Obrazy na stronie

apud Photium, Biblioth., vol. i., p. 152, ed. Bekker.) —II. The preceptor of Chiron (Id.)—III. The inventor of the ostracism (Id.).—IV. A son of Jupiter and Lamia. His beauty was so perfect, that, in the judgment of Pan, he bore away the prize from every competitor. Venus was so offended at this decision, that she inspired Pan with a fruitless passion for the nymph Echo, and also wrought a hideous change in his own erson (Id.).—W. A son of Galatus, remarkable for #. light coloured, or, rather, whitish hair (Id.).—WI. The son of Peleus, king of Phthiotis in Thessaly. His mother's name appears to have been a matter of some dispute among the ancient expounders of mythology (Schol, ad Apoll. Rhod. 1, 558), although the more numerous authorities are in favour of Thetis, one of the sea-deities. According to Lycophron (v. 178), Thetis became the mother of seven male children by Peleus, six of whom she threw into the fire, because, as Tzetzes informs us in his scholia, they were not of the same nature with herself, and the treatment she had received was unworthy of her rank as a goddess. The scholiast on Homer, however (Il. 16, 37), states, that Thetis threw her children into the fire in order to ascertain whether they were mortal or not, the goddess supposing that the fire would consume what was mortal in their natures, while she would preserve what was immortal. The scholiast adds, that six of her children perished by this harsh experiment, and that she had, in like manner, thrown the seventh, afterward named Achilles, into the flames, when Peleus, having beheld the deed, rescued his offspring from this perilous situation. Tzetzes (ubi supra) assigns a different motive to Thetis in the case of Achilles. He makes her to have been desirous of conferring immortality upon him, and states that with this view she anointed him (#xptev) with ambrosia during the day, and threw him into fire at evening. Peleus, having discovered the goddess in the act of consigning his child to the flames, cried out with alarm, whereupon Thetis, abandoming the object she had in view, left the court of Peleus and rejoined the nymphs of the ocean. Dictys Cretensis makes Peleus to have rescued Achilles from the fire before any part of his body had been injured but the heel. Tzetzes, following the authority of Apollodorus, gives his first name as Ligyron (Alyūpov), but the account of Agamestor, cited by the same scholiast, is more in accordance with the current tradition mentioned above. Agamestor says, that the first name given to Achilles was Pyrisous (IIvpíoooc), i.e., “saved from the fire.” What has thus far been stated in relation to Achilles, with the single exception of the names of his parents, Peleus and Thetis, is directly at variance with the authority of Homer, and must therefore be regarded as a mere posthomeric fable. The poet makes Achilles say, that Thetis had no other child but himself; and though a daughter of Peleus, named Polydora, is mentioned in a part of the Iliad (16, 175), she must have been, according to the best commentators, only a half sister of the hero. (Compare Heyne, ad loc.) Equally at variance with the account given by the bard, is the more popular fiction, that Thetis plunged her son into the waters of the Styx, and by that immersion rendered the whole of his body invulnerable, except the heel by which she held him. On this subject Homer is altogether silent; and, indeed, such a protection from danger would have derogated too much from the character of his favourite hero. There are several passages in the Iliad which plainly show, that the poet does not ascribe to Achilles the possession of any peculiar physical defence against the chances of battle. (Compare Il. 20, 262: id. 288: and especially, 21, 166, where Achilles is actually wounded by Asteropaeus.) The care of his education was intrusted, according to the common authorities, to the centaur Chiron, and to Phoenix, son of Amyntor. Homer, however, mentions

Phoenix as his first instructer (Il. 9, 481, seqq.), while from another passage (Il. 11, 831) it would appear, that the young chieftain merely learned from the centaur the principles of the healing art. Those, however, who pay more regard in this case to the statements of other writers, make Chiron to have had charge of Achilles first, and to have fed him on the marrow of wild animals; according to Libanius, on that of lions, but according to the compiler of the Etymol. Mag., on that of stags. (Compare Bayle, Dict. Hist. 1, 53.) Chiron is said to have given him the name of Achilles ('Axt2% etc), from the circumstance of his food being unlike that of the rest of men priv., and x1%, “fructus quibus rescuntur homines”). Other etymologies are also given; but most likely none are true. (Compare, on this part of our subject, the Etymol. Mag.—Ptol. Hephaest. apud Photium, Biblioth., vol. i., p. 152, ed Bekker.