Obrazy na stronie

succeeding poets, after whom Ovid has related it (Met, 5, 341.—Id., Fast., 4, 417, seq.). Claudian also has sung it in a poem, of which, unfortunately, a portion is lost.—Proserpina, according to the author of the Homeric hymn, was in the Nysian plain with the oceannymphs. gathering flowers. According to some accounts, Venus, Minerva, and Diana were the companions of their sister on this occasion. (Hygin., fab., 146.-Claudian, Rapt. Pros., 2, 11, seqq.—Stat., Achill., 2, 150.) Others gave her the sirens as her attendants. (Apoll. Rh., 4, 896.) She plucked the rose, the violet, the crocus, the hyacinth, when she beheld a narcissus of surprising size and beauty, having a hundred flowers growing from a single root. Unconscious of danger, the maiden stretched forth her hand to seize the wondrous flower, when suddenly the wide earth gaped, Pluto arose in his golden chariot, and, seizing the terrified goddess, carried her off shrieking for aid, but unheard and unseen by gods or mortals save by Hecate, the daughter of Perses, who heard her as she sat in her cave, and by King Helius (the sun), whose eye nothing on earth escapes. So long as the goddess beheld the earth and starry heavens, the fishy sea, and the beams of the sun, so long she hoped to see her mother and the tribes of the gods; and the tops of the mountains and the depths of the sea resounded with her divine voice. At length her mother heard, and, frantic with grief, inquired for tidings of her lost daughter; but neither gods, nor men, nor birds, could give her intelligence. Nine days she wandered over the earth, with flaming torches in her hands; on the tenth Hecate met her, but could not tell who it was that had carried off Proserpina. Together they proceeded to Helius, and the Sun-god tells Ceres that the ravisher is Pluto, who, by the permission of her sire, had carried her away to be his queen. Incensed at the conduct of Jupiter, Ceres thereupon abandoned the society of the gods and came down among men. But now she was heedless of her person, and no one recognised her. Under the guise of an aged female, she came to Eleusis, and was employed, as a nurse for her insant son Demophoön, by Metanira the wife of Celeus, monarch of the place. Beneath the care of the goddess the child “throve like a god.” He ate no food, but Ceres breathed on him as he lay in her bosom, and anointed him with ambrosia, and every night hid him beneath the fire, unknown to his parents, who marvelled at his growth. It was the design of Ceres to make him immortal, but the curiosity and folly of Metanira deprived him of the intended gift. She watched one night, and, seeing what the nurse was doing to her child, shrieked with affright and horror. The goddess threw the insant on the ground, declaring what he had lost by the inconsiderateness of his mother, but announcing that he would still become a great and honoured man. She then disclosed her real character, and directed the people of Eleusis to raise an altar and temple to her without the city, on the hill Callichorus. The temple, was speedily raised, and the mourning goddess took up her abode in it, but a dismal year came upon mankind; the earth yielded no produce; in vain the oxen drew the pleugh in the field; in vain the seed was cast into the ground, for Ceres would allow of no increase. Jove at length sent Iris to Eleusis to invite Ceres back to Olympus, but she would not comply with the call. All the other gods were sent on the same errand, but with as little success. Finding that there was no other remedy, and that the goddess would not allow the earth to bring forth until she had seen her daughter, Jupiter sent Mercury to Erebus to endeavour to prevail on Pluto to suffer Proserpina to return to the light. The monarch of the lower world yielded compliance, and, kindly addressing Proserpina, granted her permission to return to her mother. The goddess instantly sprang

up with joy, and heedlessly swallowed a grain of pomegranate which he presented to her. Mercury conducted his fair charge safe to Eleusis, and delivered her into the hands of Ceres. When their joy had a little subsided, Ceres anxiously inquired of her daughter if she had tasted anything while below; for if she had not she would be free to spend her whole time with her father and mother ; whereas, if but one morsel had passed her lips, nothing could save her from passing one third cf the year with her husband ; she should, however, pass the other two with her and the gods. Proserpina ingenuously confessed the swallowing of the grain of pomegranate, and then relates unto her mother the whole story of her abduction. They pass the day in delightful converse. Hecate arrives to congratulate Proserpina, and henceforward becomes her attendant. Jove sends Rhea to invite them back to heaven. Ceres now complies, and fertility once more prevailed over the earth. Ceres thereupon taught “Triptolemus, horse-lashing Diocles, the mighty Eumolpus, and Celeus, leader of the people,” the mode of performing her sacred rites; and the goddess, after this, returned to Olympus.