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amphitheatres. (Lamprid, in Alez. Sev., c. 35.Aurel. Vict, de Caes., c. 14.—Forcellini, Lez. Tot. Lat., s. v.) Athenæus, I. a native of Naucratis in Egypt, and the author of a very interesting compilation, entitled Deipnosophista (Aetryocoptatai, “the learned men at supper"), from which the moderns have derived a large portion of their knowledge respecting the private life of the ancient Greeks. He declares himself to have been a little later than the poet Oppian; and, as that writer dedicates his Halieutics to the Emperor Caracalla, the age of Athenaeus may be fixed at the beginning of the third century of the Christian era. The professed object of Athenæus was to detail to his contemporaries the convivial antiquities of their ancestors, and he has chosen to convey his information in the form of a dialogue as the most convenient and amusing. The plan of the work is as follows: A considerable number of learned men, among whom we find the celebrated Galen, assemble at the table of Larensius, a liberal and wealthy Roman, where they bestow as large a portion of erudition on every part of their entertainment as the memory or commonplacebook of the author could supply. So much of the business of human life is connected, mediately or immediately, with eating and drinking, that it does not require any great share of ingenuity to introduce into a work of so miscellareous a nature much useful and curious information, which, at first sight, does not appear to be very closely connected with the science of cookery. “Accordingly,” says the author of the Epitome, “we find disquisitions on fish of every sort, together with potherbs and poultry; not to mention historians, poets, and philosophers; likewise a great variety of musical instruments, witty sayings, and drinking vessels; royal magnificence, ships of prodigious magnitude, and many other articles too tedious to mention.” Although this kind of conversation bears no very strong resemblance to the dying speculations of Socrates on the immortality of the soul, our author has selected the Phaedo of Plato for his prototype, and has borrowed the beginning of that dialogue, with no alteration, except the substitution of the names of Timocrates and Athenaeus for those of Echecrates and Phaedo. A strong objection to the dramatic form which the work assumes, arises from the impossibility of collecting the productions of all the different seasons at one banquet. The author seems to suppose, that an astonisued fishmonger might exclaim, in the words of Theocritus, 'A223 o Jéptoo, Tū 68 ytyveral év retuán't. The loss of the two first books renders us unable to judge how far he was able to palliate this palpable absurdity. The most valuable part of the work is the large quantity of quotations which it presents from authors whose writings no longer exist. The Athenian comic poets af. forded an ample store of inaterials, and Athenaeus seems to have been by no means sparing in the use of them. Many of the extracts from their works, which he has inserted in his own, are highly interesting ; and the mass is so considerable, as far to exceed in bulk all that can be collected from every other Greek or Latin writer. The number of theatri. cal pieces which he appears to have consulted, was Probably not less than two thousand. The middle comedy furnished him with eight hundred.—The comPlation of Athenæus immediately became the prey of other compilers less diligent than himself. AElian, who *, nearly his contemporary, has made use very lib. only of the Deipnosophists in his Various History. In ** age we find our author again pillaged by Macrobius, who seems to have taken from him not only *y of the materials, but even the form and idea, of his Saturnalia. But of all writers, ancient or *m, there is none who is so highly indebted to * the industrious Eustathius. Although r

the Archbishop of Thessalonica appears never to have seen the entire work, but to have made use of the Epitome, the stores of his erudition would be miserably reduced if he were compelled to make restitution of the property of our author which he has converted to his own benefit.