—Heyne, ad Îl. 1, 1–Wassenberg, ad schol. in Il. 1, p. 130.) Calchas having predicted, when Achilles had attained the age of nine years, that Troy could not be taken without him, Thetis, well aware that her son, if he |. that expedition, was destined to perish, sent im, disguised in female attire, to the court of Lycomedes, king of the island of Scyros, for the purpose of being concealed there. A difficulty, however, arises in this part of the narrative, on account of the early age of Achilles when he was sent to Scyros, which can only be obviated by supposing, that he remained several years concealed in the island, and that the Trojan war occupied many years in preparation. (Compare the remarks of Heyne, ad Apollod, l.c., p. 316, and Gruber, Wörterbuch der altclassischen Mythologie und Religion, vol. i., p. 32.) At the court of Lycomedes, he received the name of Pyrrha (IIvñóá, “Rwfa”), from his golden locks, and became the father of Neoptolemus by Deidamia, one of the monarch's daughters. (Apollod. l. c.) In this state of concealment Achilles remained, until discovered by Ulysses, who came to the island in the disguise of a travelling merchant. The chieftain of Ithaca offered, it seems, various articles of female attire for sale, and mingled with them some pieces of armour. On a sudden blast being given with a trumpet, Achilles discovered himself i: seizing upon the arms. (Apollod. l. c.—Statius, Achill. 2, 201.) The young warrior then joined the army against Troy. This account, however, of the concealment of Achilles is contradicted by the express authority of Homer, who represents him as proceeding directly to the Trojan war from the court of his father. (Il 9, 439.) As regards the forces which he brought with him, the poet makes them to have come from the Pelasgian Argos, from Alus, Alope, and Trachis, and speaks of them as those who possessed Phthia and Hellas, and who were called Myrmidones, Hellenes, and Achaei. (Il. 2, 681, seqq.) Hence, according to Heyne, the sway of Achilles extended from Trachis, at the foot of Mount CEta, as far as the river Enipeus, where Pharsalus was situated, and thence to the Peneus.—The Greeks, having made good their landing on the shores of Troas, proved so superior to the enemy as to compel them to seek shelter within their walls. (Thucyd. 1, 11.) No sooner was this done than the Greeks were forced to turn their principal attention to the means of sopporting their numerous forces. A part of the army was therefore sent to cultivate the rich vales of the Thracian Chersonese, then abandoned by their inhabitants on account of the incursions of the barbarians from the interior. (Thucyd. ubi supra.) But the Grecian army, being weakened by this separation of its force, could no longer deter the Trojans from again taking the field, nor prevent succours and supplies from being sent into the city. Thus the siege was protracted to the length of ten years. During a great part of this

time, Achilles was employed in lessening the resources of Priam by the reduction of the tributary cities of Asia Minor. With a fleet of eleven vessels he ravaged the coasts of Mysia, made frequent disembarcations of his forces, and succeeded eventually in destroying eleven cities, among which, according to Strabo (584), were Hypoplacian Thebe, Lyrnessus, and Pedasus, and in laying waste the island of Lesbos. (Compare Homer, Il. 9,328.) Among the spoils of Lymessus, Achilles obtained the beautiful Briseis, while, at the taking of Thebe, Chryseis the daughter of Chryses, a priest of Apollo at Chrysa, became the prize of Agamemnon. A pestilence shortly after appeared in the Grecian camp, and Calchas, encouraged by the proffered protection of Achilles, ventured to attribute it to Agamemnon's detention of the daughter of Chryses, whom her father had endeavoured to ransom, but in vain. The monarch, although deeply of fended, was compelled at last to surrender his captive, but, as an act of retaliation, and to testify his resentment, he deprived Achilles of Briseis. Hence arose “the anger of the son of Peleus,” on which is based the action of the Iliad. Achilles on his part withdrew his forces from the contest, and neither prayers, nor entreaties, nor direct offers of reconciliation, couched in the most tempting and flattering terms (Il 9, 119, seqq.), could induce him to return to the field. Among other things the monarch promised him, if he would forget the injurious treatment which he had received, the hand of one of his daughters, and the sovereignty of seven cities of the Peloponnesus. (Il. 9, 142 and 149.) The death of his friend Patroclus, however, by the hand of Hector (Il 16, 821, seqq.), roused him at length to action and revenge, and a reconciliation having thereupon taken place between the two Grecian leaders, Briseis was restored. (Il. 19, 78, seqq.—Id. 246, seqq.) As the arms of Achilles, having been wom by Patroclus, had become the prize of Hector, Vulcan, at the request of Thetis, fabricated a suit of impenetrable armour for her son. , (Il 18, 468, seqq.) Arrayed in this, Achilles took the field, and after a great slaughter of the Trojans, and a contest with the god of the Scamander, by whose waters he was nearly overwhelmed, met Hector, chased him thrice around the walls of Troy, and finally slew him by the aid of Minerva. (Il 22, 136, seqq.) According to Homer (Il 24, 14, seqq.), Achilles dragged the corpse of Hector, at his chariot-wheels, thrice round the tomb of Patroclus, and from the language of the poet, he would appear to have done this for several days in succession. Virgil, however, makes Achilles to have dragged the body of Hector thrice round the walls of Troy. In this it is probable that the Roman poet sollowed one of the Cyclic, or else Tragic, writers. (Heyne, Excurs. 18, ad AEn. 1.) The corpse of the Trojan hero was at last yielded up to the tears and supplications of Priam, who had come for that purpose to the tent of Achilles, and a truce was granted the Trojans for the performance of the funeral obsequies. (Il 24, 599–Id. 669.) Achilles did not long survive his illustrious opponent. Some accounts make him to have died the day after Hector was slain. The common authorities, however, interpose the combats with Penthesilea and Memnon previous to his death. (Compare Heyne, Ezcurs. 