-Such is, in all probability, the oldest account of this celebrated event. In progress of time it underwent various alterations; the scene was, as usual, changed, and circumstances also were added or modified. In the beautiful versions of it given by the Latin poets, the scene is transferred to the grove and lake in the neighbourhood of Enna in Sicily, the nymph Arethusa gives intelligence of the ravisher, the torches of Ceres are lighted from AEtna, and Ascalaphus tells of Proserpina's having plucked a pomegranate in the garden of Pluto, and having put seven of the seeds in her mouth. In this as in other legends, the fancy of poets, and vanity of the inhabitants of different places, have taken abundance of liberties with the ancient tale.—The meaning of the whole fable is evident enough. Proserpina signifies the seed-corn, which, when cast into the ground, lies there concealed; that is, she is carried off by the god of the lower world; it re-appears; that is, Proserpina is restored to her mother, and she abides with her two thirds of the year. As, however, the seed-corn is not a third part of the year in the ground, it is probable that by the space of time which Proserpina was to spend with the god in the invisible state, was intended to be expressed the period between the sowing of the seed and the appearance of the ear, during which the corn is away; and which space of time in some species of grain, barley for instance, is about four months. The vanity of the people of the hungry soil of Attica made them pretend, that corn was first known, and agriculture first practised, in their country. They fabled, that the goddess gave to Triptolemus (Thrice-plougher), who occupies the place of Demophoön in the foregoing legend, her chariot drawn by dragons, in which he flew through the air, distributing corn to the different regions of the earth. (Callim., H. in Cer., 22.—Pausan., 1, 14, 2.-Ovid, Met., 5, 654.—Hygin., fab., 147.)—Ceres, though of a gentle disposition in general, partook of the usual revengeful character of the ods, as may be seen by the legends of Stellio and £on. (Wid. Stellio and Erysichthon.)—The chief seats of the worship of Ceres and Proserpina were Attica, Arcadia (vid. Oncaeum), and the fertile isle of Sicily, which was given by Jupiter to his daughter on her day of unveiling, that is, on her marriage; as was also Thebes, according to the poet Euphorion. (Schol. ad Eurip., Phoen., 693.—Muller, Orchom, p. 217.) The form of Ceres is copied from that of Juno. She has the same majestic stature and matronly air, but of a milder character. Her usual symbol are oppies, which sometimes compose a garland for her . sometimes are held in her hand. She is frequently represented holding a torch, significant of her

search after Proserpina. At times she appears in her chariot drawn by dragons. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 170, seqq.)—The Latin name Ceres is in reality of the same force with the Greek appellation DeMeter (Amuntmp, i.e., us/tmp), the Roman C being originally the same letter, both in figure and power, as the Greek T, which was often employed as a mere guttural aspirate, especially in the old AEolic dialect, from which the Latin is principally derived. (Compare Knight on the Greek Alphabet, p. 4, seqq.) The hissing termination, too, in the S, belonged to the same : wherefore the word, which the Attics and Ionians wrote EPA, EPE, or HPH, would naturally be written TEPEX by the old AEolics; the Greeks always accommodating their orthography to their pronunciation; and not, like the English and French, encumbering their words with a number of useless letters. Ceres, however, was not a personification of the brute matter which composed the earth, but of the passive productive principle supposed to pervade it (Orid, Fast, 1, 673.