Obrazy na stronie

regarded as the first truly complete one of the works of Archimedes. Translations have also appeared in some of the modern languages. That of Peyrard, in French (1807, 4to, and 1808, 2 vols. 8vo) is most deserving of mention. Delambre has appended to this version a memoir on the Arithmetic of the Greeks; a subject of great interest, as we have very scanty data left us on this point. A review of this translation is given in the London Quarterly, vol. 3, p. 89, seqq. (Compare Hutton's Math. Dict.—Aikin's G. Dict. —Sarii Onomast.—Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 378, seqq.) Archippe, a city of the Marsi, destroyed by an earthquake, and lost in Lake Fucinus. It is thought by Holstenius, on the authority of some people of the country who had seen vestiges of it, to have stood between the villages of Transaqua and Ortuccia, on the spot which retains the name of Arciprete. (Holst., Adnot., p. 154.) Archippus, I. a king of Italy, from whom perhaps the town of Archippe received its name. He was one of the allies of Turnus. (Virg., AEm., 7, 752.)—II. An Athenian comic poet, who gained the prize but once (Olymp. 91), according to Suidas. For some of the titles of his pieces consult Fabricius, Bibl. Gr., vol. 1, p. 747, and Schweighaeuser's Index Auctorum to Athenaeus (Animadv., vol. 9, p. 47). ArchoNTEs, the name of the chief magistrates of Athens. At first the archons were for life, and on their death the office descended to their children. This arrangement took place after the death of Codrus, the Athenian state having been previously governed by kings. The first of these perpetual archons was Medon, son of Codrus, from whom the thirteen following and hereditary archons were named Medontidae, as being descended from him. In the first year of the seventh Olympiad, the power of the archons was curbed by their being allowed to hold the office only for ten years. These are what are termed decennial archons. Seventy years after this the office was made annual, and continued so ever after—These annual archons were nine in number, and none were chosen but such as were descended from ancestors who had been free citizens of the republic for three generations. They were also to be without any personal defect, and must show that they had been dutiful towards their parents, had borne arms in the service of their country, and were possessed of a competent estate to support the office with dignity. They took a solemn oath that they would observe the laws, administer justice with impartiality, and never suffer themselves to be corrupted. If they ever received bribes they were compelled by the laws to dedicate to the god of Delphi a statue of gold, of equal weight with their body. (Plut., Wit. Solon, c. 19.—Pollur, 8, 9, 85.) hey possessed the entire power of punishing malefactors with death. The chief among them was called Archon; the year took its denomination from him, and hence he was also called Ātróvvuoc. He determined all causes between man and wife, and took care of legacies and wills; he provided for orphans, protected the injured, and punished drunkenness with uncommon severity. If he suffered himself to be intoxicated during the time of his office, the misdemeanor was punished with death. The second of the archons was called Basileus: it was his office to keep good order, and to remove all causes of quarrel in the families of those who were dedicated to the service of the gods. The profane and the impious were brought before his tribunal; and he offered public sacrifices for the good of the state. He assisted at the celebration of the Eleusinian festivals and other religious ceremonies. His wife was to be a citizen of the whole blood of Athens, and of a pure and unsullied life. He had a vote among the Areopagites, but was obliged to sit among them with