19, ad AEn. 1.-Quint. Smyrn. 1,21, seqq.) According to the more received account, as it is given by the scholiast on Lycophron (v. 269), and also by Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius, Achilles, having become enamoured of Polyxena, the daughter of Priam, signified to the monarch that he would become his ally on condition of receiving her hand in marriage. Priam consented, and the parties having come for that purpose to the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo, Achilles was treacherously slain by Paris, who had concealed himself there, being wounded by him with an arrow in the heel. Another tradition, related by Arctinus, makes him to have been

slain (in accordance with Hector's prophecy, Il 21, 452), in the Scaean gate, while rushing into the city. Hyginus states that Achilles went round the walls of Troy, boasting of his exploit in having slain Hector, until Apollo, in anger, assumed the form of Paris, and slew him with an arrow (Hygin, fab. 107), but, with surprising inconsistency, he mentions in another place (fab. 110), that he was slain by Deiphobus and Álexander or Paris. The scholiast on Lycophron, cited above, says that the Trojans would not give up the corpse of Achilles until the Greeks had restored the various presents with which Priam had redeemed the dead body of Hector. The ashes of the hero were mingled in a golden urn with those of Patroclus, and the promontory of Sigaeum is said to mark the place where both repose. A tomb was here erected to his memory, and near it Thetis caused funeral games to be celebrated in honour of her son, which were afterward annually observed by a decree of the oracle of Dodona (vid. Sigaeum). It is said, that, after the taking of Troy, the ghost of Achilles appeared to the Greeks, and demanded of them Polyxena, who was accordingly sacrificed on his tomb by his son Neoptolemus, or Pyrrhus. (Eurip. Hec. 35, seqq.—Senec. Troad. 191.-Ovid, Met. 13, 441, seqq.—Q. Calab. 14.) Another account makes the Trojan princess to have killed herself through grief at his loss. (Tzetzes, ad Lycophr. 323.—Philostratus, Heroica., p. 714, ed. Morellus.) The Thessalians, in accordance with the oracle just mentioned, erected a temple to his memory at Sigeum, and rendered him divine honours.' Every year they brought thither two bulls, one white and the other black, crowned with garlands, and along with them some of the water of the Sperchius. (Gruber, Wörterbuch der altclassischen Mythologie, vol. i., p. 48.) Another and still stranger tradition informs us, that Achilles survived the fall of Troy and married Helen; but others maintain that this union took place after his death, in the island of Leuce, where many of the ancient heroes lived in a separate elysium (vid. Leuce). When Achilles was young, his mother asked him whether he preferred a long life spent in obscurity, or a brief existence of military glory. He decided in favour of the latter. (Compare Il. 9, 410, seqq.) Some ages after the Trojan war, Alexander, in the course of his march into the East, offered sacrifices on the tomb of Achilles, and expressed his admiration as well of the hero, as of the bard whom he had found to immortalize his name. (Plutarch, Wit. Alexand. 15.) —WII. Tatius, a native of Alexandrea, commonly assigned to the second or third century of the Christian era. The best critics, however, such as Huet, Chardon la Rochette, Coray, and Jacobs, make him to have flourished after the time of Heliodorus, since they have discovered in him what they consider manifest imitations of the latter writer. Nay, if it be true that Musaus, whom he has also imitated, composed his poem of Hero and Leander before 430 or 450 of our era, we must then place Achilles Tatius even as low as the middle of the 5th century. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Gr. 6, 231.) According to Suidas, he became, towards the end of his life, a Šo. and bishop. But as the lexicographer makes no mention of his episcopal see, and as Photius, who speaks in three different places of him, is silent on this head, it may be permitted us to doubt the accuracy of Suidas's statement. (Photii Bibliothec., vol. i., p. 33, ed. Bekker.—Id. ibid., p. 50.Id. ibid., p. 66.) Equally unworthy of reliance would appear to be another remark of the same lexicographer, that Achilles Tatius wrote a treatise on the sphere. If this were correct, we ought to put him one or two centuries earlier, inasmuch as Firmicus, a Latin writer of the middle of the fourth century, cites the “Sphere of Achilles.” (Astron. 4, 10.) Suidas, however, who is not accustomed to discriminate very nicely between persons bearing the same name, here confounds

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hout with the author of the “Introduction to the Phae-
nomena of Aratus” (vid. No. VIII.). Achilles Tatius
is the author of a romance, entitled, Tà karū Aev-
kirtmu Kai KAtropóvra, “The loves of Leucippe and
Clitophon,” as it is commonly translated. Some crit-
ics, such as Huet and Saumaise, have preferred it to
the work of Heliodorus; but Willoison, Coray, Wyt-
tenbach, Passow, Villemain, and Schoell, restore the
pre-eminence to the latter. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Gr.,
vol. vi., p. 233.—Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p.