— Virg, Georg., 2, 324); which, joined to the active, was held to be the cause of the organization and animation of its substance; from whence arose her other Greek hame AHQ, “the inventress.” She is mentioned by yo. (loc. cit.) as the wife of the omnipotent Father, Æther or Jupiter, and therefore the same as Juno; who is usually honoured with that title, and whose Greek name HPH signifies, as before observed, precisely the same. (Plutarch, ap. Euseb., Prap. Evang., 3, 1.) The Latin name Juno is derived from the Greek AIQNH, the female Zeus or Ais; the Etruscan, through which the Latin received much of its orthography, having no D or O in its alphabet. The ancient Germans worshipped the same goddess under the name of Hertha, the form and meaning of which still remain in our word Earth. The Greek title seems originally to have had a more general signification; for without the aspirate (which was anciently added and omitted almost arbitrarily) it becomes EPE; and by an abbreviation very common in the Greek tongue, PE, or PEE; which, pronounced with the broad termination of some dialects, become PEA ; and with the hissing one of others, PEX or RES; a word retained in the Latin, signifying properly matter, and figuratively every quality and modification that can belong to it. The Greek has no word of such comprehensive meaning; the old general term being in the refinement of their language rendered more specific, and appropriated to that principal mass of matter which forms the terraqueous globe, and which the Latins also expressed by the same word united to the Greek article to pa—TERRA. (Knight, Inquiry, &c., § 35, seqq.—Class. Journ., vol. 23, p. 228, and vol. 25, p. 39–SainteCroix, Mystères du Paganisme, vol. 1, p. 159.) Ceri Nrhus, a town of Euboea, in the vicinity of Histiaea, and near a small river called Budorus. The name of Geronda, attached to a hamlet on the western coast, seems to recall that of Cerinthus. (Scymn., Ch., 574.—Plut., Quast. Gr.—Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 187.) CERNE, an island without the pillars of Hercules, on the African coast, mentioned by Hanno in his Periplus, as it is usually though incorrectly termed. Here he established a colony, and it was always the depôt of the Carthaginians on the Atlantic coast of Africa. Hanno says that it was the same distance from the Columns of Hercules that Carthage was. According to Rennell, the island of Cerne is the modern Arguin. Gussellin, however, makes this island to be the modern Fedala. (Wid, the account of Hanno's voyage under the article Africa.) Ceretini, a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, at the foot of the Pyrenees, and to the east of the Wascones. Pliny divides them into the Ceretani Augustani (so named from Augustus having enlarged their

territory), and the Ceretani Juliani, who possessed the Jus Latii. Their country answers to the district of Cerdagne in Catalonia. (Plin., 3, 3–Petr. de Marca, 1, 12.) CestriNE, a district of Epirus, separated fro Thesprotia by the river Thyamis. It was said to have taken its name from Cestrinus, the son of Helenus, having previously borne the appellation of Cammania. It is now called Philates. (Pausan., 1, 11. —Steph. Byz., s. v. Kaunavia.-Thucyd., 1, 46.) Cethegus, I. a Roman consul, A.U.C. 421. He was obliged to lay down his office on account of some informality in his election.—II. M. Cornelius, a distinguished Roman orator. Being sent as praetor to Sicily, he quelled a sedition of the soldiers in that island. He was called to the censorship before he had been consul, a thing not in accordance with Roman usage, and obtained this latter office six years subsequently, B.C. 204. He carried on the war against the Carthaginians in Etruria, and defeated Mago, who was coming with succours for Hannibal. (Liv., 27, 11.Id., 30, 18.)—III. C. Cornelius, proconsul in Spain, A.U.C. 552, defeated a numerous army of the Sedetani. Being elected consul, A.U.C. 557, he gained a great victory over the Insubres, and on his return to Rome obtained the honours of a triumph. The people having afterward chosen him censor, he assigned distinct places to the senators at the public games. (Liv., 31, 49.-Id., 32, 30.—Id., 35, 9.)—IV. C. Cornelius, a Roman rendered powerful by his influence with Marius. He himself was wholly govermed by a female named Praecia, who obtained for Lucullus the government of Cilicia. (Plut., Wit. Lucull.)