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nver of Upper Asia, mentioned by Herodotus (1,202), and supposed by the most recent inquirers into this subject to be the same with the modern Volga. (Bishr, ad Herod., l.c.—Compare the remarks of the same editor, in the note to the Inder Rerum, vol. 4, p. 454, sesq.)—The name Araxes appears to haye been originally an appellative term for a river, in the earlier language of the East, and hence we find it appled to several streams in ancient Oriental ;"|. (Compare Heeren, Ideen, vol. 1, p. 55.-Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. 2, p. 658.) Arbicks, a Median officer, who conspired with Belesis, the most distinguished member of the Chaldran sacerdotal college, against Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. After several reverses, he finally succeeded in his object, defeated Sardanapalus near Nineveh, took this city, and reigned in it for the space of twenty-eight years. With him commenced a dynasty of eight kings, of whom Aspadas or Astyages was the last. The empire which Arbaces founded was a federative one, composed of several sovereignties which had arisen from the ruins of the Assyrian monarchy. The kingly power, though hereditary, was not absolute, the monarch not having the power to change any of the laws enacted by the confederate princes. Chronologists are not agreed as to the period of the revolt of Arbaces. Most place it under or about the archonship of Ariphron, the 9th perpetual archon of Athens; but they differ again about the precise period of this archonship, some assigning it to 917 B.C., others to 898 B.C. (Diod. Sic, 2, 24.—Well., Paterc., 1, 6. —Justin, 1, 1–Petav., Doctr. Temp., l. 9.) Arbéla, a city of Assyria, in the province of Adiabene, east of Ninus, near the Zabatus, or Zab. On the opposite side of this river, near Isbil, was fought the decisive battle of Arbela, between Alexander and Darius, October 2, B.C. 331. The field of battle was the plain of Gaugamela. The latter, however, being an obscure place, this conflict was named after Arbela. (Strabo, 399–Diod. Sic., 17, 53.−Arrian, 3, 6.) Arbuscúla, an actress on the Roman stage, who, being hissed, on one occasion, by the lower orders of the people, observed, with great o that she cared nothing for the rabble, as long as she pleased the more enlightened part of her audience among the equestrian ranks. (Horat., Serm., 1, 10, 77.) ArcAdiA, a country in the centre of the Peloponnesus, and, next to Laconia, the largest of its six prov: inces. It was a mountainous region, and contained the sources of most of the considerable rivers which flow into the seas surrounding the Peloponnesus. From its elevated situation, and the broken face of the country, intersected by small streams, it had a cold and foggy climate during some seasons; in the plain of Argos, only one day's journey from the centre of Arcadia, the sun shines and the violets bloom, while show is on the hills of Arcadia, and in the plain of Mantinea and Tegea. The most fertile part was towards the south, where the country sloped off, and contained many fruitful vales and numerous streams. This account of the land may serve in some degree to explain the character which the Arcadians had among the ancient Greeks: some of those who now occupy this district seem to be as rude as many of the former Possessors. Their country is better adapted to pasturage than cultivation, and the Arcadians, who were ocarcely a genuine Greek race, continued their pastoral habits and retained their rude manners amid their na. * mountains. To their pastoral mode of life may - be *cribed their attachment to music; and hence also the worship of Pan as the tutelary deity of Arcadia. * observes a modern writer, has destined this *ntry for herdsmen. The pastures and meadows in *her are always green and unscorched; for the shade and moisture preserve them. The country has ***Pearance similar to that of Switzerland, and the

Arcadians, in some measure, resemble the inhabitants of the Alps. They possessed a love of freedom and a love of money; for wherever there was money, you might see Arcadian hirelings. But it is chiefly the western part of Arcadia (where Pan invented the shepherd's flute) which deserves the name of a pastoral country. Innumerable brooks, one more delightful than the other, sometimes rushing impetuously, and sometimes gently murmuring, pour themselves down the mountains. Vegetation is rich and magnificent; everywhere freshness and coolness are found. One flock of sheep here succeeds another, till the wild Taygetus is approached, where numerous herds of goats are also seen. (Bartholdy, Bruchstucke zu mahern Kenntniss Griechenlands, p. 239, seqq.) The inhabitants of Arcadia, devoted to the pastoral life, preferred, therefore, for a long time, to dwell in the open country rather than in the cities; and when some of these, particularly Tegea and Mantinea, became