131.) “The book,” says Willemain, “is written under
an influence altogether pagan, and in constant allusion
to the voluptuous fables of mythology.” The remark
is perfectly correct. Pictures of the utmost licen-
tiousness, and traces of everything that is infamous in
ancient manners, are seen throughout. Unchaste in
imagination, and coarse in sentiment, the author has
made his hero despise at once the laws of morality
and those of love. Clitophon is a human body, unin-
formed by a human soul, but delivered up to all the
instincts of nature and the senses. He neither com-
mands respect by his courage nor affection by his
constancy. Struggling, however, in the writer's mind,
some finer ideas may be seen wandering through the
gloom, and some pure and lofty aspirations contrasting
o the chaos of animal instincts and de-
sires. is Leucippe glides like a spirit among actors
of mere flesh and blood. Patient, high-minded, re-
signed, and firm, she endures adversity with grace;
preserving, throughout the helplessness and temptations
of captivity, irreproachable purity, and constancy un-
changeable. The critics, while visiting with proper
severity the sins both of the author and the man, do
not refuse to render full justice to the merits of the
work. It possesses interest, variety, probability, and
simplicity. “The Romance of Achilles Tatius,” says
Villemain, “purified as it should be, will appear one
of the most agreeable in the collection of the Greek
Romances. The adventures it relates present a preg-
nant variety; the succession of incidents is rapid; its
wonders are natural; and its style, although some-
what affected, is not wanting in spirit and effect.”
Photius also, as rigorous in morals as a bishop should
be, praises warmly the elegance of the style, observ-
ing that the author's periods are precise, clear, and eu-
phonous. (Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. 131.)
Saumaise was of opinion, that Achilles Tatius had
given to the world two several editions of his romance,
and that some of the manuscripts which remain be-
long to the first publication of the work, while others
supply us with the production in its revised state. Ja-
cobs, however, in the prolegomena to his edition, has
shown that the variations in the manuscripts, which
gave rise to this opinion, are to be ascribed solely to
the negligence of copyists, as they occur only in those
words which have some resemblance to others, and in
which it was easy to err. Few works, moreover, were
as often copied as this of Achilles Tatius. The best
edition is that of Jacobs, 2 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1821, in
which may be seen a very just, though unfavourable,
critique on the editions of Saumaise and Boden, the
former of which appeared in 1640, 12mo, Lugd. Bat.,
and the latter in 1776, 8vo, Lips. A French version
of the work is given in the “Collection des Romans
Grecs, traduits en Français; avec des notes, par MM.
Courier, Larcher, et autres Hellénistes,” 14 vols.
16mo, Paris, 1822-1828.-VIII. Tatius, an astro-
nomical writer, supposed to have lived in the first half
of the fourth century, since he is quoted by Firmicus
(Astron. 4, 10), who wrote about the middle of the
same century. Suidas confounds him with the indi-
vidual mentioned in No. VII. We possess, under the
title of Elaayayi, eiç 'Apárov batvöueva, “Intro-
duction to the Phaenomena of Aratus,” a fragment of
his work on the sphere. This fragment is given in the
Dranologia of Petavius (Petau), Paris, 1630, fol.

Achillfum, a town on the Cimmerian Bosporus,
where anciently was a temple of Achilles. It lay near
the modern Buschuk. (Mannert,4, 326.)
Achillfus, I. a relation of Zenobia, invested with
the purple by the people of Palmyra, when they revolt-
ed from Aurelian. (Vopisc.) Zosimus calls him An-
tiochus (1, 60)—II. A Roman commander, in the
reign of Dioclesian, who assumed the purple in Egypt.