out his crown. The Polemarch was another archon of inferior dignity. He had the care of all foreigners, and provided a sufficient maintenance, from the public treasury, for the families of those who had lost their lives in the defence of their country. But because these three magistrates were often, by reason of their youth, not so well skilled in the laws and customs of their country as might have been wished, that they might not be left wholly to themselves, they were each accustomed to make choice of two persons of age, gravity, and reputation, to sit with them on the bench, and assist them with their advice. These they called IIápećpot, or assessors, and obliged them to undergo the same probation as the other magistrates. The six other archons were indifferently called Thesmothetae, and received complaints against persons accused of impiety, bribery, and ill behaviour. Indictments before the Thesmothetae were in writing; at the tribunal of the Basileus, they were by word of mouth. They settled all disputes between the citizens, redressed the wrongs of strangers, and forbade any laws to be enforced but such as were conducive to the safety of the state. After some time, the qualifications which were required to be an archon were not strictly observed, and, when the glory of Athens was on the decline, even foreigners, who had been admitted to the rights of citizenship, were created archons. Thus Hadrian, before he was elected emperor of Rome, was made archon at Athens, though a foreigner; and the same honours were conferred upon PlutarchMany lists of the Athenian archons have been published in various works, but all of these were more or less inaccurate till the time of Corsini, and on that account of little use in illustrating ancient history. A catalogue of the archons is given in Stanley’s “Lives of the Philosophers,” p. 938, seqq.; another by Du Fresnoy (Tablettes, vol. 1, p. 66, seqq.), and a third by Dr. Hales (Analysis of Chronology, vol. 1, p. 230, seqq.). One cause of the incorrectness of these lists has been, the not adverting to a peculiarity of the Parian marble; that the compiler places the annual archons, who preceded the Peloponnesian war, one year higher respectively than the Julian year, with which they were in reality connumerary. Hence two archons have been often made out of one. Again, those who have used this document did not always distinguish between what was attested by the marble, and what was supplied by conjecture where the marble was defaced. Hence the marble is often quoted for that which was only inserted by its editors. Various forms or corruptions of . the name of an archon have been sometimes admitted as the names of different archons. From these causes, the catalogues of archons are not as correct and accurate as they might have been rendered. (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 1, p. x., Introduction.) The most accurate tables, as far as they extend, are those given by Clinton, in the work which has just been quoted. Archytas, a native of Tarentum, and one of the Pythagoric preceptors of Plato. He is said to have been the eighth in succession from Pythagoras; and this account deserves more credit than the assertion of Iamblichus, that he heard Pythagoras in person; for the father of this sect flourished, as we shall see, about the 60th Olympiad, B.C. 540; but Archytas conversed with Plato upon his first visit to Sicily, which was in the 96th Olympiad, B.C. 396; whence it appears, that there was an interval of above a century between the time of Pythagoras and that of Archytas. Such was the celebrity of this philosopher, that many illustrious names appear in the train of his disciples, particularly Philolaus, Eudoxus, and Plato. To these Suidas, and, after him, Erasmus (Chil., p. 550), add Empedocles; but Empedocles certainly flourished about the 84th Olympiad, near fifty years before Archytas.--So high was his character for moral and political wisdom, and so deservedly did he enjoy the unlimited confidence of his fellow-citizens, that, contrary to the usual custom, he was appointed seven different times to the responsible office of general, and never experienced either check or defeat. (Diog. Laert., 8, 79.—Menage, ad loc.—AElian makes it six times. War. Hist, 7, 14.) Archytas was eminently distinguished for his self-command and purity of conduct; and as uniting with a rare knowledge of mankind such a childlike feeling of universal love, and such simpleness of manners, that he lived with the inmates of his house a real father of a family. Amid all his public avocations, however, he still found leisure to devote to the most important discoveries in science, and to the composition of many works of a very diversified character. His discoveries were exclusively in the mathematical and kindred sciences. He was occupied not merely with theoretical, but also practical mechanics; and his inventions in this department of study imply a considerable advance in their cultivation. He also published a musical system, which was referred to by all succeeding theoretical students of the art. (Ptolem., Harm., 1, 13.-Boeth., de Mus.) He wrote, moreover, a treatise on agriculture. (Varro, de R. R., 1, 1.—Colum., 1, 1.) Of his philosophical doctrines many accounts have come down to us; but wherever our information on this head is derived exclusively from writers of later date, we cannot be too much on our guard, lest we should adopt anything which rests merely on supposititious writing, since nearly all the fragments attributed to him are spurious. These fragments have been preserved by Stobaeus and others, and edited from him by Gale, in his Opuscula Mythologica (Cantabr., 1671, 12mo), among the IIvbayopetov disgartacuárta. They are given, however, more fully and correctly by Orellius, in his Opuscula Graecorum, &c., vol. 2, p. 234, seqq.—Aristotle, who was an industrious collector from the Pythagoreans, is said to have borrowed from Archytas the general arrangements which are usually called his “Ten Categories."—The sum of the moral doctrines of Archytas is, that virtue is to be pursued for its own sake in every condition of life; that all excess is inconsistent with virtue; that the mind is more injured by prosperity; and that there is no pestilence so destructive to human happiness as pleasure. It is probable that Aristotle was indebted to Archytas for many of his moral ideas; particularly for the notion which runs through his ethical pieces, that virtue consists in avoiding extremes. Archytas

Perished by shipwreck, and his death is made a sub

[ocr errors]

