Obrazy na stronie

probably in the age of Craesus. (Consult Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Barhyllus, I. a youth of Samos, a favourite of Polycrates. He is often alluded to by Anacreon.— II. A youth of Alexandrea, a favourite of Maecenas. He came to Rome in the age of Augustus, and obtained great celebrity as a dancer in pantomimes.— III. A dancer alluded to by Juvenal (6, 63). As this was in the time of Domitian, the Bathyllus mentioned under No. II. cannot, of course, be meant here. Salmasius thinks, that the name had become a generalone for any famous dancer, in consequence of the skill that had been displayed by the Bathyllus who lived in the time of Augustus. (Salmas. ad Vopisc. Carin, vol. 2, p. 833, ed. Hack.) BATRAchomyomachia, a serio-comic poem, ascribed to Homer, and describing the battle between the frogs and mice. It consists of 294 hexameters. Whether Homer actually wrote this poem or not is still an unsettled point among modern critics. The majority, however, incline to the opinion that he was not the author. The piece would seem to be in reality a parody on the manner and language of Homer, and perhaps a satire upon one of the feuds that were so common among the petty republics of Greece. Some ascribe it to Pigres of Caria. Knight, in his Prolegomena to Homer (ed. Lips., p. 6), remarks, that in the third verse mention is made of tablets (667. Tot), on which the poet writes: whence he concludes that the author of the piece in question was an Athenian, and not of Asiatic origin, because in Asia they wrote on skins, by duoffépatc. In proof of his assertion, he cites Herodotus (5, 58). He makes also another ingenious observation. At verse 291, the morning cry of a cock is alluded to as a thing generally known. This circumstance proves, according to Knight, that the poem under consideration is not as old as the time of Homer, for it is not credible, that the ancient poets would never have spoken of this instinct on the part of the cock if it had been known to them, and it would have been known to them if the cock had been sound at that period in Greece. This fowl is a native of India, and does not appear to have been introduced into Greece prior to the sixth century B.C. It is then found on the money of Samothrace and Himera.—The best editions of the Batrachomyomachia are that of Ernesti, in the works of Homer, 5 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1759, reprinted at Glasgow, 1814; and that of Matthiae, Lips., 1805, 8vo.—There is also the edition of Maittaire, 8vo, Lond., 1721. Barriñoes, I. a patronymic of Callimachus, from his father Battus. (Ovid, Ib., 53.) Some think the name was given him from his having been a native of Cyrene. (Wid. No. II.)—II. A name given to the people of Cyrene from King Battus, the founder of the settlement. (Pind., Pyth., 5, 73.—Callim., H. in Apoll., 96.—Sil. Ital., 2, 61.) Battus, I. a Lacedæmonian, who built the town of Cyrene, B.C. 630, with a colony from the island of Thera (Vid. Cyrene.) His proper name was Aristotle, according to Callimachus (H. in Apoll, 76. -Schol. ad loc.—Schol. ad Pind., Pyth., 4, 10), but he was called Battus, according to the tradition of the Thereans and people of Cyrene, from an impediment in his o Herodotus, however (4, 155), opposes this explanation, and conjectures that the maine was obtained from the Libyan tongue, where it *gnified, as he informs us, “a king.” Battus reigned forty years, and left the kingdom to his son Arcesi. laus. (Herod., 4, 159.—Compare Bähr, ad Herod., * 55)—II. The second of that name was grandson to Battus I., by Arcesilaus. He succeeded his father on the throne of Cyrene, and was surnamed Feliz, and died 554 B.C. (Herod, 4, 159.)—III. A shepherd of Pylos, who promised Mercury that he would * discover his having stolen the flocks of Admetus,