The emperor marched against him, shut him up in
Alexandrea, and took the place after a siege of eight
months. Achilleus was put to death, having been ex-
posed to lions, and Alexandrea was given up to pil-
lage. (Oros. 7, 25–Aurel. Vict, de Cars. c. 39.)
Achivi, properly speaking, the name of the Achaean
race (Axalot). Latinized. Its derivation through the
AEolic dialect is marked by the digammated sound of
the letter v ("Arat Fot). This appellation was gener-
ally applied by the Roman poets, especially Virgil, as
a name for the whole Greek nation, in imitation of the
Homeric usage. In legal strictness it should have
been confined by the Romans to the inhabitants of the
province of Achaia. Homer uses the appellation
'Axalot frequently, to designate the united Greek for-
ces in the Trojan war, since at this period the Achaean
tribe stood at the head of Greece.
Acichorius, a general with Brennus in the expedi-
tion which the d. undertook against Pannonia.
(Paus. 10, 19.) He was chosen by Brennus as his
lieutenant, or, rather, as a kind of colleague, which of.
fice the name itself, in the original language of the
Gauls, is said to designate. Thus the true É. ap-
pellation was Kikhouñaour, or Akikhouíaour, which
the Greeks softened into Kiraptoc (Diod. Sic. frag. lib.
22—vol. ix., p. 301, ed. Bip.) and 'Akixtaptor (Paus.
10, 19), and which they mistook for a proper name.
(Compare Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. i., p. 145,
and Owen's Welsh Dictionary, s. v. Cycwiawr.) Dio-
dorus Siculus (l.c.) makes Cichorius to have succeed-
ed Brennus.
AcidALIA, a surname of Venus, from a fountain of
the same name at Orchomenus, in Boeotia, sacred to
her. The Graces bathed in this fountain. (Virg.
AEn. 1, p. 720, and Serpius, ad loc.)
Acilia, I. gens, a plebeian family of Rome, of whom
many medals are extant. (Rasche, Lez. Rei Num.,
vol. i., col. 47.) The name of this old and distinguish-
ed line occurs five times in the consular fasti, during
the time of the republic, and twelve times in those of
the empire, down to the reign of Constantine. (Sigon.
Fast. Cons.) The two most celebrated branches of
the house were those of Acilius Glabrio and Acilius
Balbus.—II. Ler, a law introduced by Acilius the
tribune, A.U.C. 556, for the planting of five colonies
along the coast of Italy, two at the mouths of the Vul-
turnus and Liternus, one at Puteoli, one at Salernum,
and one at Buxentum. (Liv. 32, 29.)—III. Calpur-
nia Ler (introduced A.U.C. 686), excluded from the
senate, and from all public employments, those who
had been guilty of bribery at elections. Cicero calls
it merely éo, Lez, but others Acilia Calpurnia
Lez. (Ernesti, Ind. Leg.)—IV. Lez, a law introdu-
ced A.U.C. 683, by the consul Manius Acilius Gia-
brio, relative to actions de pecunits repetundis. It
determined the forms of proceeding, and the penalties
to be inflicted. (Compare Ernesti, Ind. Leg.)
Acilius, I. a Roman, who wrote a work in Greek
on the history of his country, and commentaries on
the twelve tables. He lived B.C. 210, and was a con-
temporary of Cato's. His history was translated into
Latin by an individual named Claudius, and was enti-
tled, in this latter language, Annales Acilienses. (Voss.
