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AEthiopians in check. He concluded a treaty with the Parthians, by which they gave up Armenia, and restored the eagles taken from Crassus and Antony. At the foot of the Alps he erected monuments of his triumphs over the mountaineers, the proud remains of which are yet to be seen at Susa and Aosta. After

he had established peace throughout the empire, he

closed (for the third time since the foundation of Rome) the temple of Janus (B.C. 10). This universal repose, however, was interrupted, A.D. 9, by the defeat of Varus, who lost three legions in an engagement with the Germans under Arminius, and killed himself in despair. The intelligence of this misfortune greatly agitated Augustus. He let his beard and hair grow, and often cried out, as if in the deepest sorrow, “Oh Varus, give me back my legions !” Meanwhile the Germans were held in check by Tiberius. During the peace, to which we have just referred, Augustus had issued inany useful decrees, and abolished many abuses in the government. He gave a new form to the senate,

employed himself in improving the manners of the

people, promoted marriage, suppressed luxury, introduced discipline into the armies, and, in a word, did everything in his power to subserve the best interests of the state. He adorned Rome in such a manner, that it was truly said by him, “he found it of brick, and left it of marble.” (Sueton., Aug., 29–Dio Cass., 56, 30.) He also made journeys everywhere, to increase the blessings of peace; he went to Sicily and Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Gaul, and other quarters: in several places he founded cities and established colonies. (Vell. Paterc., 2, 92.) The people erected altars to him, and by a decree of the senate, the month Sertilis was called by the new appellation of Augustus (August). Two conspiracies, which threatened his life, miscarried. Caepio, Muraena, and Egnatius were punished with death: Cinna was more fortunate, receiving pardon from the emperor. This forbearance increased the love of the Romans, and diminished the number of the disaffected ; so that the master of Rome would have had nothing to wish for, if his family had been as obedient as the world. The debauchery of his daughter Julia gave him the greatest pain, and he showed himself more severe towards those who destroyed the honour of his family than towards those who had threatened his life. History says, that in his old age he was ruled by Livia, the only person perhaps whom he truly loved. He had no sons, and lost by death his sister's son Marcellus, and his daughter's sons Caius and Lucius, whom he had appointed his successors. Drusus, also, his son-in-law, whom he loved, died early ; and Tiberius, the brother of the latter, whom he hated on account of his bad qualities, alone survived. These numerous calanities, together with his continually increasing infirmities, gave him a strong desire for repose. He undertook a journey to Campania, from whose purer air he hoped for relief; but disease fixed upon him, and he died at Nola (August 19, A.D. 14), in the seventy-sixth year of his age, and forty-fifth of his reign.—Augustus was in his stature something below the middle size, but extremely well proportioned. (Sueton., Aug., 79.) His hair was a little inclined to curl, and of a yellowish brown; his eyes were bright and lively; but the general expression of his countenance was remarkably calm and mild. His health was throughout his life delicate, yet the constant attention which he paid to it, and his strict temperance in eating and drinking, enabled him to reach the full age of man. As a seducer and adulterer, and a man of low sensuality, his character was as profligate as that of his uncle. (Sueton., Aug., 69, 71.) In his literary qualifications, without at all rivalling the attainments of Caesar, he was on a level with most Romans of distinction of his time; and it is said, that