considerable, the contests between them destroyed the peace and liberties of the people. The shepherdlife among the Greeks, although much ornamented by the poets, betrays its origin in this, that it arose among a people who did not wander like the Nomades, but were in possession of stationary dwellings—The most ancient name of Arcadia was Drymoths (the woody region), from épic, “a tree.” The Arcadians themselves carried their origin very far back, and gave their nation the name of Proseleni (before the moon). They seem to have derived the first rudiments of civilization, if not their origin itself, from the Pelasgi; and hence the tradition that a king, named Pelasgus, taught them to build huts, and clothe themselves with the skins of animals. Arcas, a descendant of this same Pelasgus, taught them the art of baking bread, and of weaving. From this second benefactor the people and their country were respectively called Arcades and Arcadia. A republican form of government arose subsequently, after the first Messenian war, Aristocrates II. having been stoned to death by the Arcadians for his treachery towards the Messenians. Arcadia eventually attached itself to the Achaean league, and fell under the Roman power.—It is commonly believed that a colony of Arcadians settled in Italy in very early times. This, however, is a mere fable, and is contradicted by the inland nature of the country, and by the Arcadians never having been a maritime people. (Wid. Pelasgi and Italy, and also Evander— Polyb., 4, 20.-Diod. Sic., 4, 34.—Thucyd., 7, 57. —Plin., 4, 5–Apollod, 2, 1–Pausan., 8, 4.) ArcAdius, eldest son of Theodosius the Great, succeeded his father A.D. 395, who, at his death, divided the empire between his two sons, giving Arcadius the eastern, and Honorius the western division. Arcadius was only eighteen years of age when he ascended the throne, and he only occupied it to become the vile slave of the ambitious, who each in turn distracted the state by their perfidies, their quarrels, and their connivance with the Goths, Huns, and Vandals, to whom they surrendered the provinces and treasures of the empire. The history of Arcadius, in fact, is that of one, whose weakness and vices made him subservient to, and excited the audacity of, a Rufinus, who, charged by Theodosius with the guidance of the young monarch, wished to give him his daughter in marriage, and become his colleague in the empire, and who, disappointed in his ambitious schemes, invited the Huns and Goths into Asia and Greece: a Eutropius, a vile eunuch, who attained to the influence of a Rufinus, after the tragical death of the latter, and, still more unprincipled, succeeded by his violent conduct in degrading and discouraging the people: a Gainas, a general who ravaged instead of defending the empire, but who contributed nevertheless to the ruin of Eutropius: and an Empress Eudoxia, at one moment the enemy, at another the support of the ambitious, and who persecuted the virtuous Chrysostom, patriarch of Constantinople. Arcadius was in succession the tool of all these designing individuals. He saw, with equal indifference, Alaric ravaging his territories, his subjects groaning under oppression, the succours brought him by Stilicho, general of Honorius, rendered of no avail by the perfidy of his own ministers, the best citizens falling by his proscriptions, and, finally, Arianism desolating the religion which Chrysostom in vain attempted to defend. Such was the reign of this prince, which lasted for fourteen years. He died A.D. 408, at the age of thirty-one. Nature had given him an exterior corresponding to his character; a small, illmade, disagreeable person, an air of imbecility, a lazy enunciation, everything, in fact, announcing the weakest and most cowardly of emperors. He had by his wife Eudoxia a son named Theodosius, who succeeded him as the second of that name. (Socrat., Hist. Eccles., 5.-Cassiod., Chron., &c.) Arcas, a son of Jupiter and Callisto. (Wid. Callisto.) The fabulous legend relative to him and his mother is given by the ancient writers with great difference in the circumstances. According to the most common account, Jupiter changed Callisto into a bear, to screen her from the jealousy of Juno, and Arcas her son was separated from her and reared among men. When grown up, he chanced to meet his mother in the woods, in her transformed state, and was on the point of slaughtering her, but Jupiter interfered, and translated both the parent and son to the skies. Arcas, previously to this, had succeeded Nyctimus in the government of Arcadia, the land receiving this name first from him. He was the friend of Triptolemus, who taught him agriculture, which he introduced among his subjects. He also showed them how to manufacture wool, an art which he had learned from Aristatus. (Apollod., 3, 8–Ov., Met., 2,401, seqq.) Arce, a city of Phoenicia, north of Tripolis, and south of Antaradus. It was the birthplace of Alexander Severus, the Roman emperor. (Lamprid., Vit. Alez., c. 5–Plin., 5, 18.) The name is sometimes given as Arca. (Socrat., Hist. Eccles., 7, 36.) Arces. LAus, I. son of Battus, king of Cyrene, was driven from his kingdom in a sedition, and died B.C. 575. The second of that name died B.C. 550. (Polyan, 8, 41.