Hist. Gr. 1, 10.)—II. Quintus, appointed a commis-
sioner, about 200 B.C., for distributing among the new
colonists the conquered lands along the Po.—III. A
tribune, author of the law respecting the maritime col-

onies. (Wid. Acilia II.)—IV. Glabrio M., a consul
with P. Corn. Scipio Nasica, A.U.C. 561, and the conqueror of Antiochus at Thermopylae. (Liv. 35, 24–Id, 36, 19.)—V. Glabrio M., son of the preceding, a decemvir. He built a temple to Piety, in fulfilment of a vow which his father had made when fighting against Antiochus. He erected also a gilded statue (statuan auratam) to his father, the first of the kind ever seen at Rome. (Val. Maz. 2,5–Liv. 40, 34. Compare Hase, ad loc.)—VI. A consul, A.U.C. 684, appointed to succeed Lucullus in the management of the Mithradatic war. (Cic. in Verr. 7, 61.)—VII. Aviola Manius, a lieutenant under Tiberius in Gaul, A.D. 19, and afterward consul. He was roused from a trance by the flames of the funeral pile, on which he had been laid as a corpse, but could not be rescued. (Plin. 7, 53.—Wal. Mar. 1, 8.)—VIII. Son of the eceding, consul under Claudius, A.D. 54.—IX. A consul with M. Ulpian Trajanus, the subsequent emperor. He was induced to engage with wild beasts in the arena, and, proving successful, was put to death by Domitian, who was jealous of his strength. Aciris, now the Agri, a river of Lucania, rising near Aballinum Marsicum, and falling into the Sinus Tarentinus. Near its mouth stood Heraclea, now Policoro. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, 2,350.) Acis, a Sicilian shepherd, son of Faunus and the nymph Simaethis. He gained the affections of Galataea, but his rival Polyphemus, through jealousy, crushed him to death with a fragment of rock, which he hurled upon him. Acis was changed into a stream, which retained his name. According to Servius (ad Virg. Eclog. 9, 39) it was also called Acilius. Cluverius places it about two miles distant from the modern Castello di Acci. Fazellus, however, without much reason, assigns the name of Acis to the Fiume Freddo, near Taormina. Sir Richard Hoare describes the Acis of Cluverius as a limpid though small stream. He thinks that it may have been diminished by the eruptions of Etna. (Classical Tour, 2, 314.) The story of Acis is given by Ovid (Met. 13, 750, seqq.). Acontius, a youth . Cea, who, when he went to Delos to sacrifice to Diana, fell in love with Cydippe, a beautiful virgin, and, being unable to obtain her, by reason of his poverty, had recourse to a stratagem. A sacred law obliged every one to fulfil whatever promise they had made in the temple of the goddess; and Acontius having procured an apple or quince, wrote on it the scllowing words: “I swear by Diana I will wed Acontius.” This he threw into her bosom in the temple, and Cydippe having read the words, felt herself compelled by the vow she had thus inadvertently made, and married Acontius. (Arista-net. ep. 10. —Orld, Her ep. 20.) The story of Ctesylla and Hermochares, as related by Antoninus Liberalis (c. 1), is in some respects similar. Compare Muncker, and Verheyk, ad loc. Acóris, a king of Egypt, who assisted Evagoras, king of Cyprus, against Persia. (Diod. 15, 2.) Theopompus (ap. Phot. cod. 176) gives the name erroneously as Pacóris, and not long after the form Acóris (Akuptc) occurs. Diodorus has 'Akopus. Achradix A, one of the five divisions of Syracuse, and deriving its name from the wild pear-trees with which it once abounded (áxpáç, a wild pear-tree). It is sometimes called the citadel of Syracuse, but incorrectly, although a strongly fortified quarter. It was very thickly inhabited, and contained many fine buildings, yielding only to Ortygia. (Laporte Du. Theil, jo. vol. 2, p. 358, not. 3, French transl.) As regards the situation of Achradina, and its aspect in more modern times, compare Swinburn, Travels in the two Sicilies, 3,382 (French transl.), and Güller, de Situ et Origine Syracusarum, p. 49, seqq. (Lips. 1818). AcRaeph Nía, a city of Boeotia, situate on Mount Ptous, towards the northeast extremity of the Lake Co

pais. It was founded either by Athamas, or by Acraepheus, a son of Apollo. Pausanias calls the place Acraephnium (9, 23.−Compare Steph. Byz. s. v.). Acrag Allidae. vid. Crauallidae. Acrxgas, I. the Greek name of Agrigentum.—II. A river in Sicily, on which Agrigentum was situate. It gave its Greek name to the city. The modern name is San Blasio. (Mannert, 9, 2, 354.)