68, seqq.). His speeches on any public occasion were composed beforehand, and recited from memory; nay, so careful was he not to commit himself by any inconsiderate expression, that, even when discussing any important subject with his own wife, he wrote down what he had to say, and read it before her. Like his uncle, he was strongly tinged with superstition. He was very deficient in military talent; but in every species of artful policy, in clearly seeing, and steadily and dispassionately following his own interest, and in turning to his own advantage all the weaknesses of others, his ability, if so it may be called, has been rarely equalled. His deliberate cruelty, his repeated treachery, and his sacrifice of every duty and every feeling to the purposes of his ambition, speak for themselves; and yet it would be unjust to ascribe to a politic premeditation all the popular actions of his reign. Good is in itself so much more delightful than evil, that he was doubtless not insensible to the pleasure of kind and beneficent actions, and perhaps sincerely rejoiced that they were no longer incompatible with his interests.— Among the various arts to which Augustus resorted to beguile the hearts of his people, and perhaps to render them forgetful of their former freedom, one of the Inost remarkable was the encouragement which he extended to learning, and the patronage he so liberally bestowed on all by whom it was cultivated. To this noble protection of literature he was prompted not less by taste and inclination than sound policy; and in his patronage of the learned, his usual artifice had probably a smaller share than in those other parts of his conduct by which he acquired the favourable opinion of the world. Augustus was, besides, an excellent judge of composition, and a true critic in poetry; so that his patronage was never misplaced, or lavished on those whose writings might rather have tended to corrupt than improve the taste and learning of the age. No writer could hope for patronage except by cultivating a style both chaste and simple, which, if ornamental, was not luxurious, or, if severe, was not rugged or antiquated. The court of Augustus thus became a school of urbanity, where men of genius acquired that delicacy of taste, that elevation of sentiment, and that purity of expression, which characterize the writers of the age. To Maecenas, the favourite minister of the emperor, the honour is due of having most successfully followed out the views of his master for promoting the interests of literature; but it is wrong to give Maecenas the credit, as some have done, of first having turned the attention of Augustus to the patronage of literature. On the contrary, he appears merely to have acted from the orders, or to have followed the example, of his imperial master. (Encyclop. Metrop, Div. 3, vol. 2, p. 294, seqq.—Encyclop. Amer, vol. 1, p. 469–Biogr. Univ., vol. 3, p. 37, seqq.—Dunlop's Rom. Lit., vol. 3, p. 10, seqq.)—II. A title which descended from Octavius to his successors. It was purely honorary, and carried with it the idea of respect and veneration rather than of any authority. The seminine form Augusta was often given to the mothers, wives, or sisters of the Roman emperors. Under Dioclesian, when the new constitution was given to the empire, the title of Augustus became more definite, and then began to be applied to the two princes who held sway conjointly, while the appellation of Caesar was given to each of the presumptive heirs of the empire. The term Augustus is derived, not from augeo, but from augur. (Gronor., Thes. Antiq. Gr., vol. 7, p. 462.) Places or buildings consecrated by auguries were originally , called augusta; and the name was afterward applied to other things similarly circumstanced. Thus Ennius, as cited by Suetonius (Aug., 7), uses the expression “augusto augurio.” (Compare Fest., p. 43–Orld, Fast., 1, 607, seqq.) Consequently, when the title Augustus is applied to a person, it is equivalent in

both in speaking and writing, his style was eminent for its perfect plainness and propriety. (Sueton., Aug.,

meaning to sanctus, sacratus, or sacrosanctus. (Com

pare Dio Cass., 53, 16.) And hence, as Gronovius comectly remarks, the term in question contains 9eiów ti, ...; of a divine nature.” The Greeks, moreover, rendered Augustus into their language by Xstaqrós, which Dio Cassius (l.c.) explains by aestrós. (Creuzer, Röm. Antiq., p. 292, seqq.) Aviixus, Flavius, a Latin versifier of Æsopic fables, sorty-two in number. The measure adopted by him is the elegiac. According to Cannegieter, one of his editors, Avianus flourished about 160 A.D. (Henric. Canneg, de attate, &c., Flav. Aviani Dissertatio, p. 231, seqq.) This opinion, however, is rendered altogether untenable by the inferior character of the Latinity, which Cannegieter endeavours, though unsuccessfully, to defend. Avianus would seem to have lived in the reign of Theodosius, long after the date assigned by the scholar just mentioned. His work is dedicated to a certain Theodosius, supposed to have been the grammarian Macrobius Theodosius. The fables of Avianus are sometimes erroneously ascribed to Avienus. The best editions of Avianus are, that of Cannegieter, Amstriod., 1731, 8vo, and that of Nodell, Amstelod., 1787, 8vo. (Bähr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 317.) AvičNus, Rufus Festus, a Roman poet, whose age and country have both been disputed. St. Jerome speaks of him as of a recent writer (in Epist. ad Titum, v. 12), and we can scarcely, therefore, with Crinitus, place him in the reign of Dioclesian. (Crinit., de poet. Lat, c. 80.) The death of Jerome happened A.D. 420, in his ninety-first year: on the supposition, therefore, that Avienus flourished about the middle of that father's protracted life, we may assign him to about A.D. 370, or the period of Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian. Tradition or conjecture has made him a Spaniard by birth; but this opinion is unsupported by written testimony, and even contradicted, if the inscription found in the Caesarian Villa refer to this poet, which there seems small reason to doubt. From this we learn that he was the son of Musonius Avienus, or the son of Avienus and descendant of Musonius, accordingly as we punctuate the first line (“Festus Musoni soboles prolesque Avient”); that he was born at Wulsinii in Etruria; that he resided at Rome; that he was twice proconsul, and the author of many poetical pieces. The same inscription contradicts the notion, too precipitately grounded on some vague expressions in his writings, that he was a Christian ; for it is nothing else than a religious address to the goddess Nortia, the Fortune of the Etrurians. The extant and acknowledged works of this poet are versions of the bawdueva of Aratus, and the IIepuffymatc of Dionysius; and a portion of a poem “De Ora Maritima,” which includes, with some digressions, the coast between Cadiz and Marseilles. The other poems generally believed to be the work of Avienus are, an Epistle to Flavianus Myrmecius, an elegiac piece “de Cantu Sirenum,” and some verses addressed to the author's friends from the country. A poem “de urbibus Hispania Mediterraneis,” is cited by some Spanish writers as the production of Avienus (Nicolaus Antonius, Bibl. Vet. #. 2, 9), but it is generally supposed to be the forgery of a Jesuit of Toledo. Servius (ad Virg., AEn., 10, 272–388) ascribes to Avienus iambic versions of the narrative of Virgil and the history of Livy; which observation of the grammarian, o with a consideration of the genius and habits *f this poet, renders it not altogether improbable that he is the author of a very curious and spirited Latin