— By the same fortunate accident which has preserved a few of the writings of the ancients, a single copy of Athenæus appears to have escaped from the ravages of time, ignorance, and fanaticism. That MS. still exists. After the death of Cardinal Bessarion, who probably brought it from Greece, it passed into the library of St. Mark at Venice. In this sepulchre of books it would certainly have continued for many ages, unknown to the learned, if the French successes had not caused it to be included in the valuable spoils of Italy, which, until lately, enriched the national collection of Paris. Many transcripts of this manuscript exist in different parts of Europe, which were probably made while it was in the possession of Cardinal Bessarion. All of them betray their origin, as, besides their coincidence in orthographical errors, the same parts are wanting in all of them. The two first books, the beginning of the third, a few leaves in the eleventh, and part of two leaves in the fifteenth, are wanting in the Venetian manuscript, and the deficiency appears evidently to have proceeded from accident. The same lacunae occur in every other manuscript, but are exhibited in a manner which shows the cause to have existed in the copy from which they were transcribed. Fortunately for Athenaeus, the integrity of his work is in some measure preserved by an epitome of the whole, which has been transmitted to us without defalcation. This abridgment, if it may be called so, is nearly as bulky as the original work. The age of it is uncertain. It is executed in a careless manner; and the copy which the writer had before his eyes appears to have suffered so much from time or accident, that he frequently breaks off in the middle of an extract, and declares his inability to decipher the remainder. From these sources our editions are derived; and it will easily be seen that, where the original copies are so few and so faulty, conjectural emendation will find ample scope to display its powers. —The best editions of Athenaeus are those of Casaubon, Schweighaeuser, and Dindorff. Of the edition of Casaubon there are three different impressions, in the years 1597, 1612, and 1664, which do not differ considerably from each other. To these editions is annexed the Latin translation of James o of Caen, which was first printed by itself in 1583. he Greek text is much more perfect and accurate than in the preceding editions; as in the long interval which had elapsed between the edition published at Basle and the first of Casaubon's, many new transcripts had been discovered, and much labour had been bestowed on Athenaeus by some of the most celebrated scholars of that age. The most valuable part of the edition of Casaubon is his celebrated commentary

which constitutes a folio of no inconsiderable magnitude. The edition of Athenaeus by Schweighaeuser was published at Strasburg (Argentorati) in 18011807, and consists of 14 vols. 8vo. The text occupies 5 vols., and the remaining nine contain the commentaries and indexes. This commentary is made up of a large portion of the notes of Casaubon, together with others by Schweighaeuser himself. The greatest advantage which this editor o was the collation of the Venetian manuscript. This was performed by his son. The least commendable part of the work is the critical observations, in which Schweighaeuser's little acquaintance with Greek metre exposes him to many mistakes. The edition, owever, is extremely valuable. Dindorff's edition is in 5 vols. 8vo, Lip"., 1827. (Elmsley, in Edinburgh Review, vol. 3, p. 181, seqq.)—II. A contemporary of Archimedes.

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tise on Machines of War (repi MnXavmuártov), ada dressed to Marcellus. This Marcellus is generally supposed to be the same with the conqueror of Syracuse. Schweighaeuser, however, is of a different opinion (ad Athen, vol. 1, p. 637). His work is contained in the collection of The venot. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 3, p. 367.)—III. A celebrated physician, born at Attalia in Pamphylia, and who flourished at Rome 50 AD. He separated the Materia Medica from Therapeutics. He treated also,with great care.of Dietetics. Of his numerous writings only a few chapters remain in the gollection of Oribasus. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 343.) Ath ENAGöRAs, a Platonising father of the church, the author of an “Apology for Christians,” and of a treatise “On the Resurrection of the Body.” It appears from his writings that he was a native of Athens, and that he passed his youth among the philosophers of his time. He flourished towards the close of the second century. After he became a convert to Christianity, he still retained the name and habit of a philosopher, probably in expectation of gaining greater credit to the Christian doctrine among the unconverted heathen. In his Apology he judiciously explains the notions of the Stoics and Peripatetics concerning God and divine things, and exposes with great accuracy and strength of reasoning their respective errors. He frequently supports his arguments by the authority of Plato, and discovers much partiality for his system. In what he advances concerning God, and the Logos or Divine Reason, he evidently mixes the dogmas of paganism with the doctrines of Christianity. His two works are contained in the editions of the Greek fathers b Oberthür (Wurceb., 1777, vol. 3) and Gallaud to 2, p. 3). There are also separate editions of each, # Latin, French, Italian, and English translations, to say nothing of numerous works illustrating his writings. (Consult Hoffmann, Lez. Bibl., vol. 1, p. 427, seqq.)