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sonally present, till the final pacification, when Caesar, learning the designs which were forming against him at Rome, set out for Italy. Caesar, in the conclusion of the third book of the civil war, mentions the commencement of the Alexandrean. Hirtius was not o present at the succeeding events of this gyptian contest, in which Caesar was involved with the generals of Ptolemy, nor during his rapid campaigns in Pontus against Pharnaces, and against the remains of the Pompeian party in Africa, where they had assembled under Scipio, and, being supported by Juba, still presented a formidable appearance. He collected, however, the leading events from the conversation of Caesar, and the officers who were engaged in these campaigns. He has obviously imitated the style of his master; and the resemblance which he has happily attained, has given an appearance of unity and consistence to the whole series of these well-written and authentic memoirs. It appears that Hirtius carried down the history even to the death of Caesar : for in his preface addressed to Balbus, he says that he had brought down what was left imperfect from the transactions at Alexandrea to the end, not of the civil dissensions, to a termination of which there was no prospect, but of the life of Caesar. This latter part, however, of the Commentaries of Hirtius, has been lost. It seems now to be generally acknowledged that he was not the author .# the book De Bello Hispanico, which relates Caesar's second campaign in Spain, undertaken against young Cneius Pompey, who, having assembled, in the ulterior province of that country, those of his father's party who had survived the disasters in Thessaly and Africa, and being joined by some of the native states, presented a formidable resistance to the power of Caesar, till his hopes were terminated by the decisive battle of Munda. Dodwell, indeed, in his Dissertation De auctore Belli Gallici, &c., maintains, that it was originally written by Hirtius, but was interpolated by Julius Celsus, a Constantinopolitan writer of the sixth or seventh century. Vossius, however, whose opinion is the one more commonly received, attributes it to Caius Oppius, who wrote the Lives of Illustrious Captains, and also a book to prove that the Egyptian Caesarion was not the son of Caesar. (Dunlop's Roman Literature, vol. 2, p. 191, seqq.) The best editions of Caesar's Commentaries are, the magnificent one by Dr. Clarke, fol., Lond., 1712; that of Cambridge, with a Greek translation, 4to, 1727; that of Oudendorp, 2 vols. 4to, L. Bat., 1737; that of the Elzevirs, 8vo, L. Bat., 1635; that of Oberlinus, Lips, 1819, 8vo; and that of Achaintre and Lemaire, Paris, 4 vols. 8vo, 1819–22.-II. The name Caesar became a title of honour for the Roman emperors, commencing with Augustus, and at a later period designated also the #". heirs to the empire. (Wid. Augustus.)— II. The twelve Casars, as they are styled in history, were Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian. These succeeded each other in the order which we have mentioned. The true line of the Caesars, however, terminated in Nero. CAEsARAugustA, a town of Hispania Tarraconensis, now Saragossa, so called from its founder, Augustus Caesar, by whom it was built on the banks of the river Iberus, on the site of the ancient city Subduba. It was the birthplace of the poet Prudentius. (Isidor, Hisp. Etymol., 15, 1.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 428.) Aes AREA, I. the principal city of Samaria, situate on the coast, and anciently called Turris Stratonis, “Strato's tower.” Who this Strato was is not clearly ascertained. In the preface to the Novels it is stated that he came from Greece and founded this place; an event which took place probably under the reign of Seleucus, the first king of Syria. The first inhabitants were Syrians and Greeks. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 20, 6.) It was subsequently made a magnificent city and

port by Herod, who called it Caesarea in honour of Augustus; and it now began to receive Jews among its inhabitants. Frequent contentions hence arose, in consequence of the diversity of faiths that prevailed within its walls. Here the Roman governor resided, and a Roman garrison was continually kept. Vespasian, after the Jewish war, settled a Roman colony in it, with the additional title of Colonia prima Flavia. (Ulpian, 1, de cens.) In later times it became the capital of Palaestina Prima. This city is frequently mentioned in the New Testament. Here King Agrippa was smitten, for neglecting to give God the praise when the people loaded him with flattery. Here Cornelius, the centurion, was baptized; and also Philip, the deacon, with his four daughters; and here Agabus, the prophet, foretold to Paul that he would be bound at Jerusalem. (Acts, 8, 10.) The modern name of the place is Kaisarieh. It was the birthplace of Eusebius.