. Akcitiness, an epithet applied to Apollo, as bearing a bow (arcus and teneo). The analogous Greek expression is rošoodpoc. (Virg., AEm., 3, 75, &c.) Arctinus, a cyclic bard, born at Miletus. He was confessedly a very ancient poet, nay, he is even termed * disciple of Homer. The chronological accounts place him immediately after the commencement of the Øympiad. Arctinus composed a poem consisting of 9100 verses. (Heeren, Bibliothek der Alten Lit., &c., Pt. 4, p. 61.) It opened with the arrival of the Ama. *ons at Troy, which event followed immediately after the death of Hector. The action of the epic of Arcti. *was connected with the following principal events. Achilles kills Penthesilea, and then, in a fit of anger, * to death Thersites, who had ridiculed him for his * of her. Upon this, Memnon, the son of Aurora, i. with his Ethiopians, and is slain by the son of o, after he himself has killed in battle Antilochus, the Patroclus of Arctinus. Achilles himself falls by hand of Paris, while pursuing the Trojans into the

town. Ajax and Ulysses contend for his arms, and the defeat of Ajax causes his suicide. (Schol. Pind., Isthm., 3, 58.) Arctinus farther related the story of the wooden horse, the careless security of the Trojans, and the destruction of Laocoon, which induced AEneas to fly for safety to Ida, before the impending destruction of the city. In this he is quite different from Wirgil, who, in other respects, has in the second book of the AEneid chiefly followed Arctinus. The sack of Troy by the Greeks returning from Tenedos, and issuing from the Trojan horse, was described so far as to display in a conspicuous manner the arrogance and mercilessness of the Greeks, and to occasion the resolution of Minerva, already known from the Odyssey, to punish them in various ways on their return home. This last part, when divided from the preceding, was called the Destruction of Troy ('IAtov répatc); the former, comprising the events up to the death of Achilles, was termed the AEthiopis of Arctinus. (Procl., Chrestom.—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 169.Hist. Lit. Gr., p. 65, in Libr. Us. Knowl.) Arctophylax, a constellation near the Great Bear, called also Boötes. The term is derived from aparoc, “a bear,” and piña;, “a keeper or guard,” for the position of the constellation on the celestial sphere is such, that it appears to watch over the Greater and Smaller Bear. Hence Ovid calls it “Custos Ursae” (Trist., 1, 10, 15), and Vitruvius simply “Custos” (9, 4.—Compare Ideler, Untersuch., &c., der Sternnamen, p. 47–Cic., de Nat. D., 2, 42). Arctos, two celestial constellations near the north pole, commonly called Ursa Major and Minor, supposed to be Arcas and his mother, who were made constellations. Ovid calls them Ferae conjointly: “magna minorque Fera” (Trist., 4, 3, 1). Originally, the Greater Bear alone had the name of Arctos, and Homer appears merely to have been acquainted with this constellation, not with that of the Smaller Bear. (Il., 18, 487.—0d., 5, 275.) The discoverer of the latter constellation is said to have been"Thales, who lived at least two centuries after Homer. (Schol. ad Il., l.c.—Achill. Tat, Isag. in Arat., Phaen., c. 1.Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 2.) The truth is, however, that Thales merely brought the knowledge of the Smaller Bear from the East into Greece, for the Phoenicians were acquainted with it at a much earlier period, and hence the name botvákm, Phoenice, that was sometimes given to it. (Eratosth., Cat., c. 2–Schol. ad German., p. 89.) Another name for the Greater Bear was "Auaša, or “the Wain,” an appellation known already to Homer (Il., l. *} Subsequently, a distinction was made between the Greater and Smaller Wain, as between the Greater and Smaller Bears. Hence we have, in Latin, the plural form Plaustra applied to both constellations of the Wain. (German., v. 25.-Armen, v. 103.) The more common Latin expression, however, is Septem Triomes, “the seven loughing oxen,” originally applied to the Greater |. but afterward to both. Hence the Latin Septemtrio, as indicating the north. (Varro, L. L., 6,4– Aul. Gell., 2, 21.-Virg., AEm., 1,748.) Two other names are also found among the ancients for the Bear, namely, 'E2tkm (Helice), and Kvvágovga (Cynosiara). The first of these is derived from £715, “curled,” and has reference to the curved or s-like position of the stars composing the Greater Bear, if we regard what is commonly called the Square or Quadrangle, merely as a semicircle opening towards the north. (Buttmann, as cited by Ideler, Untersuch. iiber die Beobacht. der Alt., p. 376.) The term Kvvéaoupa, on the other hand, which signifies the “Dog's tail,” was applied by the ancients to the constellation of the Smaller Bear, because this animal is represented on the celestial planisphere with its tail bent upward like that of a dog, or, as the scholiast on Homer remarks (Il., 18,