—Herodot., 4, 159.)—II. A philosopher, born at Pitane, in AEolis, and the founder of what was termed the Middle Academy. The period of his birth is usually given as 316 # c. while according to Apollodorus, as cited by Diogenes Laertius (4,45), he flourished about B.C. 299. If these numbers are accurate, he must have had an early reputation, as he would at the latter date have been only seventeen years of age. There is therefore some error here in the remark of Apollodorus. (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 1, p. 179, and 367, not.) Arcesilaus at first applied himself to rhetoric, but subsequently passed to the study of philosophy, in which he had for teachers, first Theophrastus, then Crantor the Academician, and probably also Polemo. (Diog. Laert., 4, 24, 29–Cic., Acad., 1, 9.) The statement of Numenius (ap. Eus., Pr. Ev., 14, 5), that Arcesilaus was the disciple of Polemo at the same time with Zeno, appears to be ill-grounded, and to involve great chronological difficulties. It is very probably a mere fiction, designed to suggest some outward motive for the controversial relation of the Porch and the Academy.—Besides the instructers arove named, Arcesilaus is also said to have diligently attended the lectures of the Eretrian Menedamus, the Megarian Diodorus, and the sceptic Pyrrho. His love for the philosophemes of these individuals has been referred to as the source of his scepticism, and his skill in refuting philosophical principles. At the same time, it is on all hands admitted that, of philosophers, Plato was his favourite. He seems to have been sincerely

of opinion, that his view of things did not differ from the true spirit of the Platonic doctrine; nay, more, that it was perfectly in agreement with those older philosophemes, from which, according to the opinion of many, Plato had drawn his own doctrines, namely, those of Socrates, Parmenides, and Heraclitus.—Upon the death of Crantor, the school in the Academy was tarnsferred by a certain Socratides to Arcesilaus, who here introduced the old Socratic method of teaching in dialogues, although it was rather a corruption than an imitation of the genuine Socratic mode. Arceslaus does not appear to have committed his opinions to writing, at least the ancients were not acquainted with any work which could confidently be ascribed to him. Now, as his disciple Lacydes also abstained from writing, the ancients themselves appear to have derived their knowledge of his opinions only from the works of his opponents, of whom Chrysippus was the most eminent. Such a source must naturally be both defective and uncertain, and accordingly we have little that we can confidently advance with respect to his doctrine. According to these statements, the results of his opinions would be a perfect scepticism, expressed in the formula that he knew nothing, not even that which Socrates had ever maintained that he knew, namely, his own ignorance. (Cic., Acad., 1, 12.) This expression of his opinion implicitly ascribes to Arcesilaus a full consciousness that he differed in a most important point from the doctrine of Socrates and Plato. But, as the ancients do not appear to have ascribed any such conviction to Arcesilaus, it seems to be a more probable opinion, which imputes to him a desire to restore the genuine Platonic dogma, and to purify it from all those precise and positive determinations which his successors had appended to it. Indeed, one statement expressly declares, that the subject of his lecture to his most accomplished scholars was the doctrine of Plato (Cic., l.c.); and he would therefore appear to have adopted this formula with a view to meet more easily the objections of the dogmatists. Now if we thus attach Arcesilaus to Plato, we must suppose him to have been in the same case with many others, and unable to discover in the writings of Plato any fixed and determinate principles of science. The ambiguous manner in which almost every view is therein advanced, and the results of one investigation admitted only conditionally to other inquiries, may perhaps have led him to regard the speculations of Plato in the light of mere shrewd and intelligent conjectures. Accordingly, we are told, that Arcesilaus denied the certainty, not only of intellectual, but also of sensuous knowledge. (Cic., de Orat, 3, 18.) For his attack upon the former, Plato would furnish him with weapons enough ; and it is against it principally that his attacks were directed, for the Stoics were his chief opponents.