—II. The capital of Mauritania Caesariensis, and a place of some note in the time of the Roman emperors. It was originally called Iol, but was beautified at a subsequent period by Juba, who made it his residence, and changed its name to Caesarea, in honour of Augustus. This city was situate on the coast, to the west of Saldae, and, according to D'Anville, its remains are to be found at the modern harbour of Vacur. (Plin., 5, 2–Mela, 1, 6–Strab., 571.)—III. Ad Argaeum, the capital of Cappadocia, called by this name in the reign of Tiberius, previously Mazaca. It was situate at the foot of Mount Argaeus, as its name indicates, and was a place of great antiquity, its foundation having even been ascribed by some writers to Mesech, the son of Japhet. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 1, 6.) Philostorgius, however, says it was first called Maza, from Mosoch, a Cappadocian chief, and afterward Mazaca. (Strab., 530.) The modern name is Kaisarich. This city, as Strabo reports, was subject to great inconveniences, being ill supplied with water, and destitute of fortifications. The surrounding country was also unproductive, consisting of a dry, sandy plain, with several volcanic pits for the space of many stadia around the town. And yet it is worthy of remark, that in modern times, travellers are struck with the great quantity of vegetables offered for sale in the market of Kaisarieh, and it is said that there is no part of Asia Minor which surpasses the neighbourhood for the quality and variety of its fruits. (Kinneir's Travels, p. 103–Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 118)—IV. Philippi, a town on the northern confines of Palestine, in the district of Trachonitis, at the foot of Mount Paneus, and near the springs of the Jordan. It was also called Leshem, Laish, Dan, and Paneas. The name Paneas is supposed to have been given it by the Phoenicians. The appellation of Dan was given to it by the tribe of that name, because the portion assigned to them was “too little for them,” and they therefore “went up to fight against Leshem (or Laish, Judg., 18, 29), and took it,” calling it “Dan, after the name of Dan, their father.” (Josh., 19, 47.) Eusebius and Jerome distinguish Dan from Paneas as if they were different places, though near each other; but most writers consider them as one place, and even Jerome himself, on Ezek., 48, says, that Dan or Leshem was afterward called Paneas. Philip, the tetrarch, rebuilt it, or, at least, embellished and enlarged it, and named it Caesarea, in honour of the Emperor Tiberius; and afterward Agrippa, in compliment to Nero, called it Neronias. According to Burckhardt, the site is now called Banias. (Plin., 5, 15–Joseph. Ant. Jud., 18, 3.—Id., Bell. Jud., 1, 16.-Sozom., 3, 21.)—W. Insula, now the isle of Jersey. CAE's Arion, the reputed son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. Plutarch calls him the son of Caesar, but Dio Cassius (47, 31) throws doubt on his paternity. He was put to death by Augustus. (Sueton, Wit. Jul, c. 52.—Id., Wit. Aug., 17.)

CAEskris ARAE, placed by Ptolemy near the Tanais, in what is now called the country of the Don Cossacks. They are supposed to have been erected in honour of some one of the Roman emperors by some neighbouring rince; perhaps by Polemo, in the reign of Tiberius. R. the source of the Tanais Ptolemy places the Alexandri Arac, which see. (Strab., 493.--Tacit., Ann., 12, 15.-Dio Cass., 9, 8.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 159). CAE's ARodüNUM, now Tours, the capital of the Turones. (Amm. Marcell., 15, 28.-Greg. Turon., 10, 19—Sulp. Sever., Dial. 3, 8.) CAEs ARomigus, I. now Beauvais, the capital of the Bellovaci. (Anton., Itin.)—II. A city of the Trinobantes in Britain, answering, as is thought, to what is now Chelmsford. It lay 28 miles north of Londinum. (Anton., Itin.) The Peutinger Table calls it BaroInacus. CAEsta sylva, a forest in Germany, in the territory of the Istavones and Sicambri. It is supposed to correspond to the present forest of Heserwald. (Tacit., Ann., 1, 50.-Brotier, ad Tacit., l.c.) CAEso or KAEso, a Roman praenomen, peculiar to the Fabian family. Thus we have CAEso Fabius in Livy (2, 43), and CAEso QUINtius in the same writer (3, 11). In ancient inscriptions it is more commonly written with an initial K.—The latter of the two individuals just mentioned was the son of L. Quintius Cincinnatus, and opposed the tribunes in their passage of the Lex Terentilla. He was brought to trial for this, and also for the crime of homicide that was alleged against him, but escaped death by going into voluntary exile. (Livy, 3, 11, seqq.) CAiciNus, a river of Italy in Brutium, near the Epizephyrian Locri, and at one time separating the territories of Locri and Rhegium. It is noticed by ancient writers for a natural phaenomenon which was observed to occur on its banks. It was said that the cicada on the Locrian side were always chirping and musical, while those on the opposite side were as constantly silent. The Caicinus is supposed by Romanelli to correspond to the Amendolea, which falls into the sea about ten miles to the west of Cape Spartivento. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 412.) Caicus, I. a companion of Æneas. (Virg., AEn., 1, 187.)—II. A river of Mysia, falling into the Ægean Sea, opposite Lesbos. On its banks stood the city of Pergamus, and at its mouth the port of Elaea. It is supposed by some to be the present Girmasti. According to Mannert, however, its modern name is the Mandragorai. (Pliny, 5, 30.—Mela, 1, 18.—Virg., Georg., 4, 370.—Ovid, Met., 15, 277.) CAIETA, a town and harbour of Latium, southeast of the promontory of Circeii, which was said to have received its name from Caieta, the nurse of Æneas, who was buried there. (Virg., AEn., 7, 1.) This, however, is a mere fable, since AEneas never was in Italy. Equally objectionable is the etymology of Aurelius Victor, who derives the name from kaiew, to burn, because the fleet of Æneas was burned here: as if the Trojans spoke Greek Strabo (233) furnishes the best explanation. It comes, according to him, from a Laconian term (kaisitra), denoting a hollow or cavity; in allusion, perhaps, to a receding of the shore. It is now Gaeta. The harbour of Caieta was considered one of the finest and most commodious in Italy. Cicero laments on one occasion that so noble a port should be subject to the depredations of pirates even in the open day. (Proleg. Man.—Compare Florus, 1, 16.) Caius and CAIA, a praenomen very common at Rome to both sexes. In this word, and also in Cneius, the C must be pronounced like G. (Quintil., 1, 7.) C, in its natural position, denoted the name of the male, and when reversed that of the female : thus, C was equivalent to CAIUS; but Q to CAIA. Female

praenomina, which were marked with an inverted capital, were, however, early disused among the Romans. The custom after this was, in case there was only one daughter, to name her after the gens. If there were two, to distinguish them by major and minor added to their names; if there were more than two, they were distinguished by their number, Prima, Secunda, &c. Thus we have, in the first case, Tullia, the daughter of Cicero, Julia, the daughter of Caesar; and in the second, Cornelia Major, Cornelia Minor, &c. CALĀb ER. Wid. Quintus, II. Calabria, the part of Italy occupied by the ancient Calabri. It seems to have been that portion of the Iapygian peninsula extending from Brundisium to the city of Hydruntum, answering nearly to what is now called Terra di Lecce. Its name is supposed to have been derived from the Oriental “Kalab” or pitch, on account of the resin obtained from the pines of this country. It was also called Messapia and Iapygia. The poet Ennius was born here. The country was fertile, and produced a variety of fruits, much cattle, and excellent honey. (Virg., G., 3, 425.-Horat, Od., 1, 31; Epod., 1, 27, 1–Plin., 8, 48.) CALAGURR1s. There were two cities of this name in ancient Spain, both of them in the territory of the Vascones. One was called Calagurris Fibularensis, the other Calagurris Nascica. The moderns are not yet decided which of these two cities answers to the present Calahorra and which to Loharre. It is generally thought that Calagurris Fibularensis is the modern Calahorra, but Marca is in favour of Loharre, and his opinion appears confirmed by Livy. (Petr. de Marca, 2, 28.—Liv., fragm., lib. 91, ed. Bruns., p. 27.) CALAis and ZETEs. Wid. Zetes. CALĀMis, a very celebrated statuary, and engraver on silver, respecting whose birthplace, and the city in which he exercised his profession, ancient writers have given no information. The period when he flourished appears to have been very near that of Phidias. From the account given of his works by the ancient writers, he would seem to have been one of the most industrious artists of antiquity, for he executed statues of every description, in bronze, marble, and in gold blended with ivory. Cicero and Quintilian refer to his productions as not sufficiently refined, though superior in this respect to those of his predecessors. (Cic., Brut., 18, 70.—Quintil., 12, 10.—Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) CALANus, a celebrated Indian philosopher, one of the gymnosophists. He followed Alexander from India, and, becoming unwell when they had reached Persia, he desired to i. his funeral pile erected. Having offered up his prayers, poured libations upon himself, and cut off part of his hair and thrown it into the fire, he ascended the pile, and moved not at the approach of the flames. Plutarch says, that, in takin leave of the Macedonians, he desired them to s in merriment and drinking with their . *