—The romance of Theagenes and Charis is erroneously ascribed to him. This romance was the production of a Frenchman named Martin Fumée. It was published in 1599 and 1612, in French, and purorted to be a translation from a Greek manuscript to it from the East. No such manuscript ever existed. (Fabric., Bibl. Gr., vol. 6, p. 800, seqq.) Athesion, I. a peripatetic philosopher, 108 B.C. —II. A painter, born at Maronea, and who flourished about 300 BC. Pliny enumerates several of his productions, and adds, that, had he not died young, he would have stood at the head of his profession (35, 11). AthexodóRUs, I. a philosopher, born at Cana, near Tarsus in Cilicia. He lived at Rome, in the reign of Augustus, and, on account of his learning, wisdom, and moderation, was highly esteemed by that emperor. His opinion and advice had great weight with the monarch, and are said to have led him into a milder plan of government than he had at first adopted. Athenodorus obtained, for the inhabitants of Tarsus, relief from a part of the burden of taxes which had been imposed upon them, and was on this account honoured with an annual festival. He was intrusted by Augustus with the education of the young prince Claudius; and, that he might the more successfully execute his charge, his illustrious pupil became for a while a resident at his house. This philosopher retired in his old age to Tarsus, where he died in his 82d year. (Fabric, Bibl. Gr., vol. 7, p. 391. — Zosim , 1, 6. – Suet., Wit. Claud., c. 4.—Enfield's Hist. Philos., vol. 2, p. 109.) —II. A stoic philosopher, a native of Pergamus according to some, but, more correctly, of Tarsus. He was surnamed Cordylion (Kop'vžtov), and was intimate with Cato the younger (Uticensis). Cato made a voyage to Pergamus expressly to see him, and brought him back with him to Rome. He died at Calo's house. (Strabo, 673.) — III. An Arcadian statuary, mentioned by Pliny (34, 8) as one of the

pupils of Polycletus, and as having made, with great success, the statues of some distinguished females. (Sullig, Dict, Art., s. v.) — IV. A sculptor, who, in connexion with Agesander and Polydorus, made o * Laocoon group. (Sullig, Dict. Art, Ather BAL. Vid. Adherhal. Athésis, a river of Venetia, in Gallia Cisalpina, rising in the mountains of the Tyrol (Rhaetian Alps), and, after a course of nearly two hundred miles, discharging its waters into the Adriatic. It is now the Adige, and, next to the Po, must be looked upon as the most considerable stream of Italy. (Virg., AEn., 9, 679, seqq.) Athos, a mountain in the district Chalcidice of Macedonia. It is situate on a peninsula between the Sinus Strymonicus, or Gulf of Contessa, and the Sinus Singiticus, or Gulf of Monte Santo. It is so high that, according to Plutarch and Pliny, it projected its shadow at the summer solstice on the market-place of Myrina, the capital city of the island of Lemnos, though at the distance of 87 miles. On this account a brazen cow was erected at the termination of the shadow, with this inscription,

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Strabo reports that the inhabitants of the mountain saw the sun rise three hours before those who lived on the shore at its base. (Epit., 7, p. 331.) Pliny, however, greatly exaggerates, when he affirms that Athos extends into the sea for seventy-five miles, and that its base occupies a circumference of one hundred and fifty miles (4,10). Strabo says the circumnavigation of the whole peninsula was four hundred stadia, or fifty miles. (Epit., 7, p. 331.) When Xerxes invaded Greece, he cut a canal through the peninsula of Athos, in order to avoid the danger of doubling the promontory, the fleet of Mardonius having previously sustained a severe loss in passing around it. This canal was made in the vicinity of the cities Acanthus and Sana. (Vid. Acanthus.)—The architect Dinocrates offered unto Alexander the Great to cut Mount Athos into a statue of the king, holding in its lest hand a city, and in its right a basin to receive all the waters that flowed from the mountain. The monarch, however, declined the offer, on the ground of their being no fields around to furnish supplies, which would have to come entirely by sea. (Vitrun., Praef, lib. 2.) Atia lex, a law enacted A.U.C. 690, by T. Atius Labienus, a tribune of the commons. It repealed the Cornelian law, and restored the Domitian, which gave the election of priests to the people, not to the colleges. (Dio Cass., 37, 37.) Atilia LEx, I gave the praetor and a majority of the tribunes power of appointing guardians to orphans and women. It was enacted A.U.C. 443.