—W. C. Cornelius, a Roman of the most corrupt and abandoned character, and one of the accomplices of Catiline. He was strangled in prison by order of the senate. (Sall., Bell. Cat.) Ceto, a daughter of Pontus and Terra, who married Phorcys, by whom she had the three Gorgons, the Graeae, Echidna, and the serpent that watched the golden apples. (Hesiod, Theog., 270.) CAEus, an incorrect form for Coeus or Coios. (Wid. Coeus.) CEyx, a king of Trachinia, and husband of Alcyone. He was drowned as he went to consult the oracle of Claros; and his wife, having been apprized of his fate in a dream, found his corpse on the shore. They were both changed into Halcyons. (Wid. Alcyone.) ChabóRAs, a river of Mesopotamia, springing, according to Ptolemy, from Mount Masius, a little to the west of Nisibis, but, according to other authorities, a little east of Charra. These last are followed by D'Anville. It fell into the Euphrates near the town of Circesium. Its modern name is the Khabour. In the Anabasis of Xenophon (1, 4, 19–Compare Ind. Nom. to the edition of Zeune), it is called the Araxes, which appears to be an appellative term, as we find it applied to many other rivers in antiquity. The Chaboras is called by Strabo (747) the Abborras; by Zosimus (3, 13) the Abūras. (Compare Amm. Marcell., 14, 1, and 23, 5–Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, p. 268, seqq.) **i. a celebrated Athenian general, at first a disciple of Plato's, who distinguished himself in the military movements of Athens during the fourth century before our era, after the termination of the Peloponnesian war. One of his first exploits was the aiding of Evagoras, king of Salamis, in the island of Cyprus, against the Persian arms. He was after this sent to the aid of the Boeotians, who had been attacked by Agesilaus, and he disconcerted the Spartan general by a manoeuvre hitherto unknown to the Greeks. His army, on this occasion, being hard pressed by the foe, who had already become sure of victory, Chabrias ordered his soldiers to plant one knee “..." ground, and rest their spears firmly on the other, covering their persons at the same time with their shields. Agesilaus, not daring to attack them in this position, drew back his sorces into camp. A statue was erected to Chabrias in honour of this exploit, and he was represented in the posture just described. Some of the learned of modern times think that they recognise this statue in that of the “Gladiator.” Chabrias afterward defeated near Naxos the fleet of the Lacedaemonians, and thus restored to Athens the control of the sea, which she had lost since the battle of AEgos Potamos. Subsequently to this he was accused of treason for having allowed Oropus to be surprised by the Theban exiles, but was acquitted notwithstanding the powerful efforts of his foes, and particularly of Callistratus. Finding a stay at Athens rather unsafe, he accepted the offer of Tachus, king of Egypt, who already had Agesilaus in his service, and accepted the command of his naval forces. Tachus, however, having been abandoned by Agesilaus, who sided with his son Nectanebis, Chabrias returned to Athens, and he was then sent into Thrace to take charge of the war against Chersobleptes. His operations, however, were not very successful in this quarter, owing to the disorganized state of the Greclan forces, in consequence of the sailure of their pay. Not long after this the social war, as it has been termed, broke out between the Athenians on the one side, and the Byzantines, together with the inhabitants of Chios, Rhodes, and Cos, on the other. The Athenians gave the command of their forces to Chares, and Chabrias went with him as second in authority, having charge of the fleet according to Diodorus Siculus, but, as Nepos informs us, in the character of a simple volunteer. They proceeded to attack Chios; and Chares, wishing to make an onset by both sea and land, gave the command of his ships to Chabrias. The latter succeeded in forcing an entrance into the harbour, but, not being followed by the remainder of the squadron, he was surrounded by the vessels of the enemy, and fell bravely defending his ship, although he might have escaped had he felt inclined. Great honours were paid to his memory at Athens. Demosthenes says, that he took in the course of his life seventeen cities and seventy vessels; that he made three thousand prisoners, and brought one hundred and ten talents into the public treasury; that he erected also many trophies, but his foes not a single one for any victory over him. He adds, that the Athenians, during the whole time Chabrias was commander, never lost a single city, a single fortress, a single vessel, or even a single soldier. In this, no doubt, there is great exaggeration; still, however, he appears to have been a very able general, and one that would have equalled all who went before him, had he lived in more favourable times. Plutarch says, that Chabrias, though at other times scarcely anything could move him, was in the moment of action impetuously vehement, and exposed his person with a boldness ungoverned by discretion. We have his life by Cornelius Nepos, but it is a very meager one. Xenophon, in his Greek history, might have given us more details respecting him ; but the partiality of this writer for Sparta prevented him from saying much in favour of the Athenian commander. (Corn. Nep. in Wit.