city now changed its name to Sittianorum Colonia. In the time of the Emperor Constantine, having suffered much on account of its fidelity to that prince, he repaired and re-embellished it, giving it the name of Constantina. This name remains, with a slight variation, to the present day, and the small city built upon the ruins of the ancient capital is still called Cosantina. (Appian, Bell. Pun., 7. —Id., Bell. Numid., lll.—Id., Bell. Civ., 2, 96.Strabo, 831.-Mela, 1, 7–Plin., 5, 3.—Munnert, Georgr., vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 310, seqq.) Cisalpin a GALLIA. Vid. Gallia. CispadāNA GALLIA. Wid. Gallia. Ciss A. Wid. Susiana. Cisséïs, a patronymic given to Hecuba as daughter of Cisseus. Cisseus, I. a king of Thrace, father to Hecuba. (Virg., AEm., 7,320.)—II. A son of Melampus, killed by Æneas. (Id., 10, 317.) Cissia, a country of Asia, having Media to the north, Babylonia to the west, the Persian Gulf to the south, and Persia to the southeast. Its capital was Susa. In Cissia was Ardericca, where Darius settled those of the Eretrians whom his naval commanders had brought to him as prisoners in obedience to his command. (Wid. Ardericca and Eretria.) Susiana is frequently confounded with Cissia. The former was merely a part of the latter, and was properly the territory adjacent to the city of Susa. (Larcher, Hist. d'Herod.—Table Géographique, vol. 8, p. 133.) Cissus, a town of Macedonia, in the vicinity of Thessalonica, which contributed, as Strabo asserts (Epit. 7, p. 330), to the aggrandizement of that city. The modern name is said to be Cismé. (French Strabo, vol. 3, p. 126.) Xenophon also speaks of a Mount Cissus, which was probably in this direction. (Cyneg., c. 11, 1.) CithaeroN, I. a king of Plataea in Boeotia, remarkable for his wisdom. By his advice, Jupiter pretended to be contracting a second marriage, when Juno had quarrelled with and left him. The scheme succeeded, and the goddess became reconciled to her spouse. (Pausan., 9, 3.) This monarch is said to have given name to the well-known mountain-range in Boeotia. (Pausan., 9, 1.)—II. An elevated ridge of mountains, dividing Boeotia first from Megaris, and afterward from Attica, and finally uniting with Mount Parnes and other summits which belong to the northeastern side of that province. (Strabo, 405.) It was dedicated, as Pausanias affirms (9, 2), to Jupiter Cithaeronius, and was celebrated in antiquity as having been the scene of many events recorded by poets and other writers. Such were the metamorphosis of Actaeon, the death of Pentheus, and the exposure of OEdipus. Here also Bacchus was said to hold his revels and celebrate his mystic orgies, accompanied by his usual train of satyrs and frantic Bacchantes. (Eurip., Bacchae, 1381– Soph., OEd. Tyr., 1451–1d. bid., 1391—Eurip., Phaen., 809.) We know from Thucydides (2, 75), that this mountain was once supplied with forest timber, as the Peloponnesians are said to have derived from thence the supply they required for carrying on the siege of Plataea. But Dodwell says, “it is now shrouded by deep gloom and dreary desolation,” and elsewhere he remarks, “it is barren, or covered only with dark stunted shrubs; towards the summit, however, it is crowned with forests of fir, from which it derives its modern name of Elatea, the modern Greek term for the fir-tree being, like the ancient, #24rn.” (Travels, vol. 1, p. 281.-Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 218, seqq.) Citium, one of the most ancient cities of Cyprus, on the southern shores of the island, northeast of Amathus. Josephus says it was built by Chittim, the son of Javan. (Ant. Jud., 1, 7–Compare Epiphan., Haer., 1, 30.-Hieron. in Jes., 5, 23.) It was the birthplace of the celebrated Zeno; and Diogenes Laertius, in his life of that philosopher, reports, that this town had been colonized by the Phoenicians, a circum

stance which is confirmed by Cicero (de Fin, 4, 20) and Suidas (s. v. Zīvov). Citium was besieged, at the close of the Persian war, by the Athenian sorces under the command of Cimon. (Thucyd., 1, 112.) According to Diodorus Siculus (12, 3), the place surrendered; but it was the last exploit of that distinguish

ed general, for he was soon after taken ill, and died

on board his ship in the harbour. (Plut. et Corn. Nep, wit. Cim.) Citium was a bishopric under the Byzantine empire. The place still retains the name of Chiti. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 379, seq.) Cius, I. a river of Thrace, rising in the northwestern part of the chain of Mount Rhodope, and falling into the Ister. It is now the Esker. D'Anville calls the river Ceseus.-II. A river and town of Bithynia. The town was destroyed by Philip, father of Perses, and rebuilt by Prusias, who called it, after his own name, Prusias. (Wid. Prusias.) Civilis, a powerful Batavian, who raised a sedition against the Roman power during the controversy for empire between Vitellius and Vespasian. Tacitus has furnished us with interesting and copious details of this long-protracted conflict. (Tacit., Hist., 4, 13– ld. ib., 5, 14, &c.) CLANIs, a river of Etruria, now la Chiana, rising near Arretium, and falling into the Tiber northeast of Wulsinii. It may be seen from Tacitus that a project was once agitated for causing its waters, which formed large marshes near Clusium, to discharge themselves into the Arnus. (Tacit., Ann., 1,79.)—II (or Clanius), a river of Campania, falling into the sea near Liternum. It rises in the Apennines near Nola, and flows at no great distance from Acerrae. The modern name is Lagno. By some writers the ancient name is given as Liternus. (Strabo, 243–Lip., 32, 29.) This stream is apt to stagnate near its entrance into the sea, and to form marshes, anciently known as the Palus Literna, now Lago di Patria. The appellation Clanius is evidently derived from the Etrurian Clanis. (Muller, Etrusker, vol. 1, p. 146, in not.) Pliny names them both Glanis. (Plin., 3, 9.) CLAros, a city of Ionia, northeast of Colophon and southeast of Lebedus. It was famous for its temple, 5. and oracle of Apollo. This celebrated seat of ivination is supposed to have been discovered soon after the siege of Troy, and the poets relate many tales with regard to a contention in prophetic skill which took place here between Calchas and Mopsus, and which ended in the defeat and death of the former. (Vid. Calchas.) Tacitus gives an account of the visit paid by Germanicus to this oracle. (Ann., 2, 54.) The priesthood was confined to certain families, principally of Miletus. The number and names of those who came to consult the oracle were announced to the seer, who, having descended into the cave and drunk of the spring, revealed in verse to each his most secret thoughts. On this occasion it is said that a speedy death was announced to Germanicus. The oracle continued to flourish in the time of Pliny (5,29), and as late as the reign of Constantine. Considerable vestiges are still to be seen at Zille, which occupies the site of the ancient Claros. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 359, seq.) Clastinium, a town of Liguria, northeast of Dertona, now Chiasteggio. It was celebrated as the spot where Claudius Marcellus gained the spolia opima, by vanquishing and slaying Viridomarus, king of the Go: sata. (Polybius, 2, 34.—Plut., Vit. Marcell–Wal: Mar., 1, 1.) Clastidium was betrayed to Hannibal after the battle of Ticinum, with considerable magazines which the Romans had laid up there, and it formed the chief depôt of the Carthaginian army while encamped on the Trebia. (Polyb, 3,69–Lin., 21,48. —Cic., Tusc. Disp., 4, 22.) It was afterward burned by the Romans in a war with the Ligurians. (Lit., 32, 29, and 31.)

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