[ocr errors]

a later period, however, the etymology of the two terms display the same zeal and constancy in the service of was forgotten or neglected, and Helice and Cynosura the republic. In the second Punic war, and at a time Pomponius Mela, it was one of the richest cities in blameless in their lives, and it was even required that

appear in fable as two nymphs, the nurses of Jove. (Arat., Phaen., 30, seqq.—Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 2.) The name Cynosura is sometimes improperly applied by the moderns to the Pole-star. (ldeler, Sternnamen, p. 8.)—The ancient name of the Greater Bear in the north is Karlspagn, the “Carle's,” or “Old Man's Wain.” The Carle, Magnusen says, is Odin or Thor. Hence our “Charles's Wain.” The Icelanders call the Bears “Stori (great) Wagn,” and “Litli Wagn.” (Edda Sa:mundar, 3, 304.) Arcturus, a star near the tail of the Great Bear, the rising and setting of which was generally supposed to portend tempestuous weather. It belongs to the constellation Boötes or Arctophylax and forms its brightest star. Originally, according to Erotianus (Erpos. voc. Hippocr.), the term Arcturus was synonymous with Arctophylax, being derived from sipktoc, a bear, and otpot, a watch or guard. Whether Hesiod, who twice makes mention of Arcturus (Op. et D., 566. —Ibid., 610), means the star or the constellation, is not very clear. Even some later writers, such as Martianus Capella, and the scholiast to Germanicus, employ the term as indicating the constellation itself. The common derivation of the name, from 1pxtoc, and oili, a tail, as referring to the situation of the star near the tail of the bear, is condemned by Buttmann. (Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 47, seqq.) Arcturus, observes Dr. Halley, in the time of Columella and Pliny rose with the sun at Athens, when the sun was in 12 of Virgo; but at Rome three days sooner, the sun being in 94 of Virgo, the autumnal equinox then falling on the 24th or 25th of September. ARDALUs, a son of Vulcan, said to have been the first who invented the pipe. He erected a temple also at Troezene, in honour of the Muses, who were hence called, from him, Ardalules, or Ardaliotides. (Pausan., 2, 31.—Steph. Byz., s. v.) ARDEA, the capital of the Rutuli, a very ancient city of Italy, founded, as tradition reported, by Danaë, the mother of Perseus. (Virg., AEn., 7,408.) Hence the boast of Turnus, that he could number Inachus and Acrisius among his ancestors. Pliny (3, 5) and Mela (2, 4) have improperly reckoned Ardea among the maritime cities of Latium; but Strabo (232) and Ptolemy (66) have placed it more correctly at some distance from the coast. The ruins which yet bear the name of Ardea are situated on a hill about three miles from the sea. Though the early accounts of this ancient city are lost in obscurity, we are led to infer that it must have attained to a considerable degree of power and prosperity at a remote period, if it be true, as Livy (21, 7) asserts, that a body of Ardeatae formed part of the Zacynthian colony, which settled Saguntum in Spain. The first mention which occurs of this city in the history of Rome, is in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus. We are told that it was during the siege of Ardea, which the king was carrying on, that the memorable circumstance occurred which led to his expulsion from the throne, and the consequent change of government at Rome. (Liv., 1, 57.—Dion. Hal., 4, 64.) The Ardeatae had the honour of affording an asylum to Camillus in his exile, and, under the conduct of that great man, were enabled to render a signal service to the Romans in their utmost distress (if indeed we are to give credit to Livy's account of these transactions); first by defeating a large body of Gauls who had advanced towards their city in quest of booty (Liv., 5, 45), and afterward by contributing greatly to the decisive victory which freed Rome from her most dangerous enemies. (Liv., 5,49). In all probability, however, this story is merely to be regarded as one of the embellishments of the false legends of the Furian family. (Compare Arnold's History of Rome, vol. 1, P. 393, seqq.) The Ardeatae, however, did not always