which Apollo tended. He violated his promise, and was turned into a stone. (Ovid, Met., 2,702.-Compare the remarks of Gierig, ad loc.) Batülum, a town of Campania, alluded to by Virgil (Æn., 7, 739) and Silius Italicus (8,566). The site of this place is fixed, with some diffidence, by Romanelli at Paduli, a few miles to the east of Benevento (vol. 2, p. 463). Baucis, an aged woman, who dwelt in a small town of Phrygia along with her husband Philemon. They were both extremely poor, and inhabited a humble cottage. Jupiter and Mercury came, on one occasion, in the form of men, to this same town. It was evening; they sought for hospitality, but every door was closed against them. At length they approached the abode of the aged pair, by whom they were gladly received. The quality of the guests was eventually revealed by the miracle of the wine-bowl being spontaneously replenished as fast as it was drained. They told their hosts that it was their intention to destroy the godless town, and desired them to leave their dwelling and ascend the adjacent hill. The aged couple obeyed : ere they reached the summit they turned round to look, and beheld a lake where the town had stood. Their own house remained, and, as they gazed and deplored the fate of their neighbours, it became a temple. On being desired by Jupiter to express their wishes, they prayed that they might be appointed to officiate in that temple, and that they might be united in death as in life. Their prayer was granted; and as they were one day standing before the temple, they were suddenly changed into an oak and a lime tree. (Orid, Met., 8, 620.)—The reader will not fail to be struck with the resemblance between a part of this legend and the scripture account of the destruction of the cities of the plains. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 83.) BAvius and MAEvius, two stupid and malevolent poets in the age of Augustus, . attacked Virgil, Horace, and others of their contemporaries. (Virg., Eclog., 3,90.—Voss, ad loc.—Serp. ad Virg., Georg., 1, 210.-Horat., Epod., 10, 2.—Weichert, de obtrect. Horatii, p. 12, seqq.) Bebryces, the aboriginal inhabitants of Bithynia. (Wid. Bithynia.) Ben Rycia, the primitive name of Bithynia. It was so called from the Bebryces, the original inhabitants of the land. (Wid. Bithynia.) BedrikcuM, a small town of Italy, between Mantua and Cremona; according to Cluverius, it is the modern Caneto, a large village on the lest of the Oglio. D'Anville, however, makes it correspond to the modern Ciridala, on the right side of that river. Mannert places it about a mile west of the modern town of Bozzolo. This place was famous for two battles fought within a month of each other. In the first Otho was defeated by the generals of Vitellius; and in the second, Vitellius by Vespasian, A.D. 69. Tacitus and Suetonius call the name of this place Betriacum; and Pliny, Juvenal, and later writers, Bebriacum. (Tacit., Hist., 2, 23, seqq.—Id., Hist. 3, 15. —Plut., Wit. Oth.—Plin., 10, 49.-Sueton., 0th., 9. —Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 66.) Belésis, a priest of Babylon, who conspired with Arbaces against Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. Arbaces promised Belesis, in case of success, the government of Babylon, which the latter, after the overthrow of Sardanapalus, accordingly obtained. (Wid. Arbaces.) Belgæ, a warlike people of ancient Gaul, separated from the Celtae in the time of Caesar by the rivers Matrona and Sequana. In the new division of Gallia made by Augustus, whose object was to render the provinces more equal in extent, the countries of the Helvetii and Sequani, which till that time were

included in Gallia Celtica, were added to gun Bel25

gica. The Belgæ were of German extraction, and, according to Caesar, the most warlike of the Gauls. The name Belgae belongs to the Kymric idiom, in which, under the form Belgiaudd, the radical of which is Belg, it signifies "warlike.” (Compare Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. 1, p. xxxvii., Introd.) Belgica, one of the four provinces of Gaul near the Rhine. (Wid. Gallia.) Belgium, a canton of Gallia Belgica, from which it is distinguished by Caesar (B. G., 5, 34), as a part from the whole, and to which he assigns the Bellovaci, to whom Hirtius adds the Atrebates. As the Ambiani were situated between the other two, they must also be included. These three tribes were the genuine Belgae. (Caes., B. G., 5, 24.—Hirt., 8, 46.) Belides, a surname given to the daughtersof Belus. (Ovid, Met., 4,463.) Belides, a name applied to Palamedes, as descended from Belus. (Virg., AEn., 2, 82.) Belis RNA, a Gallic deity, analogous to the Minerva of the Romans. (Compare Mone, Geschichte der Heidenthums im Nordlichen Europa, vol. 2, p. 419, in notis.) Belis Arius, one of the greatest generals of his time, to whom the Emperor Justinian chiefly owed the splendour of his reign. Sprung from an obscure family in Thrace, Belisarius first served in the bodyguard of the emperor, but soon obtained the chief command of an army of 25,000 men, stationed on the Persian frontiers, and, A.D. 530, gained a complete victory over a Persian army not less than 40,000 strong. The next year, however, he lost a battle against the same enemy, who had forced their way into Syria; the only battle which he lost during his whole career. He was recalled from the army, and soon became, at home, the support of his master. In the year 532, civil commotions, proceeding from two rival parties, who called themselves the green and the blue, and who caused great disorders in Constantinople, brought the life and reign of Justinian in the utmost h. and Hypatius was already chosen emperor, when elisarius, with a small body of faithful adherents, restored order. Justinian, with a view of conquering the dominions of Gelimer, king of the Wandals, sent Belisarius, with an army of 15,000 men, to Africa. After two victories, he secured the person and the treasures of the Vandal king. Gelimer was led in triumph through the streets of Constantinople, and Justinian ordered a medal to be struck, with the inscription Belisarius Gloria Romanorum, which has descended to our times. By the dissensions existing in the royal family of the Ostrogoths in Italy, Justinian was induced to attempt the reduction of Italy and Rome under his sceptre. Belisarius vanquished Wi. tiges, king of the Goths, made him prisoner at Ravenna (A.D. 540), and conducted him, together with many other Goths, to Constantinople. The war in Italy against the Goths continued; but Belisarius, not being sufficiently supplied with money and troops by the emperor, demanded his recall (A.D. 548). He afterward commanded in the war against the Bulgarians, whom he conquered in the year 559. Upon his return to Constantinople, he was accused of having taken part in a conspiracy. But Justinian was convinced of his innocence, and is said to have restored to him his property and dignities, of which he had been deprived. Belisarius died A.D. 565. His history has been much coloured by the poets, and particularly by Marmontel, in his otherwise admirable politico-philosophical romance. According to his narrative, the emperor caused the eyes of the hero to be struck out, and Belisarius was compelled to beg his bread in the streets of Constantinople. Other writers say, that Justinian had him thrown into a prison, which is still shown under the appellation of the tower of Belisarius. From this tower he is reported to have let