—Perizon. ad AEl., W. H., 5, 1.—Diod. Suc., 15, 32, seqq.—Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 1, 10, seqq.—Demosth., adv. Leptin., 17, &c.) ChaeremoN, I. a tragic poet of Athens, who flourished about 338 B.C. The earliest testimony, perhaps, in relation to this poet, is the mention made of him by the comic writer Eubulus. (Athenæus, 2, p. 43, c.—Compare Aristot., Poet, 2, 25.—Id., Rhet., 2, 23, et 29.-Theophrast., Hist. Plant., 5, 9, 5.Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, 2d ed., p. xxxii.)—II. A philosopher and historian of Alexandrea. He accom

panied Ælius Gallus in his journey through Egypt, and was subsequently appointed librarian to the Serapeum. Being afterward called to Rome to preside over the education of Nero, he shared this office with Alexander of AEgae the peripatetic. His historical labours embraced the antiquities of Egypt, both sacred and profane. He wrote also a work on Hieroglyphics, which has unfortunately perished. He is the author, also, of one of the two systems relating to the Egyptian religion, which divided the opinions of the ancient world. According to him, this religion was nothing more than a species of sacred physics, in which the visible worlds (Uptopuevot kócuou) played a principal part. Iamblichus, on the other hand, maintained, that the Egyptians acknowledged one supreme and absolute intelligence. Perhaps both these philosophers were right: they may have spoken of different epochs.(Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 177, seqq.—Crcuzer, Symbolik, vol. 1, p. 383.) Ch. Eronio A, a city of Boeotia, to the northeast of Lebadasa. It was about sixteen English miles from Elatea, twenty-seven from Thebes, and sixty-two from Athens (Clinton's Fasti Hellenci, 2d ed., p. 295, in notis), and was remarkable for the important military events which occurred in its territory, and also as being the birthplace of Plutarch. Pausanias is inclined to look upon this city as the Baeotian Arne mentioned by Homer (Il., 2, 507–Pausan., 9,40). According to some traditions, however, Arne and Midea had both been swallowed up by the waters of the Copaic Lake; but others considered the town of Acraephium as the Arne of the poet. (Strabo, 413.) Pausanias reports, on the authority of Hesiod, that the name of Chaeronea was derived from Chaeron, the son of Apollo. It was memorable for the defeat of the Athenians by the Boeotians, B.C. 447, and much more for their irretrievable defeat by Philip, B.C. 338. (Plut., Vit. Demosth., c. 24. – Strabo, 414.) Pausanias observes, that no trophy was erected by Philip after this signal victory, as it was not the practice of the Macedonian kings. Several years after this place witnessed another bloody engagement, between the Romans, under the conduct of Sylla, and the troops of Mithradates, commanded by Taxiles and Archelaus, B.C. 86. Chaeronea is now called Kaprena, and is still a populous village, with many vestiges of the ancient town. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 241, seqq.—Dodwell's Tour, vol. 1, p. 220–Gell, Itin., p. 221.) Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia, situate at the southern extremity of the Thracian Bosporus, nearly opposite to Byzantium or Constantinople. It was founded by a colony from Megara, about seventeen years prior to the settling of Byzantium. Chalcedon was called by the Persian satrap Megabyzus, in derision, the city of the blind, because the inhabitants had overlooked the superior position on the opposite side of the straits, where Byzantium was subsequently founded. (Herodot., 4, 144.) Strabo, however, ascribes this remark to an oracle of Apollo, which was received by the founders of Byzantium, and by which they were directed to select a spot for a city “opposite the blind” (àrevavriov táv rvøAdv.—Strab., 320). But, whichever be the true account, one thing is very certain, that the imputation attempted to be cast upon the Chalcedonians was any other than just. When Chalcedon was founded, the commerce of Megara had not extended to the Euxine, and it would have been idle, therefore, to found a city, at that period, on the European side of the Bosporus, along which a steady current sets down from the Euxine Sea. It was only when traffic had spread to the shores of the Euxine, that the site occupied at present by Constantinople became an important one; since the vessels from that sea would then be carried down directly by the current into the harbour of the last-mentioned city.