Epitome of the Iliad, which has reached us, and which

tho's some light on the poetical history of the time. -The best edition of Avienus is that of Wermsdorff, in the Poeta. Latini Minores, vol. 5, pt. 2, Helmstad.,

1791, 12mo. (Enc clop. Metropol., Div. 3, vol. 2, p.

: in-law, esch. Röm. Lit, vol. 1, p. is: 7. *ct. Under this name are reckoned three

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nations of Gaul. I. The Aulerci Brannovices, contiguous to the AEdui, and subject to them, answering to what is now le Briennois. (Caes., B. G., 7, 75.)— II. The Aulerci Cenomani, situate between the Sarta or Sarthe, and the Laedus, two of the northern branches of the Liger. Their country is now the Department de la Sarthe. (Caes., B. G., 7, 75.)—III. The Aulerci Eburovices, on the left bank of the Sequana or Seine, below Lutetia or Paris, answering now to the Department de l'Eure. (Caes., B. G., 3, 17.) Aulètes, the surname of one of the Ptolemies, father of Cleopatra. The appellation is a Greek one, meaning “flute-player” (Atomrūc), and was given him on account of his excellence in playing upon the flute, or, more correctly speaking, pipe. Aulis, a town of Boeotia, on the shores of the Euripus, and nearly opposite to Chalcis. It is celebrated as being the rendezvous of the Grecian fleet when about to sail for Troy, and as the place where they were so long detained by adverse winds. (Vid. Iphigenia.) Strabo (403) remarks, that, as the harbour of Aulis could not contain more than fifty ships, the Grecian fleet must have assembled in the neighbouring port of Bathys, which was much more extensive. From Xenophon we learn, that, when Agesilaus was on the point of setting out for Asia Minor, to carry on the war against Persia, he had intended to offer up sacrifice at Aulis, but was opposed in this design by the Boeotarchs, who appeared in the midst of the ceremony with an armed force. (Hist. Gr., 3, 4, 4.) Livy says the distance between Aulis and Chalcis was three miles. (Liv., 45, 27.) Pausanias (9, 19) reports, that the temple of Diana still existed when he visited Aulis, but that the inhabitants of the place were few, and those chiefly potters. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 262, seqq.) Aulon, I. a fertile ridge and valley near Tarentum, in Southern Italy, the wine of which equalled the Falernian in the opinion of Horace. (Horat., Od., 2, 6, 18.)—II. A valley of Palestine, extending along the banks of Jordan, called also Magnus Campus.-III. Another in Syria, between the ridges of Libanus and Antilibanus.—IV. A district and city of Messenia, bordering on Triphylia and part of Arcadia, being separated from these two by the Neda. (Strab., 350.Steph. Byz., s. v.) Áulus, I. A pranomen common among the Romans.—II. Gellius. (Vid. Gellius.) Aurelia Lex, was enacted A.U.C. 683, and ordained that judices or jurymen should be chosen from the Senators, Equites, and Tribuni AErarii.Another, A.U.C. 678. It abrogated a clause of the Lex Cornelia, and permitted the tribunes to hold other offices after the expiration of the tribuneship. Aurell RNI. Wid. Genabum. Aurell RNus, I. (Lucius Domitius) an emperor of Rome, distinguished for his military abilities and stern severity of character, was the son of a peasant in the territory of Sirmium, in Illyria. His father occupied a small farm, the property of Aurelius, a rich senator. The son enlisted in the troops as a common soldier, successively rose to the rank of centurion, tribune, prefect of a legion, inspector of the camp, general, or, as it was then called, duke of a frontier; and at length, during the Gothic war, exercised the important office of commander-in-chief of the cavalry. In every station he distinguished himself by matchless valour, rigid discipline, and successful conduct. Theoclius, as quoted in the Augustan history (p. 211), affirms, that in one day he killed forty-eight Sarmatians, and in several subsequent engagements nine hundred and fifty. . This heroic valour was admired by the soldiers, and celebrated in their rude songs, the burden of which was “Mille, mille, mille, occidit.” At length Valerian II. raised him to the consulship, and his good fortune was farther favoured by a wealthy and noble marriage. 241