down a bag fastened to a rope, and to have addressed the passengers in these words: “Give an obolus to Belisarius, whom virtue exalted, and envy has oppressed.” Of this, however, no contemporary writer makes any mention. Tzetzes, a slightly-esteemed writer of the 12th century, was the first who related this fable. Certain it is, that, through too great indulgence towards his wife Antonia, Belisarius was impelled to many acts of injustice, and that he evinced a servile submissiveness to the detestable Theodora, the wife of Justinian. (Encyclop. Americ, vol. 1, p. 39, seqq.—Biogr. Univ., vol. 4, p. 82, seqq.) Belleröphon (Greek form Bellerophontes), son of Glaucus and grandson of Sisyphus. His adventures form a pleasing episode in the Iliad (6, 144, seqq.), where they are related to Diomede by Glancus the grandson of Bellerophon. The gods had endowed this hero with manly vigour and beauty. Antea, the wife of Proetus, king of Argos, fixed her love upon him, and sought a corresponding return. But the virtuous youth rejecting all her advances, hate occupied the place of love in the bosom of the disappointed queen. She accused him to Proetus of an attempt on her honour. The credulous king gave ear to her falsehood, but would not incur the reproach of putting to death a guest. He therefore sent Bellerophon to Lycia, to his father-in-law, the king of that country, giving him “deadly characters,” written in a sealed package, which he was to present to the king of Lycia, and which were to cause his death. Beneath the potent guidance of the gods, Bellerophon came to Lycia and the flowing Xanthus. Nine days the king entertained him, and slew nine oxen; and on the tenth he asked to see the token (qīua) which he had received from his son-in-law. When he had seen this, he resolved to comply with the desire of Proetus; and he first sent his guest to slay the Chimaera, a monster, with the upper part a lion, the lower a serpent, the middle a goat (xiualpa), and which breathed forth flaming fire. Depending on the aid of the gods, Bellerophon slew this monster, and then was ordered to go and fight the Solymi, and this, he said, was the severest combat he ever fought. He lastly slew the “manlike Amazons,” and, as he was returning, the king laid an ambush for him, composed of the bravest men of Lycia, of whom not one returned home, for Bellerophon slew them all. The king, now perceiving him to be of the race of the gods, kept him in Lycia, giving him his daughter and half the royal dignity, and the people bestowed upon him an ample temenus (réuevos) of arable and plantation land. Falling at length under the displeasure of all the gods, he wandered alone in “the Plain of Wandering” (Tediov džňov), “consuming his soul, shunning the path of men.”—Later authorities tells us, that Bellerophon was at first named Hipponods; but, having accidentally killed one of his relatives, some say a brother, named Bellerus, he thence derived his second name, which meant “Slayer of Bellerus.” He was purified of the bloodshed by Proetus, whose wife is also called Sthenobara, and the king of Lycia is named Iobates. By the aid of the winged steed Pegasus, Bellerophon gained the victory over all whom Iobates sent him to encounter. Sthenobaca, hearing of his success, hun herself. Bellerophon at last attempted, by means o Pegasus, to ascend to heaven; but Jupiter, incensed at his boldness, sent an insect to sting the steed, which flung its rider to earth, where he wandered in solitude and melancholy until his death. (Apollod, 2, 3, 1, seqq.—Pind., Isthm., 7, 63, seqq-Hygin, fab., 57.-Id., Poet. Astron., 2, 18.-Schol. ad Il., 6, 155.—Tzetz. ad Lycophr., 17.)—Though Homer makes no mention of Pegasus, this steed forms an essential part of the legend of Bellerophon. In the Theogony (v. 825) it is said of the Chimera, that she was (i. by Pegasus and the “good” (kotodo),