the o “For I shall see him,” said he, “in a little while at Babylon.” Alexander died in Babylon three months

after this. Calanus was in his eighty-third year when he burned himself on the funeral pile. (Cic, de Div., 1, 23.—Arrian, et Plut. in Aler.—AElian, W. H., 2, 41, 5, 6–Val. Mar., 1, 8.) CALAUREA, an island in the Sinus Saronicus, opposite the harbour of Troezene in Argolis. It obtained its greatest celebrity from the death of Demosthenes. Before that event, however, it was a place of great note and sanctity. Neptune was said to have received it from Apollo in exchange for Delos, agreeably to the advice of an oracle. (Ephor. ap Strab., 374) His temple was held in great vencration, and the sanctuary accounted an inviolable asylum. Seven confederate cities here held an assembly somewhat similar to the Amphictyonic council, and joined in

solemn sacrifices to the god. Strabo names Hermione, Epidaurus, AEgina, Athens, Prasiae, Nauplia, and the Minyan Orchomenus. Argos subsequently represented Nauplia, and Sparta j to Prasiae. (Strab., l.c.) In this sanctuary Demosthenes, who had rendered himself obnoxious to the Macedonian sovereign, took refuge when pursued by his satellites. Here he swallowed poison and terminated his existence. (Plut., Wit. Demosth.—Pausan, 2, 33.) A monument was raised to this great orator within its peribolus, and divine honours were paid to him by the Calaureans. According to Strabo, the island of Calaurea was four stadia from the shore, and thirty in circuit. It is now called Poro, or “the ford,” as the narrow channel by which it is separated from the mainland may, in calm weather, be passed on foot. The temple of Neptune was situated at some distance from the sea, on one of the highest summits of the island. Dodwell observes (Class. Tour, vol. 2, p. 276), that not a single column of this celebrated sanctuary is standing, nor is the smallest fragment to be seen among the ruins. Calchas, a celebrated soothsayer, son of Thestor. He had received from Apollo the knowledge of future events; and the Greeks, accordingly, on their departure for the Trojan war, nominated him their highpriest and prophet. Among the interpretation of events imputed to him, it is said he predicted that Troy could not be taken without the aid of Achilles; and that, having observed a serpent, during a solemn sacrifice, glide from under an altar, ascend a tree, and devour nine young birds with their mother, and afterward become itself changed into stone, he inferred that the siege of Troy would last ten years. He also foretold that the Grecian fleet, which was at that same time detained by contrary winds in the harbour of Aulis, would not be able to sail until Agamemnon should have sacrificed his own daughter Iphigenia. Calchas also advised Agamemnon, during the pestilence by which Apollo desolated the Grecian camp, to restore Chryseis, as the only means of appeasing the god. He was consulted, indeed, on every affair of importance, and appears to have often determined, with Agamemnon and Ulysses, the import of the oracles which he expounded. His death is said to have happened as follows. After the taking of Troy, he accompanied Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus, to Colophon in Ionia. It had been predicted that he should not die until he found a prophet more skilful than himself: this he experienced in the person of Mopsus. He was unable to tell how many figs were on the branches of a certain fig-tree ; and when Mopsus mentioned the exact number, Calchas retired to the wood of Claros, sacred to Apollo, where he expired of grief and mortification. —Calchas had the patronymic of Thestorides. (Hom., Il., 1,69, &c.—AEsch, Agam.—Eurip., Iphig.—Pausan, 1, 43.) Caledonia, a country in the north of Britain, now called Scotland. The ancient Caledonia comprehended all those countries which lay to the north of the Forth and Clyde. It was never completely subdued by the Romans, though Agricola penetrated to the To and Severus into the very heart of the country. e Caledonians are supposed to have derived their name from the Celtic words Gael Dun, implying “the Gael (Gauls) of the mountains,” i.e., “High. landers.” These Gallic tribes were driven into Scotland, from Britain, by the conquests of the Belgic or :* (Compare Adelung's Mithridates, vol. , p. 78.) Alentum, a city of Spain, in the country of Baetica, supposed to correspond to the modern Cazalla. The ancient place was famed for making bricks of so much lightness that they floated upon the water. (Plin, 35, 49–Vitrup, 2,3.) This was also done at Massilia (Marseille) in Gaul, and at Pitane in