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His next elevation was to the throne, Claudius II., on his deathbed, having recommended Aurelian to the troops of Illyricum, who readily acceded to his wishes. The reign of this monarch lasted only four years and about nine months; but every instant of that short period was filled by some memorable achievement. He put an end to the Gothic war, chastised the Germans who invaded Italy, recovered Gaul, Spain, and Britain out of the hands of Tetricus, and destroyed the proud monarchy which Zenobia had erected in the East on the ruins of the afflicted empire. Owing to the ungenerous excuse of the queen, that she had waged war by the advice of her ministers, her secretary, the celebrated Longinus, was put to death by the victor; but, after having graced his triumphal entry into Rome, Zenobia herself was presented with a villa near Tibur, and allowed to spend the remainder of her days as a Roman matron. (Wid. Zenobia, Longinus, Palmyra.) Aurelian followed up his victories by the reformation of abuses, and the restoration throughout the empire of order and regularity, but he tarnished his good intentions by the general severity of his measures, and the sacrifice of the senatorian order to his slightest suspicions. He had planned a great expedition against Persia, and was waiting in Thrace for an opportunity to cross the straits, when he lost his life, A.D. 125, by assassination, the result of a conspiracy excited by a secretary whom he intended to call to account for peculation. Aurelian was a wise, able, and active prince, and very useful in the declining state of the empire; but the austerity of his character caused him to be very little regretted. It is said that he meditated a severe persecution on the Christians, when he was so suddenly cut off. (Hist. August, p. 211, seqq.— Gibbon, Decline and Fall, c. 11.-Biogr. Univ., vol. 3, p. 72.—Encyclop. Am., vol. 1, p. 474.)—II. Caelius, a native of Sicca, in Numidia, who is supposed to have lived between 180 and 240 A.D. He was a member of the medical profession, and has left behind him two works : the one entitled, “Libri Quinque tardarum sive chronicarum passionum,” and the other, “Libri tres celerum sive acutarum passionum.” Both are drawn from Greek authors; from Themison, Thessalus, and, above all, Soranus. Caelius Aurelianus being the only author of the sect called Methodists who has come down to us (if we except Octavius Horatianus, who lived in the days of the Emperor Valentinian, and is little known), his work is particularly valuable, as preserving to us an account of many theories and views of practice which would otherwise have been lost; but even of itself it is deserving of much attention for the practical information which it contains. Caelius is remarkable for learning, understanding, and scrupulous accuracy; but his style is much loaded with technical terms, and by no means elegant. He has treated of the most important diseases which come under the care of the physician in the following manner. In the first place, he gives a very circumstantial account of the symptoms, which he does, however, more like a systematic writer and a compiler, than as an original observer of nature. Next, he is at great pains to point out the distinction between the disease he is treating of and those which very nearly resemble it. He after. ward endeavours to determine the nature and seat of the disease; and this part frequently contains valuable references to the works of Erasistratus, the celebrated Alexandrean anatomist. Then comes his account of the treatment, which is, in general, sensible and scientific, but somewhat too formal, timid, and fettered by the rules of the sect. He is ingenious, however, in often delivering a free statement of modes of practice, essentially different from his own. His account of Hydrophobia is particularly valuable, as being the most complete treatise upon that fatal malady which antiquity has furnished us with. He states, that the disease is occasioned not only by the bite of a dog, but