when the victories of Hannibal had exhausted the resources of the state, they refused to furnish any farther supplies of men and provisions. Their city was therefore included in the vote of censure which the Roman senate afterward passed on several refractory colonies. (Liv., 27, 9.) Another curious circumstance in the history of Ardea is recorded by Warro (R. R., 2, 2), who states, that the era in which barbers were first introduced into Italy from Sicily was noted in the archives of this city. This epoch Varro makes to coincide with 454 A.U.C. Strabo (22) informs us, that the country about Ardea was marshy, and the climate consequently very unfavourable; which is confirmed by Seneca (Epist. 105) and Martial (Ep., 4, 60). Some warm springs, strongly impregnated with sulphur, noticed by Vitruvius (8, 3) in the vicinity of Ardea, still exist under the name of la Solforata, near the Terre di S. Lorenzo, in the direction of Antium. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 21, seqq.) ARDERicca, I. a small town of Assyria, north of Babylon, on the Euphrates. Herodotus informs us (1, 185) that Nitocris, queen of Babylon, in order to render her territories more secure against the Medes, altered the course of the Euphrates, and made it so very winding, that it came, in its course, three times to Ardericca. (Compare Larcher, ad loc., where a diagram is given, explanatory of the course of the stream.) Heeren thinks that this laborious undertaking had also another object in view, to facilitate, namely, the navigation of the vessels in their descent from the higher countries. He considers it probable that this was effected by a series of sluices and floodgates, and that the numerous windings of the canal made it a three days' voyage to pass the village of Ardericca, the canal being cut in a zigzag manner, to diminish the fall occasioned by the steepness of the land. The name Ardericca has led to the conjecture, that it is the present Akkercuf, above Bagdad. Akkercus, however, lies on the Tigris, not the Euphrates. (Heeren, Ideen, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 138, seqq.—Porter's Travels, vol. 2, p. 277.)—II. A village in Cissia, about two hundred and ten stadia to the northeast of Susa. (Herodotus, 6, 119.—Compare Larcher and Bühr, ad loc.) It was here that the Eretrian captives were settled. (Vid. Eretria.) Ardiscus, a river of Thrace, falling into the Hebrus at Adrianopolis. Now the Arda. Ardu ENNA, now Ardennes, a forest of Gaul, the longest in that country, reaching, according to Caesar, from the Rhenus and the territories of the Treveri to those of the Nervii, upward of fifty miles in length. Others make the extent much larger. If it covered the whole of the intervening space between the coun: tries of the Treveri and Nervii, it would greatly exceed fifty miles. The original Gallic name would seem to have been Ar-Denn, i. e., “the profound,” or “deep" (forest). Ar is the article, Den in the Kimric, Don in the Bas-Breton, and Domhainn in Gaelic, denote respectively “profound,” “thick,” &c. (Thierry, Hist. des Gaulois, vol. 2, p. 41, in notis.) The ground is now in many places cleared, and cities built upon it. It is divided into four districts. Its chief town is Mezieres. (Tacit., Ann., 8, 42.—Cas., Bell. Gall, 6, 29.) Andys, a son of Gyges, king of Lydia, who reigned forty-nine years, took Priene, and made war against Miletus. (Herodot., 1, 16.—Compare Clinton's Fast" Hellenici, vol. 2, p. 296.) Arellitum ('Apezirov, Ptol. : 'Apexãrat, Strabo: Arelate, among the Latin writers; and sometimes Arelas by the poets), a town of the Salyes on the east side of the Rhodanus, at the place where it divides into three branches, not far from its mouth. Strabo speak* of it as a commercial emporium, and, according " Gallia Narbonensis. It was also called Sextanorum