Asia. (Vitruv., l.c.) According to a modern authority, the same kind of bricks are made in Italy, “de una singolarissima specie di mattone.” (Fabromi, Dissert., Venezia, 1797, 8vo.) CALEs, a city of Campania, to the south of Teanum, now Calvi. According to Livy (8, 16), it formerly belonged to the Ausones, but was conquered by the Romans, and colonized (A.U.C. 421). The Ager Calenus was much celebrated for its vineyards. (Wid. Falernum.) CALETEs, a Belgic tribe in Gaul, north of the mouth of the Sequana, and inhabiting the peninsula which that river makes with the sea. Their territory is now le pays de Cauz, forming a part of Normandy, in the department de la Seine-Inférieure. Their capital was Juliobona, now Lillebonne. Strabo calls them Kažerot, and hence on D'Anville's Map of Ancient Gaul they are named Caléti. Ptolemy, on the other hand, gives Kažňrec. They appear to have been ranked by Caesar among the Armoric states, if in one part of his Commentaries (B. G., 7,75) we read Caletes for Cadetes. They could easily have been connected with the Armoric tribes by commercial relations and affinity, and yet have belonged, by their position, to the Belgic race. (Lemaire, Ind. Geogr. ad Caes., p. 220. —Op., vol. 4.) CaligüLA, Caius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, son of Germanicus and Agrippina, was born A.D. 12, in the camp, probably in Germany, and was brought up among the legions. (Sueton, Wit. Calig., 8.) Here he received from the soldiers the surname of Caligula, from his being arrayed, when quite young, like a common soldier, and wearing a little pair of caligae, a kind of shoe or covering for the feet used chiefly by the common soldiers. This was done in order to secure towards him the good-will of the troops. Caligula himself, however, disliked the appellation in after days, and preferred that of Caius Caesar, which is also his historical name. Upon his father's death he returned from Syria, and lived with his mother till her exile, when he removed to the residence of Livia Augusta, his great-grandmother, whose funeral oration he delivered in public, while he still wore the practerta. He afterward remained in the family of his grandmother Antonia until his twentieth year, when, being invited to Caprea by the emperor, he assumed the dress proper to manhood, but without the customary ceremonies. In the court of his grandfather, his naturally mean and vicious temper appeared in a servile compliance with the caprices of those in power, in a wanton love of cruelty towards the unfortunate, and in the most abandoned and unprincipled debauchery; so that Tiberius observed, that he was breeding a second Phaëthon for the destruction of the world. (Sueton., Cal., c. 10.) Tiberius had, by his testament, appointed his two grandsons, Caius Caesar and Tiberius Gemellus, the latter the son of Drusus, joint heirs of the empire. The first act of Caligula, however, was to assemble the senate, for the purpose of declaring the invalidity of the will; and this being readily effected, and Tiberius Gemellus being declared too young to rule, Caius Caesar Caligula was immediately proclaimed emperor. This appointment was received with the most unbounded joy both at Rome and in the provinces, and the conduct of the new prince seemed at first to promise one of the most auspicious of reigns. But this was all dissimulation on his part; a dissimulation which he had learned under his wily predecessor; for Caligula esteemed it prudent to assume the appearance of moderation, liberality, and justice, till he should be firmly seated on the throne, and freed from all apprehension lest the claims of the young Tiberius might be revived on any offence having been taken by the senate. He interred, in the most honourable manner, the remains of his mother and of his brother Nero, set free all state prisoners, recalled the banished, and forbade all prosecutions for treason. He conferred on the magistrates free and independent power. Although the will of Tiberius had been declared, by the senate, to be null and void, he fulfilled every article of it, with the exception only of that above mentioned. When he was chosen consul, he took his uncle Claudius as his colleague. Thus he distinguished the first eight months of his reign by many actions dictated by the profoundest hypocrisy, but which appeared magnanimous and noble to the eyes of the world, when he sell, on a sudden, dangerously ill, in consequence, as has been imagined, of a love-potion given him by his mistress Milonia Caesonia (whom he afterward married), with a view to secure his unconstant affections. On recovering from this malady, whether weary by this time of the restraints of hypocrisy, or actually deranged in his intellect by the inflammatory effects of the potion which he had taken (Jun., Sat., 6,614), the emperor threw off all appearance of virtue and moderation, as well as all prudential considerations, and acted on every occasion with