(Mannert, Geogr., vol. 7, p. 155.) Chalcedon was always a considerable place. It preserved its independence until the reign of Darius, to whose arms the Chalcedonians were forced to submit. They recovered their freedom, however, after the defeat of Xerxes, and became the allies, or, rather, tributaries of the Athenians, to whom the ports of the Bosporus were an object of the highest commercial and financial importance. After the battle of AEgos Potamos, however, Chalcedon opened its gates to Lysander, whose first object seems to have been to secure the entrance of the Bosporus by the possession of this city and Byzantium. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 2, 2, 1.) Theopompus, who is quoted by Athenaeus, observes, that the Chalcedonians at first possessed good institutions, but, having been tainted by the democratic principles of their neighbours, the Byzantines, they became luxurious and debauched. (Athen., 12, p. 526, f.) This city is also celebrated in ecclesiastical history for the council held there against the Eutychian heresy (A.D. 451). Hierocles assigns to it the first rank among the cities of the province then called Pontica Prima (p. 690).—It is to be observed, that in writing the name of this city ancient authors have not been uniform, some giving Kažxmóðv, others XaAExmóðv. The former mode is, however, much more frequent, and it is confirmed by the existing coins, the epigraph of which is invariably KAAXAAONI$2N, according to the Doric form. (Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet., p. 1, vol. 1, p. 410.)—The site of this ancient city is now occupied by the Turkish village of Kadıkeri, but the Greeks still preserve the classical name. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 190.—Mannert, Geogr., l. c. —Walpole, Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 8, Append., n. 41.) Chalcidice, I. a district of Macedonia, between the Sinus Thermaicus and Strymonicus. The lower part of it formed three peninsulas, Phlegra or Pallene, Sithonia, and Athos. The small town of Chalcis gave name to this district.—II. Another in Syria, adjacent to the town of Chalcis. (Vid. Chalcis W.) Chalcidicus (Chalcidian), an epithet applied to Cumae in Italy, as built by a colony from Chalcis in Euboea. (Virg., AEno, 6, 17.) Chalcioecus, an epithet applied to Minerva at Sparta, from her having a brazen temple (4a2Roşç oixos). Sir W. Gell, in his account of the Treasury at Argos, gives a reasonable explication of this seemingly strange term. He discovered in the interior of the Treasury, which still remains in a great degree entire, a number of brass nails, placed throughout at regular intervals on the walls, and these he supposes were originally used for securing plates of the same metal to the wall; and hence the seeming fables of brazen chambers and brazen temples. In a similar manner may be explained the account, given by the ancients, of the brazen vessel made by Eurystheus, and into which he retired whenever Hercules returned from his labours. (Gell's Argolis, p. 33.) Chalcis, I. the most celebrated and important city of Euboea, situate on the narrowest part of the Euripus. According to the common account, it was founded after the seige of Troy by an Ionian colony from Athens, under the conduct of Cothus. (Strabo, 447.) Other authorities, however, have assigned to it a much greater antiquity, and it is certain that Homer speaks of Chalcis as already existing before the event above mentioned. (Il., 2, 537.) The flourishing condition of this great Ionian city, at a very early period, is attested by its numerous colonies on the shores of Italy and Sicily, as well as on the Thracian coast around Pallene and Mount Athos. Aristotle, as Strabo reports, dated these establishments from the period when the government of Chalcis, through the influence of the wealthiest inhabitants, named Hippobota, became a pure aristocracy. From Herodotus (5, 77) we learn, that the Chalcidians, having joined

the Boeotians in their depredations on the coast of Attica, soon after the expulsion of the Pisistratidae, afforded the Athenians just grounds for reprisals. They accordingly crossed over into Euboea with a large force, and, after defeating the Chalcidians, occupied the lands of the wealthiest inhabitants, and distributed among them 4000 of their own citizens. These, however, were obliged to evacuate the island on the arrival of the Persian fleet under Datis and Artaphernes. (Herod., 6, 100.) The Chalcidians, after the termination of the Persian war, became again dependent on Athens with the rest of Euboea, and did not regain their liberty till the close of the Peloponnesian war, when they asserted their freedom, and, aided by the Boeotians, fortified the Euripus and established a communication with the continent by throwing a wooden bridge across the channel. Towers were placed at each extremity, and room was left in the middle for one ship only to pass. This work was undertaken, according to Diodorus, 410 B.C. (Diod. Suc., 13, 47.) From the advantages of its situation and the strength of its works, Chalcis was considered, in the latter period of the history of Greece, as one of the most important fortresses of that country; hence we find it a frequent object of contention between the Romans and Philip, son of Demetrius, who termed it one of the chains of Greece. (Polyb., 17, 11.