—l I. Another, which ordained that sixteen military tribunes should be created by the people for four legions; that is, two thirds of the whole number. (Adams, Rom. Ant., s. v.) ATINA, I. one of the most ancient cities of the Wolsci. It was situate to the southeast of Arpinum, and near the source of the river Melfa. If we are to credit Virgil (Æm., 7,629), it was a considerable town as early as the Trojan war. We learn from Cicero (pro Planc.), that Atina was in his time a praefectura, and one of the most populous and distinguished in Italy: Frontinus says it was colonized during the reign of No." The modern name is Atino–si. A town of Lucania, not far from the Tanager. Several inscriptions and many remains of walls and buildings, prove that it was no inconsiderable place. (Romanelli, vol. 1, p. 43s.) The modern name is Atena. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 378.) . Atix, a Lox, was enacted by the tribune Atinius, A.U.C. 623. It gave a tribune of the people the privileges of a senator, and the right of sitting in the senate. (Aul. Gel., 14, 8.) Atlantes, a people of Africa, the more correct name of whom was Atarantes. (Vid. Atarantes.) Atlantiades, a patronymic of Mercury, as grandson of Atlas. (Orid, Met., 1,639.) ATLANTides, a name given to the daughters of Atlas. They were divided into the Hyades and Pleiades. (Wid. Atlas, Hyades, and Pleiades.) Atlantis, a celebrated island, supposed to have existed at a very early period in the Atlantic Ocean, and to have been eventually sunk beneath its waves. Plato is the first that gives an account of it, and he obtained his information from the priests of Egypt. (Plat, Timaeus, p. 24, seqq., ed. Bip., vol. 9, p. 296, seqq.—Id., Critias, p. 108, seqq., ed. Bip., vol. 10, p. 39, 43.) The statement which he furnishes is as follows: In the Atlantic Ocean, over against the Pillars of Hercules, lay an island larger than Asia and Africa taken together, and in its vicinity were other islands, from which there was a passage to a large continent lying beyond. The Mediterranean, compared with the ocean in which these lands were situated, resembled a mere harbour with a narrow entrance. Nine thousand years before the time of Plato, this island of Atlantis was both thickly settled and very powerful. Its sway extended over Africa as far as Egypt, and over Europe as far as the Tyrrhenian Sea. The farther progress of its conquests, however, was checked by the Athenians, who, partly with the other Greeks, partly by themselves, succeeded in defeating these powerful invaders, the natives of Atlantis. After this a violent earthquake, which lasted for the space of a day and night, and was accompanied with inundations of the sea, caused the islands to sink, and, for a long period subsequent to this, the sea in this quarter was impassable, by reason of the slime and shoals.-Thus much for the narrative of Plato. A dispute arose among the ancient philosophers and naturalists, whether this statement was based upon reality, or was a mere creation of fancy. Posidonius thought it worthy of belief. (Strabo, 102.—Epit., 1, p. 11, ed. Huds) Pliny remains undecided (2, 92. — Compare Ammian. Marcell., 17, 7.-Tertull., de Pallio, ed. Op., Antecrp, 1584, p. 6.—Id., Apolog., ade. gentes, p. 82, c. 40–Philo, quod mund, sit. incorrupt., p. 963). From other writers we have short notices, which merely show how many various interpretations were given to the passage in Plato. (Proclus, ad Plat, Tim., p. 24.) A certain Marcellus related a similar tradition with that of Plato (#v roic Althottkoi, ap. Procl., lib. 1, p. 155). According to this writer there were seven islands in the Atlantic Ocean sacred to Proserpina; of these, three were of a very large size, and the inhabitants had a tradition among then that these were originally one large island, which had ruled over all the rest.—Nor have modern theo* been inactive on this captivating subject. Rud. *k, with great learning, labours to prove that the Atlantis of the ancients was Sweden, and that the Romans, Greeks, English, Danes, and Germans origina* from Sweden. His work, entitled Atlantica (Atland eller Manheim), is in Latin and Swedish, and is *opographic rarity. The first edition appeared in o, at Upsal. Several editions of it followed. The last Latin edition is of 1699, and bears a high Foo. Written copies of it are in several European libraries—Bailly, well known by his history of As"my, places Atlantis and the cradle of the human *"the farthest regions of the north, and seeks to * the Atlantides with the far-famed Hyperbo. (Lettres sur l'Atlantide de Platon, &c., p. * “on-Compare Lettressur l'Origine des Sci* by the same)—Carli and others find Amer. ** the Atlantis of Plato, and adduce many argu** support of their assertion. (Carl, Lettres