the mischievous violence of unbridled passions and wanton power, so that the tyranny of Tiberius was forgotten in the enormities of Caligula. (Senec., Consol. ad Helv., 9, c. 779.) The most exquisite tortures served him for enjoyments. During his meals he caused criminals, and even innocent persons, to be stretched on the rack and beheaded : the most respectable persons were daily executed. In the madness of his arrogance he even considered himself a god, and caused the honours to be paid to him which were paid to Apollo, to Mars, and even to Jupiter. He built a temple to his own divinity. At one time he wished that the whole Roman people had but one head, that he might be able to cut it off at a single blow. He frequently repeated the words of an old poet, Oderint dum metuant. One of his greatest follies was the building of a bridge of vessels between Baiae and Puteoli, in imitation of that of Xerxes over the Hellespont. He himself consecrated this grand structure with great splendour; and, after he had passed the night following in a revel with his friends, in order to do something extraordinary before his departure, he caused a crowd of persons, without distinction of age, rank, or character, to be seized, and thrown into the sea. On his return he entered Rome in triumph, because, as he said, he had conquered nature herself. After this he made preparations for an expedition against the Germans, passed with more than 200,000 men over the Rhine, but returned after he had travelled a few miles, and that without having seen an enemy. Such was his terror, that, when he came to the river, and found the bridge obstructed by the crowd upon it, he caused himself to be passed over the heads of the soldiers. He then went to Gaul, which he plundered with unexampled rapacity. Not content with the considerable booty thus obtained, he sold all the property of his sisters Agrippina and Livilla, whom he banished. He also sold the surniture of the old court, the clothes of Augustus, Agrippina, &c. Before he left Gaul he declared his intention of going to Britain. He collected his army on the coast, embarked in a magnificent galley, but returned when he had hardly left the land, drew up his forces, ordered the signal of battle to be sounded, and commanded the soldiers to fill their helmets with shells, while he cried out, “This booty, ravished from the sea, is fit for my palace and the capitol.” When he returned to Rome he was desirous of a triumph on account of his achievements, but contented himself with an ovation. Discontented with the senate, he resolved to destroy the greater part of the members, and the most distinguished men of Rome. This is proved by two books which were found after his death, wherein the names of the proscribed were noted down, and of which one was entitled Gladius (Sword), and the other Pugillus

(Dagger). He became reconciled to the senate again when he found it worthy of him. He supported public brothels and gaming-houses, and received himself the entrance-money of the visiters. His horse, named Incitatus, was his favourite. This horse he made one of his priests, and, by way of insult to the republic, declared it also consul. It was kept in an ivory stable, and fed from a golden manger; and, when it was invited to feast at the emperor's table, gilt corn was served up in a golden basin of exquisite workmanship. He had even the intention of destroying the poems of Homer, and was on the point of removing the works and images of Virgil and Livy from all libraries : those of the former, because, as he said, he was destitute of genius and learning ; those of the latter, because he was not to be depended upon as an historian. Caligula's morals were, from his youth upward, abominably corrupt. After he had married and repudiated several wives, Caesonia retained a permanent hold on his affections. A number of conspirators, at the head of whom were Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus, both tribunes of the praetorian cohorts, murdered him in the 29th year of his age, and the fourth of his tyrannical reign, A.D. 41. (Crevier, Hist, des Emp. Rom., vol. 2, p. 1, seqq.—Encyclop. Americ, vol. 2, p. 405, seqq.—Encyclop. Metropol., div. 3, vol. 2, p. 434, seqq.) CAllaici or CALLEci, a people of Spain, in the northwestern part of the country. They inhabited what is now Gallicia, together with the Portuguese provinces of Entre-Douro-y-Minho and Tras-los-Montes. (Eutrop., 4, 19–Sil. Ital, 3,352.-Plin., 3, 3– Inscript., ap. Gruter.) CALLE or Cale, a seaport town of the Callaici, at the mouth of the Durius. It is now Oporto. From Portus Calles comes, by a corruption, the name of modern Portugal. (Sil. Ital., 12, 525.-Well. Paterc., 1, 14.