i.e., brave Bellerophon. in giving the winged steed to the hero, none tell us how he obtained him. Here, however, Pindar comes to our aid with a very remarkable legend, which connects Bellerophon with Corinth. According to this poet (Ol., 13, 85, seqq.), Bellerophon, who reigned at Corinth, being about to undertake the three adventures mentioned above, wished to possess the winged steed Pegasus, who used to come to drink at the fountain of Pirene on the Acrocorinthus. After many sruitless efforts to catch him, he applied for advice to the soothsayer Polyeidus, and was directed by him to go and sleep at the altar of Minerva. He obeyed the prophet, and, in the dead of the night, the goddess appeared to him in a dream, and, giving him a bridle, bade him sacrifice a bull to his sire Neptune-Damaeus (the Tamer) and present the bridle to the steed. On awaking, Bellerophon found the bridle lying beside him. He obeyed the injunctions of the goddess, and raised an altar to herself as Hippeia (Of-the-Horse). Pegasus at once yielded his mouth to the magic bit, and the hero, mounting him, achieved his adventures.—The best explanation that has been given of the myth of Bellerophon is that which sees in this individual only one of the forms of Neptune, namely, as Hippius (Equestris). This god is his father (Pind., ut supr., 99), and he is the sire of Pegasus, and in the two combined we have a Neptune Hippius, the rider of the waves, a symbol of the navigation of the ancient Ephyra or Corinth. The adventures of the hero may have signified the real or imaginary perils to be encountered in voyages to distant countries; and, when the original sense of the myth was lost, the King (Praetus, trpärog), and his Foe (Antea, divra), and the common love-tale were introduced, to assign a cause for the adventure. In this myth, too, we find the mysterious connexion between Neptune and PallasMinerva and the horse more fully revealed than elsewhere. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 401, seqq.) BellêRus, a brother of Hipponous. (Wid. Bellerophon.) Bellāna, the goddess of war, daughter of Phorcys and Ceto. (Apolloil., 2, 4, 2.) According to some authorities, however, she was the sister of Mars. Others, again, make her his spouse. The earlier form of her Latin name, Bellona, was Duellona, from Duellum, the old form for bellum, from which last the later appellation of Bellona arose. Her Greek name was Enyo (’Evvá). The temple of Bellona at Rome was without the city, near the Carmental gate. Audience was given there by the senate to foreign ambassadors. Before it stood a pillar, over which a spear was thrown on the declaration of war against any peo(Ovid, Fast., 6, 199, seqq.) The priests of Belona used to gash their thighs in a terrific manner, and offer to her the blood which flowed from the wounds. (Juv., 4, 124.—Warro, L. L., 5.-Virg., AEn., 8,703. -Stat., Theb., 2,718.-Id. ib., 7, 73.) Bellonarii, the priests of Bellona. Bellovici, a numerous and powerful tribe of the Belgæ, adjoining the Vellocasses, Caleti, Ambiani, Veromandui, and Silvanectes. They correspond in position to the present people of Beauvais. (Cas., Bell., 2, 4.) Bellowesus, a king of the Celtae, who, in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, was sent at the head of a colony to Italy by his uncle Ambigatus. (Liv., 5, 34.) Belon, I. a city and river of Hispania Bastica, the usual place of embarcation for Tingis in Africa. The modern name Balonia marks the spot, though now uninhabited. The name is sometimes written Baelon. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 301.)—II. A small stream to the west of the city of Belon just named. It answers to that which flows at the present day from the Laguna de la Ianda into the sea. (Mannert, l.c.) * a name given to several kings of the East, K