-The true distinction between the Sceptics and the members of the Middle Academy, at its first formation by Arcesilaus, appears to have been this. The former made the end of life to be the attainment of a perfect equanimity, and derived the difference between good and bad, as presented by the phaenomena of life, from conversion, and not from nature. The Academicians, on the other hand, taught, as a general rule, that, in the pursuit of good and the avoidance of evil, men must be guided by probabilities. They admitted that the sage, without absolutely mortifying his sensual desires, will live like any other in obedience to the general estimate of good and evil, but with this simple difference, that he does not believe that he is regulating his life by any certain and stable principles of science. It is on this account that we do not meet with any statements concerning the strangeness of their habits of life, like to those about Pyrrho; on the contrary, Arcesilaus is usually depicted as a man who, in the intercourse of life, observed all its decencies and proprieties, and was somewhat disposed

to that splendour and luxury which the prevailing views of morality allowed and sanctioned. His doubts, therefore, as to the possibility of arriving at a knowledge of the truth, may probably have had no higher source than a high idea of science, derived perhaps from his study of Plato's works, and compared with which all human thought may have appeared at best but a probable conjecture.—Arcesilaus continued to flourish as late as the 134th Olympiad, B.C. 244. (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 1, p. 179.-Ritter's History of Philosophy, vol. 3, p. 600, seqq.)—III. A painter of Paros, acquainted, according to Pliny, with the art of enamelling, some time before Aristides, to whom the invention is commonly assigned. He appears to have been contemporary with Polygnotus. (Plin., 35, 11.-Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.)—IV. A painter, subsequent to the preceding, and who appears to have flourished about the 128th Olympiad, B.C. 268. (Plin., 35, 11.—Sullig, Dict. Art., s. v.)—W. A sculptor of the first century before our era. His country is uncertain. (Plin., 35, 12–ld., 36, 5.) Archelius, I. a king of Sparta, of the line of the Agidae, who reigned conjointly with Charilaus. During this reign Lycurgus promulgated his code of laws. (Pausan, 3, 2.)—II. A king of Macedonia, natural son of Perdiccas, who ascended the throne, after making away with all the lawful claimants to it, about 413 B.C. He proved a very able monarch. Under his sway Macedonia flourished, literature and the arts were patromised, and learned men and artists were invited to his court. Euripides and Agatho, the two tragic poets, spent the latter part of their days there, and the painter Zeuxis received seven talents (about 8000 dollars) for adorning with his pencil the royal palace. The celebrated philosopher Socrates was also invited to come and reside with the monarch, but declined. Archelaus died after a reign of about 14 years. Diodorus Siculus makes him to have lost his life by an accidental wound received in hunting, but Aristotle states that he fell by a conspiracy. (Diod. Sic., 13,49.—Id., 14, 37.Aristot. Polit., 5, 10.—Compare the remarks of Wesseling, ad Diod, 14, 37.)—III. Son of Amyntas, king of Macedonia. He was put to death by his half-brother Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. (Justin, 7,4)-IV. A native of Cappadocia, and one of the ablest generals of Mithradates. He disputed with the Romans the possession of Greece, but was defeated by Sylla at Cheronea, and again at Orchomenus. Archelaus, convinced of the superiority of the Romans, prevalled upon Mithradates to make peace with them, and *manged the terms of the treaty along with Sylla, whose **teem he acquired. Some years after he became an *otos suspicion to Mithradates, who thought that he owoutedloomuch theinterests of the Roman people. ollaware of the cruelty of the monarch, Archelaus fled to the Romans, who gave him a friendly reception. Ploth thinks that he had been actually unfaithful *Mithridates, and that the present which he received from Sylla, often o acres in Euboea, was a *g confirmation of this. He informs us, however, *the same time, that Sylla, in his commentaries, de*ded Archelaus from the censures which had been * upon him. (Plut. Wit. Syll., c. 23.)—V. Son of the Preceding, remained attached to the Romans after the death of his father, and was appointed by *I high-priest at Comana. As the temple at o had an extensive territory attached to it, and i. *"umber of slaves, the high-priest was in fact a ind of king. . This tranquil office, however, did not suit his ambitious spirit; and when Ptolemy Auletes ter | o driven from Egypt, and Berenice his daughIma **cended the throne, he obtained her hand in o: Ptolemy, however, was restored by the Roin o and Archelaus fell in battle, bravely defendo new dignity. Marc Antony, who had been on y * with him, gave him an honourable fune.