Colonia, from having been colonized by the soldiers of

the sixth legion, conducted thither by the father of Tiberius. It is now Arles. During the later periods of the Roman empire, Arelate was the residence of some of the emperors; and at a subsequent date, on account of the frequent inroads of the barbarians, the praetorian headquarters were transferred from Treveri (Treres) to this place. (Caes., Bell. Civ., 1, 36– Mela, 2, 5.-Suet., Wit. Tib., 4.) AREMorica, or ARMoRica, a Celtic term, applied in strictness to all parts of Gaul which lay along the ocean. As the Romans, however, before Caesar's time, knew no other part of the coast except that between the Pyrenees and the mouth of the Garumna, the name with them became restricted to this portion of the country. (Mannert, Georgr., vol. 2, p. 112.) The appellation is derived from the Gaelic ar, “upon,” and moir, “sea.” (Compare Thierry, Ilist. des Gaulois, vol. 1, Introd., p. xxxix., in notis.) ARENicum, a fortified place on the Rhine, in the territories of the Batavi, not far from where the river separates to form the Vahalis. . It is now, according to D'Anville, Aert or Aerth, but Mannert is in favour of Arnheim. (Tacit., Hist., 5, 20.-Compare Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 242.) Areopagitae, the judges of the Areopagus, a seat of Justice on a small eminence at Athens. (Wid. Areopagus.) The time in which this celebrated seat of justice was instituted is unknown. Some suppose that Cecrops, the founder of Athens, first established it, while others give the credit of it to Cranaus, and others to Solon. The constitution and form under which it appears in history, is certainly not more ancient than the time of Solon, though he undoubtedly appears to have availed himself of the sanctity already attached to the name and place, to ensure to it that influence , and inviolability which were essential to the attainment of its chief object, the maintenance of the laws. Its original right of judging all cases of homicide continued, though evidently the least important part of its duties, since, when Ephialtes had deprived it of all but that, the Areopagus was thought to be annihilated. (Demosth. adr. Aristocr., p. 642.—Ler. Rhet., appended to Porson's Photius, p. 585, ed. Lips.—Hermann's Polit. Antiq., p. 215, not. 6.) It was not restored to its dignity of guardian of the laws till the fall of the thirty tyrants. Its office as such was, in principle, directly opposed to an absolute democracy, and must have appeared the more formidable to the partisans of that form, from the indefinite and arbitrary nature of the merely moral power on which its authority was, founded, and which rendered it impracticable

clearly to define the extent of its influence. In later

times it was found particularly active as a censorship of morals, and in several respects may be viewed as a superior court of police, taking cognizance of luxury and morals, the superintendence of public buildings and public health, and, in particular, making it its business to direct public attention to men who might endanger the state, though its own power to inflict punishment in such cases was very limited. (Hermann, l. c.) The Areopagus, when originally constituted, was, as has already been remarked, merely a criminal tribunal. Solon, guided by motives which cannot now be easily explained, rendered it superior to the Epheta, another court instituted by Draco, and greatly enlarged its jurisdiction.—The number of judges composing this *gust tribunal is not clearly ascertained. It was probably about ninety. (Tittman, Griech. Stattsreif., p. 253) The court consisted entirely of ex-archons; and “very archon, on laying down his archonship, became *Imember of it. (Tittmann, l.c.—Plut., Wit. Sol., c. 19). It was expressly provided, however, that the members of this court should be altogether pure and

their whole demeanour should be grave and serious beyond what was expected from other men. The dignity of a judge of the Areopagus was always for life, unless he was expelled for immoral or improper conduct. The Areopagites took cognizance of murders, impiety, and immoral behaviour, and particularly of idleness, which they deemed the cause of all vice. They watched over the laws, and they had the management of the public treasury; they had also the liberty of rewarding the virtuous, and inflicting severe punishment upon such as blasphemed against the gods, or slighted the celebration of the holy mysteries. Hence St. Paul was arraigned before this tribunal as “a setter forth of strange gods,” because he preached to the Athenians of Jesus and the resurrection. They always sat in the open air; because they took cognizance of murder, and, by their laws, it was not permitted for the murderer and his accuser to be both under the same roof. (Wid. Areopagus.) This custom also might originate from the persons of the judges being sacred, and their being afraid of contracting pollution by conversing in the same house with men who had been guilty of shedding innocent blood. They always heard causes and passed sentence in the night, that they might not be prepossessed in favour of the plaintiff or defendant by seeing them. Whatever causes were pleaded before them were to be divested of all oratory and fine speaking, lest eloquence should charm their ears and corrupt their judgment. Hence arose the most just and most impartial decisions; and their sentence was deemed sacred and inviolable, and the plaintiff and defendant were equally convinced of its justice. The Areopagites generally sat on the 27th, 28th, and 29th day of every month. But if any business happened which required despatch, they assembled in the royal portico, Baat?txà XToé. This institution was preserved entire until the time of Pericles, who, as he had never filled the office of archon, could not be admitted a member of the Areopagus, and therefore employed all his power and influence in undermining an authority which was incompatible with his own. The earlier strictness too, as regarded the private characters of the judges, began now to be relaxed, and eventually, when the grandeur of Athens was on the decline, men of vicious and profligate lives became members of the Areopagus.-As regards the form Areopagita and Ariopagita, consult the remarks of Bergman (Praef. ad Isocr. Areopag. init.). Areopägus (Apetótayor, or "Apetoc Táyoc, i. e., “the hill of Mars”), a small eminence at Athens, a little distance to the northwest of the Acropolis. It was so called in consequence, as it was said, of Mars having been the first person tried there, for the murder of Halirrhothius, son of Neptune. (Wid. Areopagital.) This celebrated court consisted only of an open space, in which was an altar dedicated to Minerva Areia, and two rude seats of stone for the defendant and his accuser. From Vitruvius we learn (2, 1.-Compare Poll., 8, 10), that at a later period this space was enclosed, and roofed with tiles. According to Herodotus (8,52), the Persians were stationed in the Areopagus when they made their attack on the western side of the Acropolis. (Consult, as regards the form of the name, the remarks of Bergman, Pra.f. ad Isocr. Areopag. init.) Arestorines, a patronymic given to the hundredeyed Argus, as son of Arestor. (Ovid, Met., 1,624.) ARETArus, a Greek physician of Cappadocia, who is supposed to have flourished A.D. 80. . We have two productions of his remaining: trepi Airwāv kai Xmuetov čov kai Xpovíov traffāv, “On the causes and symptoms of acute and chronic maladies;” and, trepi 6epaireiac Čščov kai xpovíov traffāv, “On the cure of acute and chronic maladies.” The works of