Américaines, French transl., vol. 2, p. 180, seqq.) The advocates of this theory might easily connect with the legend of the lost Atlantis the remains of a very remote civilization that are found at the present day in Spanish America. We have there the ruins of cities,” the style of whose architecture carries us back to Pelasgic times, and the religious symbols and ornaments connected with which remind us strongly of the phallic mysteries of antiquity. Even the lotus flower, the sacred emblem of India, may be seen in the sculptures. (Compare the plates given by Del Rio, Description of the Ruins of an Ancient City discovered near Palenque, in Guatemala, &c., Lond., 1822, 4to.) These curious remains of former days are long anterior to Mexican times, nor have they anything whatever to do with Phoenician settlements, such settlements on the shores of America being purely imaginary. In connexion with the view just taken, we may point to the peculiar conformation of our continent, along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, where everything indicates the sinking, at a remote period, of a large tract of land, the place of which is now occupied by the waters of the gulf; a sinking occasioned, in all probability, by the sudden rush of a large body of water down the present valley of the Mississippi. The mountain tops of this sunken land still appear to view as the islands of the West Indian group : and thus the large continent lying beyond Atlantis and the adjacent islands, and to which Plato refers, may have been none other than that of America.--We proceed a step farther. Admitting that Atlantis was situate in the ocean which at present bears its name, it would require no great stretch of fancy to suppose that the Canaries, §. Isles, and Azores once formed portions of it, and that it even extended as far as Newfoundland. The Cape de Verd Islands, though so much to the south, may also be included. It is curious to observe what quantities of seaweed (fucus natans) are found floating on the surface of the sea, not only near the Cape de Werd Islands, but also more to the northeast, almost under the meridian of the isles Cuervo and Flores, among the Azores, between the parallels of 23° and 35° north latitude. (Humboldt, Tableauz de la Nature, vol. 1, p. 99, French transl.) The ancients were acquainted with these collections of seaweed, resembling somewhat a vast inundated meadow. “Some Phoenician vessels,” observes Aristotle, “impelled by the east winds, reached, after a navigation of thirty days, a part of the sea where the surface of the water was covered with rushes and seaweed (Spüov Kai pikoç).” The passage occurs in the treatise de Mirabilibus, p. 1157, ed. Duval. Many ascribed this abundance of seaweed to some cause connected with the submerged Atlantis. (Compare Irving's Columbus, vol. 1, p. 133.) The quantities of seaweed in the neighbourhood of the Cape de Verd Islands are also alluded to by Scylax (ed. Gromov., p. 126), if we suppose the conjecture of Ideler to be correct, that the Cerne of Scylax is the modern Arguin. (Humboldt, Tableaux, &c., vol. 1, p. 101.) The existence of a large island, at a remote period, where the waves of the Atlantic now roll, has been regarded by modern science as visionary in the extreme. But even science herself can be made to contribute data towards this captivating theory. Immediately below the chalk and green sand of England, a fluviatile formation, called the wealden, occurs, which has been ascertained to extend from west to east about 200 English. miles, and from northwest to southeast about 220 miles, the depth or total thickness of the beds, where greatest, being about 2000 feet. (Fitton's Geology of Hastings, p. 58.) These phenomena clearly indicate, that there was a constant supply in that region, for a long period, of a considerable body of fresh water, such as might be supposed to have drained a continent or a large island, containing within it a* chain 2:

of mountains. (Lyell's Geology, vol. 4, p. 308, Lond. ed.) If Geology can furnish us with such facts as these, it may surely be pardonable in us to linger with something of fond belief around the legend of Atlantis; a legend that could hardly be the mere offspring of a poetic imagination, but must have had some #. in truth. Nor will it appear surprising if some of the learned, in the ardour of theorizing, have actually constructed maps of the position of this island. Among the number of these we may mention De Lisle and Dureau de la Malle, but more particularly Bory de St. Vincent, in his Essai sur les Isles Fort, et l'antique Atlantide (Paris, an xi., 4to). Carli also, in the second volume of his work, already referred to, gives maps representing what he terms flats and shallows (seches et bas fonds) between America and Africa, in the vicinity of the equator, and also in the neighbourhood of the Cape de Verd Islands. (Compare his remarks on this subject, vol. 2, p. 225, seqq.) —It has been thought by some, but very erroneously, that the account given in Diodorus Siculus may have reference to some island, now submerged, of the lost Atlantic group. This writer speaks of an island situate at a distance in the Atlantic Ocean, and remarkable for its beauty, to which the Carthaginians had resolved to transfer the seat of their republic in case of any irreparable disaster at home. Aristotle had already, before Diodorus, made mention of a similar island, the charms of which had attracted many of the Carthaginians to it, until the senate at home forbade any person from going to it under pain of death. (Arist, de Mirab., c. 85, ed. Beckman.) e reference here, however, is probably to one of the Canaries.