But though all seem agreed

whose existence appears extremely doubtful. The most ancient is Belus, king of Assyria, father of Ninus, whose epoch it is impossible to determine.—II. A son of Libya, and father of Ægyptus, Danaus, and Cepheus. He is fabled to have reigned in Phoenicia, 1500 B.C.—III. A king of Lydia, father of Ninus. (Herod., 1, 7.)—The Belus of Assyria, or the remote East, is thought by some to be the same with the Great Bali of Hindu mythology (Bartolomeo, Viaggio alle Indie Orientali, p. 241), as well as the Baal of Oriental worship. A curious analogy in form is said to exist between the temple of Belus, as described by the ancient writers (vid. Babylon), and the Mexican Teocallis or pyramid-temples, especially that of Cholula. (Consult, on this interesting subject, the remarks of Humboldt, Monumens Americains, vol. 1, p. 117, seqq.) BENicus, a lake of Italy, from which the Mincius flows into the Po. Pliny (9, 22) makes this lake to be formed by the Mincius. It is stated by Strabo (209), on the authority of Polybius, to be 500 stadia long and 150 broad; that is, 62 miles by 18: but the real dimensions, according to the best maps, do not appear to exceed 30 modern Italian miles in length, and 9 in breadth; which, according to the ancient Roman scale, would be nearly 35 by 12. The modern name is Lago di Garda, and the appellation is derived from the small town of Garda on the northeast shore of the lake. The Benacus is twice noticed by Virgil. (Georg., 2, 158.-AEn., 10,204.) Its principal promontory, Sirmium, has been commemorated by Catullus as his favourite residence. Virgil speaks of it as subject to sudden storms. (Georg., 2, 160.) In explanation of this, compare the following remarks of Eustace: “We left Sirmione (Sirmium), and, lighted by the moon, glided smoothly over the lake to Desensano, four miles distant, where, about eight, we stepped from the boat into a very good inn. So far the appearance of the Benacus was very different from the description which Virgil has given of its stormy character. Before we retired to rest, about midnight, from our windows, we observed it still calm and unruffled. About three in the morning, I was roused from sleep by the door and windows bursting open at once, and the wind roaring round the room. I started up, and, looking out, observed by the light of the moon the lake in the most dreadful agitation, and the waves dashing against the walls of the inn, and resembling the swelling of the ocean more than the petty agitation of inland waters. Shortly after, the landlord entered with a lanterm, closed the outward shutters, expressed some apprehensions, but, at the same time, assured me that their house was built to resist such sudden tempests, and that I might repose with confidence under a roof which had withstood full many a storm as terrible as that which occasioned our present alarm. Next morning, the lake, so tranquil and serene the evening before, presented a surface covered with foam, and swelling into mountain-billows that burst in breakers every instant at the very door of the inn, and covered the whole house with spray. Virgil's description now seemed nature itself.” (Classical Tour, vol. 1, p. 203, seqq.) BeNdis, the name of a Thracian goddess, the same with Diana or Artemis. (Compare Ruhnken, ad Tim., p. 62. — Fischer, Indez in Palaphat., s. v. Bévdeta.) This name, and the festival of this deity, spread even to Attica and Bithynia. Bendis had a temple in the Munychium at Athens, and a festival, called Bev6íðela, was celebrated in honour of her at the Piraeus. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 129, seqq.) BENEventum, a city of Samnium, about ten miles beyond Caudium, on the Appian Way. (Strabo, 249.) Its more ancient name, as we are informed by several writers, was Maleventum. (Liv., 9, 27.—Plin., 3, 11.-Festus, s. v. Benevent.) The name of Maleven257