—Cuc., Agrar., 2, 31.) Callias, a rich Athenian, who offered to release Cimon, son of Miltiades, from prison, into which he had been thrown through inability to pay his father's fine, if he would give him the hand of Elpinice, Cimon's sister and wife. Cimon consented, but with great reluctance. He was afterward charged with having violated the terms of his agreement with Callias, which was looked upon by the Athenians as adultery on his part, Elpinice having become the property of another. This custom of marrying sisters at Athens extended, according to Philo Judaeus, only to sisters by the same father, and was forbidden in the case of sisters by the same mother. Elpinice was taken in marriage by Cimon, because, in consequence of his extreme poverty, he was unable to provide a suitable match for her. The Lacedæmonians were forbidden to marry any of their kindred, whether in the direct degrees of ascent or descent; but in the case of a collateral it was allowed. Several of the barbarous nations seem to have been less scrupulous on this head; the Persians especially were remarkable for such unnatural unions. (C. Nep. et Plut. in Cim.). CallicolóNE, a hill in the district of Troas, deriving its name (kažň Rožavn) from the pleasing regularity of its form, and the groves by which it seems for ages to have been adorned. ... It is mentioned by Homer in the 20th book of the Iliad (v. 53 and 151). Strabo informs us, from Demetrius of Scepsis, that it was ten stadia from the village of the Ilians ('IAutov kóum), which would make it forty stadia from Troy itself. It was situate to the northwest of this city, near the banks of the Simois. (Compare Le Chetalier's Map of the Plain of Troy, and the note of Heyne to the 262á page of the German translation of Le Chevalier's works on this subject. Consult also Clarke's Travels, vol. 3, p. 119, Lond, 8vo, ed.) Callicrites, I. an Athenian, who caused Dion to be assassinated. (Wid. Dion I.)—II. An officer in

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trusted with the care of the treasures of Susa by Alexander. (Curt., 5, 2.)—III. An architect, who, in conjunction with Ictinus, built the Parthenon at Athens, and who undertook also to complete the long walls termed axéân. (Plut., Wit. Pericl., c. 13.) He appears to have flourished about Olymp. 80 or 85. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.)—IV. A sculptor, distinguished principally by the minuteness of his performances. He is mentioned as a Lacedæmonian, and is associated with Myrmecides by Ælian. (V. H., 1, 17.—Compare Galen, Adhort. ad Art., c. 9.) In connexion with this artist he is said to have made some chariots which could be covered with the wings of a fly, and to have inscribed on a grain of the plant sesamum some verses of Homer. (Plin., 7, 21.) Galen, therefore, well applies to him the epithet uaratóTexvoc. Athenaeus, however, relates that he engraved only large vases (11, p. 782). The age in which he lived is uncertain. (Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.) Callicratidas, a Spartan, who succeeded Lysander in the command of the fleet. He took Methymna, and routed the Athenian fleet under Conon. He was defeated and killed near the Arginusae, in a naval battle, B.C. 406. He was one of the last that preserved the true Spartan character, which had become greatly altered for the worse during the Peloponnesian war, by the habit which the Lacedæmonians had conj; fighting beyond the limits of their country. The enervating climate of Ionia had also contributed very much towards producing this result. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 1, 6, 1, seqq.—Diod. Sic., 13, 76.—Id. ib., 13, 99.) Callipomus, according to Livy (36, 15), the highest summit of Mount CEta. It was occupied by Cato, with a body of troops, in the battle fought at the pass of Thermopylae, between the Romans, under Acilius Glabrio, and the army of Antiochus; and, owing to this manoeuvre, the latter was entirely routed. (Compare Pliny, H. N., 4, 7.) CalliMíchus, I. a native of Cyrene, descended from an illustrious family. He first gave instruction in grammar, or belles-lettres, at Alexandrea, and numbered among his auditors Apollonius Rhodius, Eratosthenes, and Aristophanes of Byzantium. Ptolemy Philadelphus subsequently placed him in the Museum, and from this period he turned his principal attention to poetic composition. He lived, loaded with honours, at the court of this prince, where his abilities were greatly admired. The small number of pieces, however, that remain to us, out of eight hundred composed by him, present him to us in the light of a cold poet, wanting in energy and enthusiasm, and making vain efforts to replace by erudition the genius which nature had denied him. These productions compel us to subscribe to Ovid's opinion in relation to him, “Quamris ingenio non palet, arte palet.” (Amor., 1, 15.) The principal works of Callimachus were as follows: 1. Elegies. These were regarded as his principal title to renown. The Romans, especially in the Augustan age, held them in high estimation; they were imitated by Ovid and Propertius. Among the Elegies of Callimachus two in particular were celebrated, one on the tresses of Berenice, queen of Ptolemy III., which Catullus has either translated or imitated; and the other, entitled Cydippe, to which Ovid alludes (Rem. Am, 1,380), and which he has imitated in his 20th Heroid. We have only some fragments remaining of the elegies. 