—Before quitting this subject, it may not be amiss to give the description of Atlantis, as handed down to us by the ancient writers, Though a mere picture of the imagination, it will nevertheless serve to show the opinion entertained on this subject by the poetic minds of antiquity. According to this account, the isle of Atlantis was one of the finest and most productive countries in the universe. It produced abundance of wine, grain, and the most exquisite fruits. Here were seen wide-spread forests, extensive pasture-grounds, mines of various metals, hot and mineral springs; in a word, whatever could contribute to the necessities or comforts of life. Here commerce flourished under a most excellent system of government. The island, divided into ten kingdoms, was governed by as many kings, all descendants of Neptune, and who lived in perfect harmony with each other, though severally independent. Atlantis had numerous and splendid cities, together with a large number of rich and populous villages. Its harbours beheld the produce of almost every country wasted to them: and they were strengthened with fortifications, and supplied with arsenals containing everything calculated for the construction and equipment of navies. Neptune was not only the progenitor and legislator, but also the principal divinity of the people of Atlantis. He had a temple in this island, a stadium in length, and ornamented with gold, silver, orichalchum, and ivory. Among various statues with which it was adorned, was seen that of the god himself, which was of gold, and so high that it touched the ceiling. He was represented as standing in a chariot, and j. ing the reins of his winged steed. Such were some of the bright visions of former dáys respecting the lost island of Atlantis. (Plato, Critias, p. 114, seqq.— eed. Bip., vol. 10, p. 51, seqq.) Atlas, I. son of the #. Iapetus and Clymene one of the Oceanides. He was the brother of Menoetius, Prometheus, and Epimetheus. The name Atlas signifies “the Endurer" (from a, intensive, and tââo, to cndure), an epithet that will presently be explained. Homer calls him the wise or deep-thinking (bāoôopov)," who knows all the depths of the sea, and keeps the long pillars which hold heaven and earth asunder.”

(0d., 1,52.) In the Theogony of Hesiod (517, seqq.) he is said to support the heaven on his head and hands in the extreme West, a task assigned him by Jupiter, in punishment, the later writers say, for his share in the Titan war. (Hygin., fab., 150.) Atlas was the father of the fair nymph Calypso, who so long detained Ulysses in her island in the distant West. Pleione, an ocean-nymph, bore him seven daughters named Pleiades. (Hes., Op. et D., 383.—Schol. ad Îl., 18, 486.) He was also said to be the father of the Hyades. (Timarus, ap. Schol, ad Il., l.c.)—It is hardly necessary to state, that the Atlas of Homer and Hesiod is not the personification of a mountain. In process of time, however, when the meaning of the earlier legend had become obscured or lost, Atlas, the keeper of the pillars that support the heaven, became a mountain of Libya. It is remarkable, however, that, in all the forms which the sable assumes, it is the god or man Atlas who is turned into or gives name to the mountain. Thus, according to one mythologist (Ovid, Met., 4,631), Atlas was a king of the remotest West, rich in flocks and herds, and master of the trees that bore the golden apples. An ancient prophecy, delivered by Themis, had announced to him, that his precious trees would be plumdered by a son of Jupiter. When, therefore, Perseus, on his return from slaying the Gorgon, arrived in the realms of Atlas, and, seeking hospitality, announced himself to be a son of the king of the gods, the western monarch, calling to mind the prophecy, attempted to repel him from his doors. Perseus, inferior in strength, displayed the head of Medusa, and the inhospitable prince was turned into the mountain which still bears his name. (Ovid, l.c.— Serv. ad AEm., 4, 246.) According to another account, Atlas was a man of Libya, devoted to astronomy, who, having ascended a losty mountain to make his observations, sell from it into the sea, and both sea and mountain were named after him. (Tzetz. ad Lycophr., v. 879.) His supporting the heavens was usually explained by making him an astronomer and the inventor of the sphere. (Diod. Suc., 3, 60.