likewise by that of wolves, bears, leopards, horses, and asses. He also mentions an instance of its being brought on by a wound inflicted by the spurs of a cock. Nay, he says that he knew a case of the disease being brought on by the breath of a dog, without a wound at all. Sometimes too, he says, the complaint comes on without any apparent cause. His description, if compared with modern descriptions (for example, with that given in Hufeland's Journal for 1816, by Dr. Goden), will be found in every respect very complete. He considers the affection as a general one, but that the nerves of the stomach are more particularly interested in the disease ; and Dr. Goden likewise is of opinion, that the splanchnic nerves are more especially affected. In short, his theory is, that the complaint consists of an incendium nervorum, or increased heat of the nerves. He treats the disease upon much the same plan as tetanus, to which he appears to have considered it allied, by frictions with tepid oil, oily clysters, and other remedies of a relaxing nature. He approves of venesection, but not to a great extent. He condemns the use of hellebore, which is a mode of treatment approved of by every ancient authority except himself. Neither, also, does he make mention of the application of the actual cautery to the wound, which practice is recommended by the best authorities, both ancient and modern. (Sprengel, Hist. de la Med., vol. 2, p. 37, seqq.) Aurelius, I. Marcus, a Roman emperor. Antoninus II.)—II. Victor, a Roman historian. Victor.) AuriNIA, a prophetess held in great veneration by the Germans. , (Tacit., Germ., 8.) Some imagine the true form of the name to have been, when Latinized, Alurinia; and trace an analogy between it and the Alruna of northern mythology. (Consult Oberlinus, ad Tacit., l.c.) AURöRA, the goddess of the dawn, daughter of Hyperion and Theia. Her Greek name was Eos, ("Häg). Qther genealogies represent her as the daughter of Titan and Terra, or of Pallas, the son of Crius and husband of Styx, whence she is sometimes styled Pallantias . In Homer and Hesiod she is simply the goddess of the dawn, but in the works of succeeding poets, she is identified with Hemera, or the Day. (AEschyl., Pers., 384–Eurip., Troad., 844.—Bion, Idyll., 6, 18–Quint., Smyrn., 1, 119.—Nonnus, 7, 286, 294.—Id., 25, 567–Musaeus, 110, &c.) Aurora became, by Astraus, the mother of the winds Boreas, Zephyrus, and Notus, and also of the stars of heaven. (Hes., Theog., 378.) She was more than once, moreover, deeply smitten with the love of mortal man. She carried off Orion, and kept him in the isle of Ortygia till he was slain there by the darts of Diana. (0d., 5, 121.) Clitus, the son of Mantius, was for his exceeding beauty snatched away by her, “that he might be among the gods.” (Od., 15,250.) She also carried off Cephalus, and had by him a son named Phaethon. (Hes., Theog., 986. – Eurip, Hippol, 457.) But her strongest affection was for Tithonus, son of Laomedon, king of Troy. (Wid. Tithonus.) The children whom she bore to Tithonus were Memnon and Æmathion.—The most probable derivation of the name Eós ('Hôs, Doric 'Aéc) seems to be that from io, to blow, regarding it as the cool morning air, whose gentle breathing precedes the rising of the sun. The Latin term Aurora is similarly related to Aura. (Hermann, wber das Wesen, &c., p. 98–Keightley's Mythology, p. 63, seqq.) Aurora is sometimes represented in a saffron-coloured robe, with a wand or torch in her hand, coming out of a golden palace, and ascending a chariot of the same metal. Homer describes her as wearing a flowing veil, which she throws back to denote the dispersion of night, and as opening with her rosy fingers the gates of day. Others represent her as a nymph crowned with flowers, with a