—III. An engraver on silver, whose country and age are both uncertain. He is noticed by Pliny (33, 12, 55), who speaks of cups of his workmanship, adorned with sculptured work, preserved in the temple of Bacchus at Rhodes. His hunting pieces on cups were very famous. (Sillig, Dict. Art. s. v.) AcRitus, a freedman of Nero, sent into Asia to plunder the temples of the gods, which commission he executed readily, being, according to Tacitus (Ann. 15, 45), “cuicumque flagitio promptus.” Secundus Carinas was joined with him on this occasion, whom Lipsius (ad Tac. l.c.) suspects to be the same with the Carinas sent into exile (Dio Cassius, 59, 20) by the Emperor Caligula, for declaiming against tyrants. Compare Juvenal, 7, 204. AcridoPHAgi, an AEthiopian nation, who fed upon locusts. Diodorus Siculus (3, 28) says, that they never lived beyond their 40th year, and that they then rished miserably, being attacked by swarms of winged ice (treptoroi offeipeg), which issued forth from their skin. The account given of their diet is much more probable. The locust is said to be a very common and palatable food in many parts of the East, after having been dried in the sun. This is thought by some to have constituted the food of the Israelites on the occasion mentioned in Exodus (16, 14). Wesseling (ad Diod. Sic. 3, 28) is of this opinion. But the salvim of Moses evidently mean quails, as the received version has rendered the word. Besides, quails are very numerous in Arabia. (Bochart, Hieroz. 2, p. 92–Gesenius ad voc.) Acrisionéus, a name applied to the Argives, from Acrisius, one of their ancient kings. AcrisionEis, a patronymic appellation given to Danaë, as daughter of Acrisius. (Virg. Æn. 7,410, and Servius, ad loc.) AcRisionikdes, a patronymic of Perseus, from his grandfather Acrisius. (Ovid, Met. 5, c. 70.) Acrisius, son of Abas, king of Argos, by Ocalea, daughter of Mantinéus. He was born at the same birth as Proetus, with whom it is said that he quarrelled even in his mother's womb. After many dissensions, Proetus was driven from Argos. Acrisius had Danaë by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedaemon; and an oracle having declared that he should lose his life by the hand of his grandson, he endeavoured to frustrate the prediction by the imprisonment of his daughter, in order to prevent her becoming a mother (vid. Danaë). His efforts failed of success, and he was eventually killed by Perseus, son of Danaë and Jupiter. Acrisius, it seems, had been attracted to Larissa by the reports which had reached him of the prowess of Perseus. At Larissa, Perseus, wishing to show his skill in throwing a quoit, killed an old man who proved to be his grandfather, whom he knew not, and thus the oracle was fulfilled. Acrisius reigned about 31 years. (Hygin. fab. 63.—Ovid, Met. 4, fab. 16–Horat. 3, od. 16.-Apollod. 2, 2, &c.—Paus. 2, 16, &c. – Wid. Danaë, Perseus, Polydectes.) AcRítas, a promontory of Messenia, in the Peloponnesus. (Plin. 4, 5–Mela,2,3.) Now Cape Gallo. Across thos, or AcrothóUM. The name Acroathos properly denotes the promontory of the peninsula of Athos, now Cape Monte Santo. It is the lower one of the two, the upper one being called Nymphaeum (Promontorium). By Acrothoum (or Acrothoi) is meant a town on the peninsula of Athos, situate some distance up the mountain, and of which Mela observes {2, 3), that the inhabitants were supposed to live beond the usual time allotted to man. (Compare Thucyd. 4, 109–Scylar, p.26–Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Affaç. —Strab. epit. lib. 7, 331.) AcRockRAUNIA, or Acrocerau Nii Montes. wid. Ceraunia. Acrocorinthus, a high hill, o the city of Corinth, on which was erected a citadel, called also by the same name. This situation was so important a one as to be styled by Philip the fetters of Greece. The fortress was surprised by Antigonus, but recovered in a brilliant manner by Aratus. (Strab. 8, 380.Paus. 2, 4.—Plut. Wit. Arat.—Stat. Theb. 7, p. 106.) “The Acrocorinthus, or Acropolis of Corinth,” observes Dodwell, “is one of the finest objects in Greece, and, if properly garrisoned, would be a place of great strength and importance. It abounds with excellent water, is in most parts precipitous, and there is only one spot from which it can be annoyed with artillery. This is a pointed rock, at a few hundred yards to the southwest of it, from which it was battered by Mohammed II. Before the introduction of artillery, it was deemed almost impregnable, and had never been taken except by treachery or surprise. Owing to its natural strength, a small number of men was deemed sufficient to garrison it; and in the time of Aratus, according to Plutarch, it was defended by 400 soldiers, 50 dogs, and as many keepers. It was surrounded with a wall by Cleomenes. It shoots up majestically from the plain to a considerable height, and forms a conspicuous object at a great distance: it is clearly seen from Athens, from which it is not less than fortyfour miles in a direct line. Strabo affirms that it is 31-2 stadia in perpendicular height, but that the ascent to the top is 30 stadia by the road, the circuitous inflections of which render this no extravagant computation. The Acrocorinthus contains within its walls a town and three mosques. Athenaeus commends the water in the Acrocorinthus as the most salubrious in Greece. It was at this fount that Pegasus was drinking when taken by Bellerophon.” (Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 187.) All modern travellers who have visited this spot, give a glowing description of the view obtained from the ridge. Consult, in particular, Clarke's Travels, vol. 6, p. 750. Acron, I. a king of the Caeninenses, whom Romulus slew in battle, after the affair of the Sabine women. His arms were dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius, and his subjects were incorporated with the Roman people. (Plut. Wit. Rom.) Propertius styles him Caeninus Acron, from the name of his city and people (4, 10, 7), and also Herculeus (4, 10, 9), from the circumstance of all the Sabine race tracing their descent from Hercules or Sancus.