tum is said to have been given it on account of its unhealthy atmosphere. The more auspicious appellation of Beneventum was substituted when the Romans sent a colony thither (A.U.C. 483). Tradition ascribed the foundation of this city to Diomede (Solinus, c. 8. —Steph. Byz., s. v.), but other accounts would lead us to believe that it was first possessed by the Ausones. (Festus, s. v. Auson.) It remained in the possession of the Romans during the whole of the second Punic war, and obtained the thanks of the senate for its firm attachment to the republic at that critical period. (Liv., 27, 10.) We subsequently hear of its being a second time colonized by the veteran soldiers of Augustus, and also a third time under Nero. (Front. de Col.—Compare Tacitus, Ann., 15, 34.—Ptol., p. 66.) The account which Horace gives of the fare he there met with in his journey to Brundisium, will occur to every reader. Beneventum was situated near the junction of the Sabatus and Calor, now Sabbato and Calore. Its position was a very important one, since here the main roads intersected each other from Latium into Southern Italy, and from Samnium into Campania. Under the Lombards Beneventum became the capital of a powerful dukedom. It abounds in remains of ancient sculpture above any other town in Italy. The most beautiful relic of former days, at this place, is the arch of Trajan, which forms one of the entrances into the city. Near Beneventum Pyrrhus was defeated by Dentatus, A.U.C. 479. It is now Benevento. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 246.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 791, seqq.) Berecy NTIA, a surname of Cybele, from Mount Berecyntus in Phrygia, where she was particularly worshipped. (Stat., Theb., 4, 782–Virg., AEn., 9, 82.) Berecy Nril, a Phrygian tribe, celebrated by the poets in connexion with Cybele, so often styled “Berecyntia Mater.” Pliny places the Berecyntian district on the borders of Caria, about the Glaucus and Maeander. (Plin., 5, 29.) Berecy Ntus, a mountain in Phrygia Major, on the banks of the river Sangarius. It was sacred to Cybele, who is hence styled Berecynta Mater, “The Berecynthian mother.” (Serv., ad AEm., 9, 82.) BERENice (less correctly BeroNice), a name common to several females of antiquity. It is of Greek origin, and means “victory-bringing,” or “bearer of victory,” the initial 3 being written, according to Macedonian usage, for the letter 9, or, in other words, Bepevikm being put for Pepevikm, just as the Macedonians said Bížttritor for of Autritor. (Maittatre, Dial., p. 184, ed. Sturz.)—The most remarkable of this name were the following: I. the granddaughter of Cassander, brother of Antipater. She married Philip, a Macedonian, probably one of the officers of Alexander, and became by him the mother of many children, among whom were Magas, king of Cyrene, and Antigone, whom she married to Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. She followed into Egypt Eurydice, daughter of Antipater, who returned to that country to rejoin her husband Ptolemy I. Berenice inspired this prince with so strong a passion that he put away Eurydice, * he had children by her, and married the former. e also gave the preference, in the succession to the throne, to her son Ptolemy, notwithstanding the better claims of his offspring by Eurydice. Berenice was remarkable for her beauty, and her portrait often appears on the medals of Ptolemy I., along with that of the latter.—II. Daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoë. She followed her mother into exile, and retired with her to the court of Magas, at Cyrene, who married Arsinoe, and adopted Berenice. This will serve to explain why Polybius and Justin make Berenice to have been the daughter of Magas, while Callimachus gives Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoe as her parents. After the death of Magas, Arsinoë en; gaged her daughter in marriage to Demetrius, son of