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star above her head, standing in a chariot drawn by winged horses, while in one hand she holds a torch, and with the other scatters roses, as illustrative of the flowers springing from the dew, which the poets describe as diffused from the eyes of the goddess in liquid pearls. (Compare Inghirami, Mon. Etrusc., 1, 5– Millin, Wases de Canosa, 5. Vases, 1, 15.-1d. ibid., 2, 37–Eckhel, Syll, 7, 3–Müller, Archaeol. der Kunst, p. 611.) Aurunci, a people of Latium, on the coast towards Campania, southeast of the Volsci. They were, in fact, identical with the Ausonians. The Italian form of the name Ausones can have been no other than Aurini, for from this Aurunci is manifestly derived. Auruncus is Aurunicus; the termination belongs to the number of adjective-forms in which the old Latin luxuriated, so as even to form Tuscanicus from Tuscus. (Niebuhr's Rom. Hist, vol. 1, p. 56, 2d ed., Cambridge transl.) AusAR, a river of Etruria, which formerly joined the Arnus, not far from the mouth of the latter. At present they both flow into the sea by separate channels. Some indication of the junction of these rivers seems preserved by the name of Osari, attached to a little stream or ditch which lies between them. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 174.) Auschis Ae, a people of Libya. (Herodot., 4, 171.) They extended from above Barca to the neighbourhood of the Hesperides. (Compare Rennell's Geography of Herodotus, vol. 2, p. 266.) Ausci, a people of Gallia Aquitania. Their capital was Ausci, now Ausch, on the Ger, one of the southern branches of the Garumna or Garonne. Its earlier name was Climberris or Climberrum. (Caes., B. G., 3, 27.-Mela, 3, 2–Amm. Marc., 15, 28.) Auson, a son of Ulysses and Calypso, from whom the Ausones, a people of Italy, were fabled to have been descended. (Wid. Ausonia.) Ausonia, a name properly applied to the whole southern part of Italy, through which the Ausones, one of the ancient races of fo. had spread themselves. Its derivation from Auson, son of Ulysses and Calypso, is a mere fable. The sea on the southeast coast was for a long time called from them Mare Ausonium. Niebuhr makes the Ausonians a portion of the great Oscan nation. (Rom. Hist, vol. 1, p. 56, 2d ed., Cambridge transl.) Ausonius (Decius, or, more correctly, Decimus, Magnus), a Roman poet of the fourth century. The most authentic particulars respecting him are to be found in his own writings, and more especially in the second volume of his Praefatiunculae, wherein he treats the subject professedly. He was born at Burdigala (Bourdeaux), where his father, Julius Ausonius, was an eminent physician, and also a Roman senator and member of the Municipal Council. Had his education been solely confided to paternal attentions, it is probable that no record of him would have been necessary among the Latin poets, since the elder Ausonius, although well read in Greek, was but indifferently acquainted with the Latin tongue. By the exertions, however, of his maternal uncle, Æmilius Magnus Arborius, himself a poet, and the reputed author of an elegy still extant, “Ad nympham nimis cultam,” and those of the grammarians Minervius, Nepotian, and Staphylus, the disadvantages of our poet's circumstances were abundantly removed. From these eminent men he acquired the principles of grammar and rhetoric. His success in the latter of these studies induced him to make trial of the bar; but the former was his choice, and in A.D. 367 he was appointed by the Emperor Valentinian tutor to the young prince Gratian, whom he accompanied into Germany the following year. He became successively Count of the empire, quaestor, governor of Gaul, Libya, and