this most elegant writer, which have come down to us, . are so truly valuable as to make us deplore the loss we have sustained by the mutilations they have suffered. His language is in the highest degree refined, and his descriptions are uncommonly graphic and accurate. For example, what picture could be truer to life than the one which he has drawn of a patient in the last stage of consumption 1 and what description was ever more poetically elegant than that which he gives us of the symptoms attending the collapse in ardent sever? —Considering that most probably he was prior to Galen, the correctness of his physical views cannot but excite our admiration. Thus, in his account of Paralysis, he alludes to the distinction between the Nerves of Sensation and those of Muscular motion, which doctrine is treated of at great length by Galen, in his work De Usu Partium (repi Xpeia; rāv čv &vtpámov oùuart uoptov). He enumerates indigestion among the exciting causes of palsy, which seems to be an anticipation of a late pretended discovery, that paralysis of the limbs is sometimes to be referred to derangement of the stomach and bowels—In speaking of epilepsy, he makes mention of the use of copper, which medicine has been tried of late years in this complaint with manifest advantage.—No other ancient writer that we are acquainted with gives us so correct an account of ulcers on the throat and tonsils. His description of the various phenomena of mania is very interesting, and contains the singular case of a joiner, who was in his right senses while employed at his profession at work, but no sooner left the seat of his employment than he became mad. He gives an interesting account of jaundice, which he attributes, probably with correctness, to a variety of causes, but more especially to obstruction of the ducts, which convey the bile to the intestinal canal. He makes no mention, indeed, of gall-stones, nor are they mentioned, as we know, by any ancient writer; only Nonnius recommends Lithontriptics for the cure of the disease, which might seem to imply that he was acquainted with the existence of these concretions.—Aretaeus was fond of administering hellebore, and concludes his work with a glowing eulogy on the properties of this medicine. The best editions of Aretaeus are, that of Wigan, Oron., 1723, fol., and that of Boerhave, Lugd. Bat., 1731, fol. This latter one, in fact, is superior to the former, since it contains all that is given in Wigan's edition, together with the commentary of Petit, and the notes and emendations of Triller. The edition of Aretaeus given in Kuhn's collection of the Greek medical writers, has not proved very satisfactory in a critical point of view. (Pierer, Annal. Aug., p. 1041.-Hoffmann, Lez. Bibl., vol. 1, p. 248.) ARété, a daughter of the philosopher Aristippus. AElian, however, contrary to the common account, makes her his sister. (Hist. An., 3, 40.) Aristippus taught her the doctrines of his school, and she in her turn became the instructress of her own son, the younger Aristippus, who, on this account, received the surname of Metrodidactus (Mmrpootóaxroc). Her attainments in philosophy were highly celebrated. (Aristocles, ap. Euseb., Praep. Ev., 14, 18.-Diog. Laert., 2, 86.—Casaub., ad Diog., l.c.) AREthiosa, I. a nymph of Elis, daughter of Oceanus, and one of Diana's attendants. As she returned one day from hunting, she came to the clear stream of the Alpheus, and, enticed by its beauty, entered into its waters to drive away the heat and fatigue. She heard a murmur in the stream, and, terrified, sprang to land. The river-god rose and pursued her. The nymph sped all through Arcadia, till with the approach of evening she felt her strength failing, and saw that her pursuer was close upon her. She then prayed to Diana for relief, and was immediately dissolved into a fountain. Alpheus resumed his aqueous form, and sought to mingle his waters with hers. She fled on under the earth, however, and through the sea, till she