Demetrius Poliorcetes; but, on the young prince's having come from Macedonia to Cyrene, she became attached to him herself. Demetrius, conducting himself insolently, was slain in a conspiracy, at the head of which was Berenice. The latter thereupon married her brother Ptolemy (Euergetes) III. A short time after the nuptials, Ptolemy was obliged to go on an expedition into Syria, and Berenice made a vow that she would consecrate her beautiful head of hair to Venus if her husband returned safe to Egypt. Upon his return she fulfilled her vow in the temple of Venus Zephyrites. On the following day, however, the hair was not to be sound. As both the monarch and his queen were greatly disquieted at the loss, Conon the Samaritan, an eminent astronomer of the day, in order to conciliate the royal favour, declared that the locks of Berenice had been removed by divine interposition, and translated to the skies in the form of a constellation. Hence the cluster of stars near the tail of the Lion is called Coma Berenices (“Berenice's hair"). Callimachus wrote a piece on this subject, now lost, but a translation of which into Latin verse by Catullus has reached our time. (Catull, Carm, 66.—Compare Hygin., Poet. Astron, 2, 24. —Doering, ad Catull., l.c.—Heyne, de genio sarculi Ptolemaeorum, Opusc., vol. 1, p. 177.) Berenice was put to death B.C. 216, by the orders of Ptolemy Philopator, her son.—III. A daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, given by him in marriage to Antiochus Theos, king of Syria, in order to cement a peace between the two countries. After the death of her father, Antiochus put her aside and recalled his former wife Laodice. . This last, having taken off Antiochus by poison, sought to destroy Berenice also as well as her son. This son was surprised and carried off by an emissary of Laodice's, and shortly after put to death; and Berenice, in searching for him, was entrapped and slain, B.C. 246.—IV. Called by some authors Cleopatra, was the only legitimate child of Ptolemy Lathurus, and ascended the throne after the death of her father, B.C. 81. Sylla, who was at that time dictator, compelled her to marry, and share her throne with, her cousin, who took the name of Ptolemy Alexander. She was poisoned by the latter only nineteen days after the marriage —V. Daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. The people of Alexandrea having revolted against this prince, B.C. 58, drove him out, and placed upon the throne his two daughters, Tryphena and Berenice. The former died soon after, and Berenice was given in marriage to Seleucus, surnamed Cybiosactes. His personal deformity, however, and vicious character, soon rendered him so odious to the queen, that she caused him to be strangled. Berenice then married Archelaus; but, Ptolemy Auletes having been restored by Gabinius, the Roman commander, she was put to death by her own father, B.C. 55.—VI. A native of Chios, and one of the wives of Mithradates of Pontus. ... On the overthrow of this monarch's power by Lucullus, Berenice, in obedience to an order from her husband, took poison along with his other wives; but this not proving effectual, she was strangled by the eunuch Bacchus, B.C. 71–VII. Daughter of Agrippa I., king of Judaea, and born A.D. 28. She was at first affianced to Marcus, son of Alexander; but this young man having died, Agrippa gave her in marriage to his brother Herod, king of Chalcis, by whom she became the mother of two sons, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. Having lost her husband when she was at the age of twenty, she went to live with her brother Agrippa, a circumstance which gave rise to reports injurious to her character. To put an end to these rumours, she made proposals to Polemo, kin of Cilicia, and offered to become his wife if he o embrace Judaism. Polemo consented, but she soon left him, and returned, in all probability, to her brother,

for she was with the latter when St. Paul was arrested

at Jerusalem, A.D. 63. The commerce between the guilty pair became now so public, that the rumour even reached Rome, and we find Juvenal alluding wo the affair in one of his satires (6, 155). She followed Agrippa when he went to join Vespasian, whom Nero had charged to reduce the Jews to obedience. A new scene now opened for her; she won the affections of Titus, and, at a subsequent period, when Wespasian was established on the throne, and Titus retumed home after terminating the Jewish war, she accompanied him to Rome along with her brother Agrippa. At Rome she lived openly with Titus, and took up her abode in the imperial palace, as we learn from Dio Cassius, who states also that she was then in the flower of her age. Titus, it is said, intended even to acknowledge her as his wife; but he was compelled by the murmurs of his subjects to abandon this idea, and he sent her away from the city soon after his accession to the throne. Such, at least, is the account given by Suetonius (Tit., 7), who appears more entitled to belief than Dio Cassius, according to whom Titus sent Berenice away before his accession to the throne, and refused to receive her again, when she had returned to Rome a short time after the commencement of his reign. (Dio Cass., 66, 15 et 18.) —There is a great difficulty attending the history of this Berenice as regards her intimacy with Titus. She must, at least, have been forty-two years of age when she first became acquainted with the Roman prince, and fifty-one years old at the period of the celebrated scene which forms the subject of Racine's tragedy.

Many are inclined to believe, therefore, that the Bere

nice to whom Titus was attached was the daughter of Mariamne and Archelaus, and, consequently, the niece of the Berenice of whom we have been speaking; she would be twenty-five years old when Titus came into Judaea. (Clavier, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 4,

p.241, seqq.)—VIII. A city of Egypt, on the coast of

the Sinus Arabicus, from which a road was made across the intervening desert to Coptos on the Nile, by Ptolemy Philadelphus, 258 miles in length. From this harbour the vessels of Egypt took their departure