ral. (Dio Cass., 39, 12, seqq.—Id., 39, 55.—Epit, Liv., 105.-Plut., Wit. Anton., c. 3.}-VI. A natural son of the preceding by Glaphyre. He is called by Appian Sicinnes. (Bell. Civ., 5, 7.-Consult Schweigh, ad loc.) After his father's death he succeeded to the high-priesthood at Comana, but was deposed by Julius Caesar. Some years after (B.C. 36), Antony made him king of Cappadocia, in place of Ariarathes X., whom he deprived of the throne. Archelaus took part with Antony at the battle of Actium, but was pardoned by Augustus The emperor even subsequently added Armenia and Cilicia Trachea to his territories, because he had aided Tiberius in restoring Tigranes, the Armenian king. When Tiberius retired to Rhodes, into a kind of exile, Archelaus, fearful of offending Augustus, treated the former with neglect. In consequence of this, when Tiberius came to the throne, Archelaus was enticed to Rome by a letter from Livia, which held out the hope of pardon, but on reaching the capital he was accused of designs against the state. His age, however, and feeble state of health, together with the imbecility of mind which he feigned on the occasion, disarmed the anger of the emperor. He died at Rome, B.C. 17, having reigned 52 years. After his death Cappadocia became a Roman province. (Dio Cass., 57, 17.-Tacit., Ann., 2, 42.-Sueton., Tib., 37.)—VII. A son of Herod the Great. His father intended him for his successor, and named him as such in his will; but as Philip Antipas, another son of Herod's, had been designated as successor to the throne in a previous will, a dispute arose between the two brothers, and they repaired to Rome to have the question settled by Augustus. The emperor, after having heard both parties, gave to Archelaus, under the title of tetrarch, one half of the territories of his father Herod, comprising Judaea, properly so called, together with Idumaa. n his return home, Archelaus indulged in the hereditary cruelty of his family, and being complained of to Augustus, was deposed (B.C. 6), and sent to Vienna (Vienne in Dauphiné) as an exile. This happened in the tenth year of his reign. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 17, c. 2–1d. bid., c. 12, seq.-Id., Bell. Jud., 2, 4.—Noldius, de Vita et Gestis Herodum, p. 219, seqq.)—VIII. A philosopher, a native of Athens, though others, with less probability, make him to have been born at Miletus. (Simpl. Phys., fol. 6, b.) He was a pupil of Anaxagoras, whom he accompanied in exile to Lampsacus, and to whom he succeeded as head of the Ionic sect. After the death of this philosopher, he returned to Athens, and is said to have had Socrates and also Euripides among his pupils; but as to the former of the two this is very doubtful. Of his life and actions we have very scanty information, as also of his doctrines; so that it is extremely difficult to arrive at any certain result with respect to his peculiar views. He received the appellation of buoukóg, (Physicus, i.e. “Natural Philosopher”), because, like Anaxagoras, he directed his principal attention to physical inquiries. He is said to have adopted the same primal substance as Anaxagoras; but to have aimed at giving an explanation of his own of the mode in which the universe was produced, and of some other details. (Simpl. Phys., fol. 7, a.) His mode of accounting for the separation of the elements, and of connecting therewith the origin of men and animals, indicates in the most remarkable manner the affinity of his theory with that of Anaxagoras. First of all, he taught, fire and water were separated, and, by the action of the fire on the water, the earth was reduced to a slimy mass, which was afterward hardened; but water, by its motion, gave birth to air, and thus was the earth held together by air, and the air by fire. While the earth was hardening by the action of heat, a certain mixture of warmth with cold and moist particles was effected, of which animals of various kinds

were formed, each animal different, but all having the 177

same nourishment, the slime in which they were born. At first they were of very brief duration, and subsequently only acquired the faculty of ". their species. Men were distinct from the other kinds, and became the ruling race. Mind, however, was inborn in all animals alike, and all have a body for use, only some a more perishable, others a more durable one. The fundamental principle of Archelaus in ethics was as follows: “Good and evil are not by nature, but by convention.” (Diog. Laert., 2, 16.