-1d., 18, 28.) In the war with Perses, the Chalcidians were cruelly oppressed and plundered by the Roman praetors Lucretius and Hortensius. (Liry, 43, 7.) They were subsequently treated with still greater severity by Mummius, the destroyer of Corinth, for having favoured the Achaeans in their contest with Rome; and the epitomist of Livy asserts that their town was actually destroyed. (Liv., 52–Compare Freinsh., Suppl., 19.) Pausanias informs us that Chalcis no longer existed in his day (5, 23.− Compare Steph. Byz., s. v. XaAkic.—Hierocles, p. 645). Procopius names it among the towns restored by Justinian (4, 3). In the middle ages it assumed the name of Euripus (Apospasm., Geogr., vol. 4, p. 42, Geogr. Min., ed Hudson), which was in process of time corrupted to Negropont, the modern appellation of the whole island, as well as that of its capital. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 134.)—II. A town of Ætolia, at the foot of Mount Chalcis, and on the right bank of the Evenus. It was sometimes called Hypochalcis, with reference to its situation at the base of the mountain, and is now represented by the modern village of Galata. Thucydides (2, 83) places it near the mouth of the Evenus. Livy says it stood on the road from Naupactus to Lysimachia and Stratus (36, 11). Polybius calls it Chalcia, and speaks of it as a maritime town (5, 94).-III. A small maritime town of the Corinthians, situated towards Sicyon. (Thucyd., 1, 108.)—IV. A city of Macedonia, in the district of Chalcidice, to which it gave name. It was sounded at an early period by a colony from Chalcis in Euboea.—W. A city of Syria, capital of the district of Chalcidice, and of Grecian origin, having been settled by the Macedonians. It was superseded afterward by Chaleb or Beroea. It is represented by the modern Kinnesrin or Chinservn. (Appian, Bell. Syr., 20.-Joseph., Bell. Jud., 20, 3.) ChaldAEA, a country of Asia, at the head of the Persian Gulf, and south of Babylonia. Some writers, however, make Babylonia a part of it. With respect to the origin of the Chaldaans, who are called in scripture Chasdum, various opinions have been entertained. Michaelis considers them as a foreign race in Assyria. His chief reason for this opinion is founded on the names of Chaldaean and Babylonian kings preserved in scripture, and by Ptolemy and Syncellus, which differ from the Assyrian names, and bear an apparent resemblance to those of some northern nations of Sla vonic origin. Thus Nebucadnezzar wo be in Sla 3.

vonic, Nebu-godnoi-tzar, i.e., a prince worthy of heaven. Belshazzar would be equivalent to Bolshoi-tzar, i.e., a great prince; and so of others. It has been objected to this, that the word Czar in Slavonic is nothing more than a corruption of Caesar, an opinion hardly worth refuting. The orthography of the Russian term tsar sufficiently disproves such an idea. Compare the Hebrew sar; the Arabic sary; the Sanscrit shera ; the English sire. So also we have in the arrow-headed inscriptions of Persepolis, as interpreted by Lassen, the form ksahiah for “king.” (Lassen, Altpersischen Kell-Inschristen, &c., p. 141. —Compare Michaelis, Spicileg. Geogr., Heb. ext., vol. 2, p. 77, seqq.)—The Chaldaeans appear to have been originally a mountaineer-race from the northern parts of Mesopotamia, though not, as Michaelis supposes, of foreign extraction, but in reality a branch of the Semitic race. (Compare Adelung, Mithradates, vol. 1, p. 517–Fürst, Chald. Gram., p. 5, seqq.— Compare still farther, in relation to the Chaldee tongue, the remarks of Saint-Martin, as cited by Balbi, Introduction a l'Atlas Ethnographique, p. 106, and, as regards the pretended antiquity of the Chaldee empire, consult Cupier, on the Revolutions of the Surface of the Globe, p. 127, seqq., Eng. transl., 1829, and Drummond's Origines, vol. 1, p. 13, seqq.) The Chaldaeans are highly commended in many of the ancient writers for their skill in the sciences, especially in astronomy. If we are to believe Diodorus, how. ever, their claims to this high character were very slight. They seem to have pursued the study of astronomy no farther than as it might tend to aid their astrological researches. They taught that the shape of the earth was that of a skiff or small boat, and of eclipses of the sun they knew but little, and never ventured to predict them, or fix the time of their occurring. So says Diodorus. (Diod. Sic., 2, 31.— Compare, however, in relation to the science of the Chaldaeans, the remarks of Sir W. Drummond, Class. Journ., vol. 16, p. 145 and 262; vol. 17, p. 19; vol. 18, p. 1 and 298; vol. 19, p. 296.) CHALDAEI, I. the inhabitants of Chaldasa.—II. The same with the Chalybes. (Vid. Chalybes.) Chaly bes, a people of Pontus, in Asia Minor, who inhabited the whole coast from the Jasonium Promontorium to the vicinity of the river Thermodon, together with a portion of the inner country. They were celebrated in antiquity for the great iron-mines and forges which existed in their country. (Apoll. Rh., 2, 1002, seqq.—ld., 2, 374.