rose in the island of Ortygia at Syracuse, still followed by the stream of the Alpheus. In proof of the truth of this fable, it was asserted that a cup (outian) which fell into the Alpheus rose in the fountain of Arethusa, whose pellucid waters also became turbid with the blood of the victims slain at the Olympic games. (Ovid, Met., 5,572, seqq.— Moschus, Idyll, 7– Keightley's Mythology, 2d ed., p. 132.) . An explanation of this legend will be so under the article Alpheus.-II. A lake in Armenia Major, through which the Tigris ran. It was near the sources of that river, and exhaled, according to Pliny, nitrous vapours. (Plin., 6, 27.)—III. A city in the Macedonian district of Amphaxitis. (Plin., 4, 10.)—IV. A city of Syria, on the eastern bank of the Orontes. It was either built or restored by Seleucus Nicator, and is supposed to have been destroyed by the Arabians. (Strab., 518. –Zosim., 1, 52.-Theod., Hist. Eccles., 3, 7.)—V. A fountain in Euboea, near Chalcis. (Plin., 4, 12.)— VI. A fountain in Boeotia, near Thebes. (Plin., 4, 7.) Areus, I. (two syllables) a king of Sparta, preferred in the succession to Cleonymus, son of Cleomenes, who, on being defeated in his claim upon the throne, called in the aid of Pyrrhus. Areus was in Crete when the King of Epirus marched against Sparta; and instantly leaving that island, whither he had gone to aid the Gortynians, he returned home and repulsed Pyrrhus. He afterward went to the aid of Athens, when attacked by Antigonus Gonatas, and lost his life in a battle with this prince in the environs of Corinth, B.C. 268. (Pausan., 3, 6.)—II. (Aréus, 'Apewa) a native of Alexandrea, and member of the Pythagorean sect. According to the common account, he was one of the masters of Augustus, and enjoyed so high a degree of favour with this prince, that when, after the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Augustus appeared in the theatre of Alexandrea, he had his old instructer on his right hand, and conversed familiarly with him, declaring that one of the causes of his sparing the inhabitants was his friendship for Areus. (Dio Cassius, 51, 16.-Fabric., ad Dion., l. c.—Plut., Wit. Anton, 80.) The eloquence and philosophy of Areus were so persuasive, that, according to Seneca, he powerfully contributed to console Livia for the loss of Augustus! (Senec., Consol. ad Mar., 4, 2.) It is thought by some that Dioscorides dedicated to him his work on the Materia Medica, but the point is not clearly ascertained. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 407.) Aréva, a river of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the territory of the Arevaci. It rose southeast of Salamantica, and flowed into the Durius. The modern name is, according to Harduin, the Arlanzo (ad Plin., 3, 4), but according to Florez, more correctly, the Ucero. (Esp. Sagr., 5, 16, 39.) AREvici, a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, deriving their name, according to Pliny (3, 3), from the river Areva. They lay between the Vaccabi to the north and the Carpetani to the south, and formed one of the most powerful branches of the Celtiberi. According to some authorities, their chief city was Numantia. (Strabo, 162.-Mela, 2, 6–Appian, B. Hisp., c. 91.) Pliny, however, assigns this place to the Pelendones (3, 4). Their later capital was Segobia or Segubia, now Segovia. (Itin. Ant., p. 435. —Ptol., 2, 6.) ARGAEus, a mountain of Cappadocia, covered with perpetual snows, and so lofty that from its summit, according to the ancient writers, both the Euxine and the Mediterranean Seas might be seen, although, according to Strabo (538), there were very few who could boast of such a feat. It is now called Argehdag, and at its foot stood Mazaca, the capital of Cappadocia, called, in the time of Tiberius, Caesarea ad Argaeum, and now Kaisarieh. Mr. Kinneir observes, that Mount Argaeus is unquestionably one of prodigious elevation; but he much questions whether any

« PoprzedniaDalej »