Latium, and first consul. The last of these dignities he obtained A.D. 379 The question has been often started, whether Ausonius was a Christian or not. Some have doubted the circumstance on account of the extreme licentiousness of certain of his productions. It is difficult, however, to deny the affirmative of this question without attacking the authenticity of some of his pieces, such as, for example, his first Idyl: besides, how can we imagine that so zealous a Christian as Valentinian would have confided to a pagan the education of his son? As to the licentious character of some of his poetry, it may be remarked, that, in professing the prevailing religion of the day, he omitted, perhaps, to follow its purer precepts, and hence indulged in effusions revolting to morality and decency. The frequent use which i. makes of the pagan mythology in his writings does not prove anything against his observance | Christianity, since the spirit of the times allowed this absurd mixture of fable with truth.-The exact time when Ausonius died is uncertain; he was alive in 392.—The poetry of Ausonius, on the whole, like that of Avienus, is marked by poverty of argument, profusion of mechanical ingenuity, and imitation of, or, rather, compilation from, the ancients. It is valuable, however, to the literary historian: its variety alone affords us a considerable insight into the state of poetry in that age; and the station and pursuits of the author allowed him that familiarity with contemporary poets which has imparted to his works the character of poetical memoirs.Of the editions of Ausonius, the best, although a very rare one, is that of Tollius, Amst., 1671, 8vo. It contains the learned commentary of Joseph Scaliger, together with selected notes from Accursius, Barthius, Gronovius, Gravius, and others. The Delphin edition is also held in considerable estimation. The Bipont edition, published in 1783, 8vo, is a useful and correct one. (Bähr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 304, seqq.—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 52.—Encyclop. Metropol., Div. 3, vol. 2, p. 576, seq.) Auspices, a sacerdotal order at Rome, nearly the same as the augurs. Ausper (the nom. sing.) denoted a person who observed and o omens, especially those connected with the flight, the sounds, and the feeding of birds; and hence the term is said to be derived from avis, “a bird,” and specio, “to behold” or “observe,” the earlier form of the word having been avisper. In later times, when the custom of consulting the auspices on every occasion lost much of its strictness, the term auspez acquired a more general signification. Before this, the name was particularly applied to the priest who officiated at marriages; but now, those employed to witness the signing of the marriage contract, and to see that everything was rightly performed, were called auspices nuptiarum, jo. proreneta, conciliatores, and pronubi, in Greek trapaviuotot. (Val. Maz., 2, 1, 1.—Cic., de Divin., 1, 16.—Sueton., Claud., 26.-Serv., ad AEn., 1, 350, et 4, 45.—Buleng., de Aug. et Ausp., 3, 13.) Hence auspex is put for a favourer or director; thus, auspez legis, “one who advocates a law ;” diis auspicibus, “under the guidance of the gods;” auspice musa, “under the inspiration of the muse,” &c. (Consult remarks under the article Augures.) Auster, the South wind, the same with the Notos of the Greeks. Pliny (2,48) speaks of it as a drying, withering wind, identifying it, therefore, with the Sirocco of modern times. Aristotle (Probl., 1, 23) ascribes to its influence burning severs. Horace (Serm., 2, 6, 18) calls it “plumbeus Auster,” thus characterizing it as unhealthy , and, on another occasion, he speaks of it in plainer language, as “nocens corporibus.” (Od., 2, 14, 15.) Statius describes the roses as dying at its first approach, “Pubentesve roso, primos moriuntur ad Austros.” (solo.’, 129.-Compare Virg., Eclog., 2, 58.) Pliny recommends the husbandman neither to trim his trees nor prune his vines when this wind blows (18, 76). On another occasion (16,46) he states, that the pear and the almond trees lose their buds if the heavens be clouded by a south wind, though unaccompanied by rain. This remark, however, is not confirmed by modern experience. The south wind is also described by the Latin poets as bringing rain. (Tibull., 1, 1,47.—Ovid, Met., 13, 725, &c.) We must distinguish, therefore, between the dry and humid southern blasts, as Pliny does in the following passage : “(Auster) humidus aut astuosus Italia est; Africa, quidem incendia cum serenitate adfert” (18, 76). AutochthāNes, an appellation assumed by the Athenians, importing that they sprang from the soil which they inhabited. (Consult remarks under the article AtticA.) AutolóLAE, a people of Africa, on the western or Atlantic coast of Mauritania Tingitana. (Plin., 6, 31.-Lucan, Pharsal., 4, 677.-Sil. Ital., 2, 63.) Autolycus, son of Mercury and Philonis, according to the scholiast on Homer (Od., 19,432), but, according to Pausanias (8, 4), the son of Daedalion, and not of i. He dwelt on Parnassus, and was celebrated as a stealer of cattle, which he carried off in such a way as to render it nearly impossible to recognise them, all the marks being defaced. Among others, he drove off those of Sisyphus, and he defaced the marks as usual; but, when Sisyphus came in quest of them, he, to the great surprise ..]". thief, selected his own beasts out of the herd, for he had marked the initial letter of his name under their hoofs. (The ancient form of the X was C, which is of the shape of a horse's hook) Autolycus forthwith cultivated the acuaintance of one who had thus proved himself too able or him; and Sisyphus, it is said, seduced or violated his daughter Anticlea (who afterward married Laertes), and thus was the real father of Ulysses. (Pherecyd, ap. Schol. ad Od., 19, 432.—Schol, ad Îl., 10, 267. —Tzetz. ad Lycophr., 344.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 400.) AutoMiędoN, a son of Dioreus, who went to the Trojan war with ten ships. He was the charioteer of Achilles, after whose death he served Pyrrhus in the same capacity. (Hom., Il., 9, 16, &c.—Virg., AEn., 2, 477.) AutoNöe, a daughter of Cadmus, who married Aristaeus, by whom . had Actaeon, often called Autoncius heros. The death of her son (vid. Actaeon) was so painful to her that she retired from Boeotia to Megara, where she soon after died. (Pausan, 1,44. —Hygin, fab., 179–Ovid, Met, 3, 720.) AutrigðNes, a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, among the Cantabri. They occupied what is now the eastern half of La Montana, the western quarter of Biscay and Alava, and the northeastern part of Burgos. Their capital was Flaviobriga, now Porto Gallete, near Bilboa. (Florez, Esp. S., 24, 10– Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 446.) Mannert, however, makes it to be Santander. (Geogr., vol. 1, p. 373.) Axi. Nus, the ancient name of the Euxine Sea. The word signifies inhospitable, which was highly applicable to the manners of the ancient inhabitants of the coast. It took the name of Euxinus after the coast was settled by Grecian colonies. (Vid. Pontus Euxinus.) Axius, the largest river in Macedonia, rising in the chain of Mount Scardus, and, after a course of eighty miles, forming an extensive lake near its mouth. It falls into the Sinus Thermaicus, after receiving the waters of the Erigonus, Ludias, and Astraeus. In the middle ages this river assumed the name of Bardarus (Theophylact, Epist., 55–Niceph. Gregg vol. 1, p. 330), whence has been derived that of Vardari or Wardar, which it now bears. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 235.)