—Virg., Georg., 1, 58-Dionys. Perieg., 768.) We are ignorant of the grounds on which the ancients attributed this active employment in the manufacture of iron to the Chalybes, for it does not appear at present that this part of Asia is at all productive of that most useful metal; perhaps, however, if the mountainous districts were accurately examined, there could be found traces of the ancient works. It is plain, however, that they had not ceased to furnish a good supply of metallic ore in Strabo's time, for he observes, that the two great articles of produce in the land of the Chalybes, who were then commonly called Chaldaei or Chaldi, were the fisheries of the pelamys and the iron-works; the latter kept in constant employment a great number of men. Strabo observes, also, that these mines formerly produced a quantity of silver; and this circumstance, together with some affinity in the names, led some commentators of Homer to identify the Alybe of that poet with the Chalybes of Pontus. (Ill., 2, 856.) Strabo himself strongly contends for this interpretation, and it is in all probability the true one. (Strabo, 549, seqq.) It is remarkable, that Herodotus names the Chalybes among the nations of Asia that were conquered by Croesus (1,28), and yet they certainly are found afterward considerably beyond the Halys, which separated his dominion from those of

Cyrus: either, therefore, they must have shifted their position, or Croesus subsequently lost what he had gained on the right bank of the Halys. Xenophon, who traversed the country of the Chalybes, speaks of them as being few in number, and subject to the Mosynoeci; he adds, that their chief employment was forging iron. But it is worthy of remark, that he places these Chalybes more to the east than other writers. (Anab., 5, 5, 2.) Zennius, therefore, is of opinion, that this people must have lived a wandering sort of life, and have often changed their territory. (Dissert. Geogr. ad Anab., p. xxvii., ed. Oron., 1809.) Xenophon, however, speaks elsewhere of some other Chalybes, who were situated apparently on the borders of Armenia, and were much more numerous and warlike. (Anab., 4, 7, 10.) Strabo reports, that the Chalybes, in his time, had changed their name to that of Chaldaei (Strab., 549), and it is remarked, that Xenophon speaks of an Armenian tribe of Chaldees, who encountered the Greeks near the river Centritis (Anah, 4, 3, 4.—Compare Eustath. ad Dion. Perieg., 768); but Menippus, in his Periplus, calls the Pontic tribe Chaldi, and their canton Chaldia. (Ap. Steph. Byz, s. v. Xaždia.-Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 273, seqq.) Chaly hon, a city of Syria, capital of the district called Chalybomitis, and the same with the Scripture Helbon. (Ezek, 27, 18.) The surrounding country was famed for its wine. (Compare Casaub, ad Athen, 2, p. 66.-Bochart, Hieroz., pt. 1, lib. 2, c. 45, p. 485.-Schleusner, Ler. W. T., s. v. Xe26&w.) Thevenot, Russel, and others make this city correspond to the modern Aleppo (Haleb). Pococke, however, is in favour of Kennesrin, to the south of Aleppo. (Wid. Beroea.) Chalybs, a river of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the country of the Celtiberi, and one of the tributaries of the Iberus. Its waters were famed for hardening steel; so that the name Chalybs was given to it from this circumstance, by either the Romans, or the Greeks, more probably the former. The modern name is the Quelles. (Justin, 44, 3.) ChaëNes, a people of Epirus. (Wid. Chaonia.) Chaânia, a region of Epirus. The ancients comprehended under the name of Chaonia that northwestern part of Epirus which bordered on the territory of Oricum, Amantia, and still more to the east on the country of the Atintanes, while it extended along the coast of the Ionian Sea from the Acroceraunian promontory to the harbour of Buthrotum, opposite the island of Corcyra. The exact limits of Chaonia cannot now be ascertained, since, even in Strabo's time, it was impossible to discern with accuracy what belonged to each of the several tribes into which the body of the nation had been divided, owing to the great political changes which that country had experienced since it became subject to the Romans. (Strabo, 322.) We must observe, however, that in the time of Thucydides, the river Thyamis bounded that southern portion of Chaonia which bore the name of Cestrine, on the side of Thesprotia. The Chaones, as we learn from Strabo, were once the most powerful and warlike people of Epirus, until the Molossi, in their turn, acquired a preponderating ascendancy over the other clans of that country. In the time of the Peloponnesian war the Chaones differed from their neighbours, in being subject to an aristocratical and not a monarchical government; their annual magistrates being always chosen from a particular family. (Thucyd., 2, 80.) Tradition ascribed the origin of their name to Chaon, the brother of Helenus who married Andromache after the death of Pyrrhus. (Virg., AEn., 3,333.—Compare the commentary of Servius, ad loc.) It may be inferred from the name of Pelasgis given to Chaonia by some ancient writers, that it

was formerly occupied by the Pelasgi. (Steph. Byz.,

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