-Id, 4, 27.—Serv. ad Virg., AEn., 1,741.)—There is also another curious legend relating to Atlas, which forms part of the fables connected with the adventures of Hercules. When this hero, in quest of the apples of the Hesperides, had come to the spot where Prometheus lay chained, moved by his entreaties, he shot the eagle that preyed upon his liver. Prometheus, out of gratitude, warned him not to go himself to take the golden apples, but to send Atlas for them, and, in the mean time, to support the heaven in his stead. The hero did as desired, and Atlas, at his request, went and obtained three apples from the Hesperides; but he said he would take them himself to Eurystheus, and that Hercules might continue to support the sky. At the suggestion of Prometheus the hero feigned consent, but begged him to take hold of the heavens till he had made a pad (tāpav) to put on his head. Atlas threw down the apples and resumed his burden, and Hercules then picked them up and went his way. (Pherecyd., ap. Schol, ad Apoll. Rhod, 4, 1396.)— Various elucidations of the legend of Atlas have been given by modern expounders of mythology. The best is that of Völcker. This writer, taking into consideration the meaning of his name, in connexion with the position assigned him by Homer and Hesiod, and the species of knowledge ascribed to him, and also his being the father of two of the constellations, regards Atlas as a personification of navigation, the conquest of the sea by human skill, trade, and mercantile profit. (Wölcker, Myth. der Iap., p. 51.) With this view Müller agrees. (Proleg. zu einer wissensch. Mythol.--Keightley's Mythology, p. 287, seqq.)—II. A celebrated range of mountains in Africa. It is divided into two leading chains: the Greater Atlas runs through the kingdom of Marocco, as far south as the desert of Sahara; the Lesser Atlas extends from Marocco towards the northeast to the northern coast. The great height of Mount Atlas is proved by the perpetual snows which cover its summits in the cast part of Marocco, under the latitude of 32°. According to Humboldt's principles, these summits must be 12,000 feet above the level of the sea. Leo Africanus, who travelled here in the month of October, o escaped being buried in an ayalanche of snow. In the state of Algiers, the snow disappears on the tops of Jurjura and of Felizia in the month of May, and covers them again before the end of September. The Wanashisze, situated in 30° 55', and forming an intermediate chain between the maritime one and that of the interior, is covered with a mantle of snow nearly the whole of the year. The fertility of the region of Atlas is celebrated by Strabo and Pliny. The latter (15, 18) extols its figs, olives, corn, and valuable woods. (Id., 17, 12.-Id., 18, 7. —Id., 13, 15.) He observes, that the wines had a certain sharpness, which was corrected by adding to them a little plaster (Id., 14, 9), and says that the vineyards had a northern and western exposure. (Id, 17, 2.) Strabo informs us (369), that the vine-trunks were sometimes so thick that two men could scarcely clasp them round, and that the clusters were a cubit in length. A horrible government and a total absence of civilization have not succeeded in annihilating these bounties of nature. Barbary and Marocco still export large quantities of grain. The olive-tree is superior here to that of Provence; and the Moors, notwithstanding the hostility to Bacchus, which marks their religion, cultivate seven varieties of the vine. The soil of the plains in many places resembles that of the rest of Africa, being light and sandy, and containing numerous rocks: #. the valleys of Mount Atlas, and those of the rivulets which descend from it to the Mediterranean, are covered with a compact, fertile, and well-watered soil. Extensive forests cover the sides of the fertile mountains in the northern parts of these countries. All the valleys that have a moderate elevation form in April and May so many little Elysiums. The shade, the coolness, the bright verdure, the diversity of the flowers, and the mixture of agreeable odours, combine to charm the senses of the botanist, who, amid such scenes, might forget his native country, were he not shocked and alarmed by the barbarity of the inhabitants.—A question has arisen in modern times, whether the chain of mountains here "described was really the Atlas of the ancients . This is denied by Ideler, who maintains that the Atlas of Homer and Hesiod is the Peak of Teneriffe. The Atlas of the Greek and Roman geographers he allows, on the other hand, to be the modern Mount Atlas. His arguments are given by Humboldt (Tableauz de la Nature, vol. 1, p. 144, seqq.), but are more ingenious than satisfactory. The Atlas of Herodotus might be a promontory of the southern chain, rising from the plains of the 3. such as Mount Saluban, in Blledulgerid, appears to be. It agrees with the disonces assigned by this historian. It is, besides, possible, that all the contradictions mentioned by Ideler may owe their origin to that optical illusion by which a chain of mountains, seen in profile, has the appearance of a narrow peak. “When at sea,” says Humboldt, “I have often mistaken long chains for isolated mountains.” This explanation might be still farther simplified, if it were admitted that the name of Atlas