for Arabia Felix and India. It was through the me

dium of Berenice also, and the caravan route to Cop

tos, that the principal trade of the Romans with India

was conducted. By this line of communication, it is

said that a sum not less than what would be now

£400,000, was remitted by the Roman traders to their in

correspondents in the East, in payment of merchandise which ultimately sold for a hundred times as much. (Plin, 6,23.—Id., 6, 29.—Strab., 560—Agathemer, 2, 5.) The ruins of the ancient Berenice are found at the modern port of Habest. (Murray, Hist. Account, &c., vol. 2, p. 187.)—IX. A city of Cyrenaica, called also Hesperis. In its vicinity the ancients placed the gardens of the Hesperides. It is now Bengazi, a poor and filthy town. Few traces of the ancient city remain above ground, although much might be brought to light by excavation. “When we reflect,” remarks Capt. Beechy, “that Berenice flourished under Justinlan, and that its walls underwent a thorough repair in the reign of that emperor, it will be thought somewhat singular, that both the town and its walls should have disappeared so completely as they have done.” 9f the latter, scarcely a vestige remains above the surface of the plain. (Modern Traveller, part 49, p. 98.) Boos, I. an old woman of Epidaurus, nurse to Şemele. Juno assumed her shape, when she persuaded Semele not to receive the visits of Jupiter if he did not *PPoal in the majesty of a god. (Ovid, Met., 3, 278.) Fls. The wife of Doryclus, whose form was assumed o, is at the instigation of Juno, when she advised * Trojan women to burn the fleet of Æneas in Si. cily, (Virg., AEn, 5, 620.) Broa or Bernhoea, a large and populous city of olonia, south of Edessa. "It was a place of great

antiquity, and is often mentioned by the early writers. Its situation, as is generally agreed, answers to that of the present Kara Veria. Some interesting circumstances respecting Beroea are to be found in the Acts of the Apostles (17, 11. – Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 232). BERósus, a Babylonian historian, rendered much more famous by the mention of others than from anything which is known of his own performances. He was priest of the temple of Belus in the time of Alexander, and, having learned the Greek language from the Macedonians, he removed to Greece, and opened a school of astronomy and astrology in the island of Cos, where his productions acquired him great fame with the Athenians. The ancients mention three books of his, relative to the history of the Chaldaeans, of which Josephus and Eusebius have preserved fragments. As a priest of Belus, he possessed every advantage which the records of the temple, and the learning and traditions of the Chaldaeans, could afford, and seems to have composed his work with a serious regard for truth. Annius of Viterbo published a work under the name of Berosus, which was soon discovered to be a forgery. (Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. viii., Praf.) Berytus (Berotha, Ezek., 47, 16.—Bmp,00m, Joseph., Ant. Jud., 5, 1–Berothai, 2 Sam., 8, 8), an ancient town of Phoenicia, about twenty-four miles south of Byblus, famous in the age of Justinian for the study of law, and styled by the emperor “the mother and nurse of the laws.” The civil law was taught there in Greek, as it was at Rome in Latin. It had also the name of Colonia Felix Julia, from Augustus Caesar, who made it a Roman colony, and named it in honour of his daughter. (Plin., 5, 20.) The modern appellation is Beirout. The adjacent plain is renowned as the place where St. George, the patron saint of England, slew the dragon; in memory of which, a small chapel was built upon the spot, dedicated at first to that Christian hero, but now changed to a mosque. It was frequently captured and recaptured during the crusades. It is now the seat of one of the most interesting missionary stations in the world, and possesses many important advantages for such a purpose. It is situated on the Mediterranean, at the foot of Mount Lebanon, within three days of Damascus, two days' sail of Cyprus, two srom Tyre, and three from Tripoli. Its present population is about 10,000. (For interestnotices of this place, consult Jewett's Researches, vols. 1 and ... "...}. of Rev. Pliny Fisk.—Missionary Herald, &c.) Besippo, a seaport town of Hispania Baetica, east of Junonis Promontorium, where Mela was born. Its ruins lie in the neighbourhood of the modern Porto Barbato. (Philos. Transact, vol. 30, p. 922.) The town of Wejer de la Frontera, which many think represents the ancient Besippo (Hardouin, ad Plin., 3, 3), lies too far from the sea. (Ukert, Geog., vol. 2, p. 343.) Bessi, a people of Thrace, occupying a district called Bessica, between Mons Rhodope and the northern part of the Hebrus. The Bessi belonged to the powerful nation of the Satrae, the only Thracian tribe which had never been subjugated. (Herod., 7, 110.) According to Strabo (318), they were a very lawless and predatory race, and were not conquered finally till the reign of Augustus. (Dio Cass., 54.—Flor; 4, 12.) Bessus, a governor of Bactriana, who, after the battle of Arbela, seized Darius, his sovereign, with the intention of carrying him off prisoner to his satrapy; but, being hotly pursued by the Macedonians, he left the monarch wounded and dying in the way, and effected his own escape. Being subsequently delivered into the hands of Alexander, that monarch, according to one account (Justin, 12, 5), gave him up for punishment to the brother of Darius. (Compare

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