2. Airwai, “Causes,” i.e., a poem, in four cantos, on the origin or causes of various sables, customs, &c. Some fragments remain. 3. ‘Exã2m, He“le, an heroic poem, the subject of which was the hosPitable reception given to Theseus, by an old female, when he was proceeding to combat the Marathonian bull. Some fragments remain, 4. '16tc, “the Ibis,” a . directed against one of his pupils, accused by of * named Apollonius Rhodius. It has o

not reached us. The Ibis is a bird, whose habits taught man, it is said, the use of clysters. We know not the reason why Callimachus gave this appellation to his enemy; it was done in ridicule, probably, of some personal deformity, or else from some resemblance which Apollonius bore to this bird in the eyes of his irritated master. It is in imitation of Callimachus that Ovid has given the title of Ibis to one of his poems. 5. Hymns. Of these we have six remaining; five in the Ionic dialect, and the sixth in Doric. #. subject of this last is the bathing of the statue of Minerva. According to the commentators, the Doric dialect was preferred for this poem, because Callimachus composed it at Argos, where, during a certain festival, the statue of Pallas was bathed in the Inachus. Of the six hymns which we have from Callimachus, that addressed to Ceres is the best. The one in honour of Delos is in the epic style, like the hymns of the Homeridae. 6. Epigrams. Of these we possess seventyfour, which may be regarded among the best of antiquity. The grammarian Archibius, the father, or, according to others, the son of Apollonius, wrote a commentary or exegesis (šffymatc.) on these epigrams; and Marianus, who lived under the Emperor Anastasius, made a paraphrase of them in iambic verse. 7. Iambics and choliambics. Strabo refers to them, and some fragments remain.—Such are some of the principal poetic works of Callimachus. We have to regret the loss of several prose works, which would, no doubt, have thrown great light on various subjects connected with the antiquities of Greece. Such are his Commentaries, or Memoirs ("strouvâuara); his work entitled Krio etc. whaan kal tróżewy, “The settling of islands and founding of cities;" his “Wonders of the World,” 6avuágua, or, 6avuárov rāv etc ătagav row yiv kai rôtrove &vrov ovvaywyń, &c. Callimachus did not want detractors, who occasioned him that species of torment to which the vanity of authors exposes them, and, at the same time, renders them so sensitive. A certain grammarian, named Aristophon, wrote against one of his productions; and there exists, in the Anthology, a distich against Callimachus, by Apollonius the grammarian, which is often erroneously ascribed to the author of the Argonautics. —Among the editions of Callimachus may be mentioned that of Ernesti, Lugd. Bat., 1761, 2 vols. 8vo, and that of Blomfield, Lond., 1815, 8vo. Brunck gave also a revised text in his Poeta Gnomici. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 107, seqq.)—II. A celebrated artist, whose attention was directed not only to statuary, but to engraving on gold and to painting. (Plin., 34, 8.) On account of the elegant finish of his works in marble, he was styled by the Athenians karárexvoc. (Vitruv., 4, 1, 10.-Compare the remarks of Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Callière, one of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over epic poetry and eloquence, and was represented holding a close-rolled archment, and sometimes a trumpet. She derived o: name from her beautiful (silver-toned) voice, àrö ric kažňr Öröc. Calliope bore to CEagrus a son named Linus, who was killed by his pupil Hercules. (Apollod., 1, 3, 2.) She had also by the same sire the celebrated Orpheus. Others, however, made Apollo the sire of Linus and Orpheus. Hesiod (frag. 97) says, that Urania was the mother of Linus. (Wid. Musa, and consult Müller, Archaeol. der Kunst, p. 594, seqq.) &arwin, daughter of Diagoras, and wife of Callianax the athlete. According to the common account, she went with her son, after the death of her husband, to the Olympic games, having disguised herself in the attire of a teacher of gymnastics. When her son was declared victor, she discovered her sex in the joy of the moment, and was immediately arrested, as women were not allowed to appear on oth Occa28

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