AzAN, I. a mountain of Arcadia, sacred to Cybele. (Stat., Theb., 4, 292.)—II. A son of Arcas, king of Arcadia, by Erato, one of the Dryades. He divided his father's kingdom with his brothers Aphidas and Elatus, and called his share Azania. There was in Azania a fountain called Clitorius, whose waters gave a dislike for wine to those who drank them. (Vitrup., 8, 3.—Ovid, Met., 15, 322.—Pausan., 8, 4.—Plun., 21, 2–Etymol. Mag., s. v. Kauróptov.)—III. A region on the northeastern coast of Africa, lying south of Aromatum Promontorium and north of Barbaria. It is now Ajan. (Ptol.—Arrian, Peripl. Mar. Erythr. —Stukus, ad Arrian, l.c., p. 93.)

Aziris, a place in Libya, surrounded on both sides by delightful hills covered with trees, and watered by a river, where Battus built a town, previous to founding Cyrene. (Herod., 4, 157.) Ptolemy calls the place Arylis. The harbour of Azaris, mentioned by Synesius (c. 4), appears to coincide with this same place. Pacho thinks, that the Aziris of Herodotus coincides with the modern Temminch. (Voyage, &c., p. 50, seqq.)

Azötus (the Asdod of Scripture), one of the five chief cities of the Philistines, and, at the same time, one of the oldest and most celebrated cities of the land. The god Dagon was worshipped here. It lay on the seacoast, and in the division of the country among the Israelites, it fell to the tribe of Judah, but was not conquered until the reign of Solomon. In the time of King Hezekiah it was taken by the Assyrians, and subsequently by Psammetichus, king of Egypt, after a siege of twenty-nine years. (Herod., 2, 157.) At a later period Azotus became the seat of a Christian bishop. The ruins of the ancient city are near a small village called Esdud. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 261, seq.)

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BAbrius or Babrías (or, as the name is sometimes corrupted, Gabrias), a Greek poet, who lived, according to Tyrwhitt, either under Augustus or a short time before that emperor; while Coray, on the other hand, makes him a contemporary of Bion and Moschus. The particulars of his life have not reached us. All that we know of him is, that, after the example of Socrates, who, while in prison, amused himself with versifying the fables of Æsop, Babrius published a collection of fables under the title of uíðot or pv6tautot; from which the fables of Phaedrus are closely imitated. They were written in choliambics, and comprised in ten books, according to Suidas, or two volumes, according to Avianus. (Ar., Praf. Fab.)—These two accounts are not at variance with each other, as the books were doubtless divisions made by the author, like the books of Phaedrus, perhaps with an appropriate introduction to each ; while the “volumina” of Avianus were probably rolls of parchment or papyrus, on which the ten books were written. It may be farther observed, that Avianus calls the books of Phaedrus libelli, and not volumina. In this manner may be explained the statement of Pliny (8, 16), that Aristotle's writings on Natural History were contained in nearly fifty columina. (Compare Menage, ad Diog. Laert., 5, 25.) This collection threw all preceding ones into comparative obscurity. It appears to have been still in existence as late as the twelfth century, in the days of Tzetzes: the copyists, however, of succeeding times, little sensible of the charms of the versification which Babrius had adopted, thought they could not do better than convert it into so much prose; and the fragments of verses, which they were unable in this way perfectly to disguise, are all that recalls the original lines which they have spoiled. The collection of Babrius, thus dishonoured,

was perpetuated by numerous copies, in which traces

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