—II. A celebrated physician of Agrigentum in Sicily, contemporary with Empedocles (Diog. Laert. 8, 65). Plutarch speaks of his having been at Athens during the time of the great plague, which occurred B.C. 444. He aided the \!. on that occasion, by causing large fires to be kindled in their streets. (Plut. Is... et Os. 383.) Acron is generally regarded as the founder of the sect of Empirics or Experimentalists (Pseud. Gal. Isag. 372). As this school of medicine, however, had a much later date, it is probable that he was merely one of the class of physicians called reptodevrai, who did not confine themselves to mere theory, but went round and visited patients. His contempt for the mysterious charlatanism of Empedocles drew upon him the hatred of that philosopher. At least it is fair to suppose that this was the cause of their enmity. Acron wrote, according to Suidas, a treatise in Doric Greek, on the healing art, and another on diet. He o also, from the words of the lexicographer, to have turned his attention in some degree to the influence of climate. (Consult Sprengel, Hist. Med. 1, 273.)—III. Helenius Acron, an ancient commentator. The period

when he lived is uncertain: he is thought, however, to have been later than Servius. Acron's scholia on Horace have descended to us in part, or at least only a part was ever published. They are valuable on account of their containing the remarks of C. A. milius, Julius Modestus, and Q. Terentius Scaurus, the oldest commentators on Horace. Acron also wrote scholia on Terence, which are cited by Charisius, but they have not reached us. Some critics ascribe to him the scholia which we have on Persius. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Rom. 3, 326.) Acropólis, in a special sense, the citadel of Athens, an account of which will be given under the article Athenae. In a general acceptation, it stands for the citadel of any place. Acrototus, I. son of Cleomenes, king of Sparta, died before his father, leaving a son called Areus, who contended for the crown with Cleonymus his uncle, and obtained it through the suffrages of the senate. Cleonymus, in his disappointment, called in Pyrrhus of Epirus. (Paus. 3, 6–Plut. rit. Pyrrh.-Paus. 1, 13.)—II. A king of Sparta, son of Areus, and grandson of the preceding. . He reigned one year. Before ascending the throne, he distinguished himself by courageously defending Sparta against Pyrrhus. (Plut. wit. Pyrrh.) Acrothéum. Wid. Acroathos. Act A or Acte, strictly speaking, a beach or shore on which the waves break, from dya, “to break.” According to Apollodorus (Steph. B. s. v. 'Akrá), the primitive name of Attica was 'Akrī (Acte), from the circumstance of two of its sides being washed by the sea. The name is also applied by Thucydides to that part of the peninsula of A. which is below the city of Sane and including it. Besides Sane, the historian mentions five other cities as being situate upon it. (Thucyd. 4, 109.) Act AEoN, a celebrated hunter, son of Arista us and Autonoë the daughter of Cadmus. Having inadvertently, on one occasion, seen Diana bathing, he was changed by the goddess into a stag, and was hunted down and #. by his own hounds. (Op. Met. 3, 155, seqq.) The scene of the fable is laid by the poets at Gargaphia, a fountain of Boeotia, on Mount Cithaeron, about a mile and a half from Plataea. From a curious passage in Diodorus Siculus (4, 81), a suspicion arises, that the story of Actaeon is a corruption of some earlier tradition, respecting the fate of an intruder into the mysteries of Diana. Wesseling's expla– nation does not appear satisfactory, although it may serve as a clew to the true one. (Wesseling, ad Diod. Sic. l.c.) Actaeus, the first king of Attica, according to the ancient writers. He was succeeded by Cecrops, to whom he had given one of his daughters in marriage. (Paus. 1, 2.—Clem. Aler. 1, 321.) He is called § some Actaeon. (Strab. 397.-Harpocr. s. v. 'Akrū. —Consult Siebelis, ad Paus. l. c.) Acte, a freed woman of Asiatic origin. Suetonius (Wit. Ner. 28) informs us, that Nero, at one time, was on the point of making her his wife, having suborned certain individuals of consular rank to testify, under oath, that she was descended from Attalus. From a passage in Tacitus (Ann. 14, 2) it would appear, that Seneca introduced this female to the notice of the tyrant, in order to counteract, by her means, the dreaded ascendency of Agrippina. (Compare Dio Cass. 61, 7.) Actia, games renewed by Augustus in commemoration of his victory at Actium. They are also styled Ludi Actiaci by the Latin writers, and were celebrated in the suburbs of Nicopolis. Strabo makes them to have been quinquennial. Previously, however, to the battle of Actium they occurred every three years. (Strab. 7,325.) Actis, one of the Heliades, or offspring of the Sun,

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