elonged originally to a promontory remarkable for form and its peculiar isolated situation, such as most of those on the coast of Marocco. A curious passage in Maximus Tyrius seems to countenance this hy o: * : “The AEthiopian Hesperians,” says he (Diss., 38.—p. 457, seqq., ed. Oron.), “worship Mount Atlo, who is both their temple and their idol. The * is a mountain of moderate elevation, concave,

and open towards the sea in the form of an amphitheatre. Half way from the mountain a great valley extends, which is remarkably fertile, and adorned with richly-laden fruit-trees. The eye plunges into this valley as into a deep well, but the precipice is too steep for any person to venture to descend, and the descent is prohibited by feelings of religious awe. The most wonderful thing is to see the waves of the ocean at high water overspreading the adjacent plains, but stopping short before Mount Atlas, and standin up like a wall, without penetrating into the hollow o the valley, though not restrained by any earthly barrier. Nothing but the air and the sacred thicket prevent the water from reaching the mountain. Such is the temple and the god of the Libyans; such is the object of their worship and the witness of their oaths.” In the physical delineations contained in this account, we perceive some features of resemblance to the coast between Cape Tefelneh and Cape Geer, which resembles an amphitheatre crowned with a series of detached rocks. In the moral description we find traces of fetichism; rocks remarkable sor their shape being still worshipped by some negro tribes. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., of 4, p. 155, seqq.)—Before closing this article it may not be amiss to remark, that, according to Pliny, the ancient Mauritanians called Atlas Dyris.' The chain of Atlas, at the present day, bears among the Arabs the name of Darah or Daran, the close approximation of which to the ancient appellation is easily perceived. Horn, on the contrary, however, recognises the term Dyris in Aya-Dyrma, the Guanche name for the Peak of To (Hornius de Originibus Americanorum, p. 185.-Humboldt, Tabl. de Nat., vol. 1, p. 151.) Atossa, a daughter of Cyrus the Great. She married her own brother Cambyses, the first instance of the kind that occurred among the Persians, according to Herodotus (3, 31). After the death of Cambyses she became the wife of the false Smerdis, and subsequently of Darius Hystaspis. . (Herod., 3, 88.) She possessed great influence over the last of these, in consequence of her royal birth, and her son Xerxes succeeded him on the throne. She was cured of a cancer in the breast by the Greek physician Democedes; and this individual, through a desire of returning to his native land, induced Atossa, it is said, to urge Darius to a war with Greece. (Herod., 3, 133, seqq.)— According to Creuzer, the name Atossa is in Persian Atesh. here was also a city called Atusia in Assyria, on the river Caprus, whose coins displayed a female head, crowned with turrets, and also the inscription ATOYXIEQN. (Creuzer, ad Herod., 3, 68. —Götting. Anzeig., 1811, nr. 78.) At Rices, the people of Atrax, an ancient colony of the Perrhoebi in Thessaly, ten miles from Larissa, higher up the Peneus, and on the right bank of that river. It was successfully defended by the Macedonians against T. Flamininus. (Liv., 32, 15–Strabo, 438 and 441.) Dr. Clarke was led to imagine, that this city stood at Ampelakia, from the circumstance of the green marble, known to the ancients by the name of Atracium Marmor, being sound there; but this supposition is erroneous, since it is evident from Livy that Atrax was to the west of Larissa, and only ten miles from that city; whereas Ampelakia is close to Tempe, and distant more than fifteen miles from Larissa. (Cramer's Ancient Greece. vol. 1, p. 386, scqq.) owner. Wid. Adramyttium. Atrax, I. a son of AEtolus, or, according to others, of the river Peneus. He was king of Thessaly, and built a town which he called Atrax. Hence the epithet Atracius is sometimes employed with the same meaning as Thessalus or “Thessalian.” (Propert., 1, 8, 35.) Atrax was father to Hippodamia, who married Pirithous, and whom we must ; confound 22

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