-Orig. Phil., 9.Ritter's Hist. of Philosophy, 1, 319, seqq.) ARchemórus. Wid. Opheltes. Archias, I. a Corinthian, leader of the colony that founded Syracuse. Vid. Syracusa –II. A Greek poet, a native of Antioch, who came to Rome in the consulship of Marius and Catulus (B.C. 102). He soon became intimate with the most distinguished men in this latter city, and accompanied Lucullus to Sicily, and, on returning with him to that province, received the rights of Roman citizenship at the municipal town of Heraclea, in southern Italy. A conflagration, however, having destroyed the records of this place, a certain Gratius contested judicially his title to the rights and privileges of a Roman citizen. Cicero, his friend and former pupil, defended Archias in a brilliant oration, which has come down to us, and which contains not only the praises of his old instructer, but a beautiful eulogium also on the culture of letters. The poet gained his cause. Archias before this had composed a poem on the war with the Cimbri, and had commenced another on the consulship of Cicero. There remain, however, of his productions, only some epigrams in the Anthology. It is difficult to reconcile the eulogiums which Cicero heaps on Archias, with the extreme mediocrity of the pieces that have reached us. A servile imitator of Leonidas the Tarentine, and of Antipater, he handles the same themes which they had selected before him, and only produces, after all, unfaithful copies. Two or three pieces are somewhat superior to the rest, but still we must take it for granted that his poem on the Cimbrian war was a very different production from any of his epigrams, or else that Cicero's vanity got the better of his judgment, and that, in praising Archias, he felt he was praising himself. (Cic., pro Arch.) - Archid KMus, I. son of Theopompus, king of Sparta, died before his father.—II. Another king of Sparta, son of Anaxidamus, succeeded by Agasicles. He ascended the throne about 620 B.C.—III. Son of Zeuxidanus, of the line of the Proclidae. He ascended the Spartan throne B.C. 476, his father having died without becoming king. Laconia was desolated by an earthquake about the 12th year of his reign, and after this the Messenians revolted. Archidamus displayed great coolness and ability amid these events, and finally reduced the Messenians to submission, having taken the fortress of Ithome after a siege of ten years. He opposed the Peloponnesian war; but, his counsel not having been followed, he took the command of the confederate army, and made many invasions of Attica. He died B.C. 428.-IV. Son of Agesilaus, of the line of the Proclidae. Before coming to the throne, he had the command of the troops which the Lacedaemonians sent to the aid of their countrymen after the battle of Leuctra. On his return to the Peloponnesus, he gained some advantages over the Arcadians, although the Thebans had come to their aid. Having ascended the throne (B.C. 361), he prevailed upon the Lacedaemonians to aid the Phocians, and took an active part in their behalf, in the Sacred war. He afterward went to the aid of the Tarentines, who were at war with some of the neighbouring communities, and fell in battle there, B.C. 338. His body could not be found after the action, which some ascribed to the vengeance of Apollo, who thus deprived him of the rites of burial

of Eudamidas, was king of Sparta when Demetrius Poliorcetes came to attack that city, B.C. 293. He was defeated by Demetrius, in the very view of Sparta itself, and the city would have been taken had not other events called the victor to a different quarter of Greece. The rest of his history is unknown. Larcher makes his reign to have been one of 46 years, but does not give the data on which he founds this opinion. (Plut., Wit. Agid.—Larcher, Hist, d'Hérod., 7, 509.) Archigi. Nes, a physician, born at Apamea in Syria. He lived in the reign of Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan. Archigenes enjoyed a high reputation among his contemporaries, and for some generations after. He is regarded as the founder of the Eclectic school of Medicine, and was also one of the pneumatic sect, having received the principles of the latter from his preceptor Agathinus. He wrote on the pulse (a work on which Galen commented), on chronic affections, on pharmacy, &c. Galen often cites him with eulogiums, and Juvenal, his contemporary, makes frequent mention of him in his satires. Only fragments of his writings remain. According to Suidas, he died at the age of 63; but Eudocia makes him to have reached 83 years. The latest edition of the fragments of Archigenes is that of Harles, Lips., 1816, 4to.—(Galen, de diff. puls., 2, p. 26.-Id, de loc. affect., 2, p. 262, &c.—Sundas, s. v.–Eudocia, ap. Willoison, Anecd. Graec., vol. 1, p. 65.—Sprengel, Hist, de la Med., vol. 2, p. 75.) Archildchus, a Greek poet, a native of Paros, who flourished 688 B.C. His mother Enipo was a slave, but his father Telesicles one of the most distinguished citizens of the island. The particulars which the ancients have given us respecting the life of Archilochus appear to be in a great measure fabulous. It is certain, however, that, while still young, he accompanied his father, who, in obedience to a Delphic oracle, led a colony from Paros to Thasos, and that his subsequent career was one succession of misfortunes, which appear to have exasperated his character, and given to his poetry that severe cast which the ancients ascribed to it. Among the various tales related of Archilochus, the one most commonly mentioned is that concerning Neobule and her parent. (Wid. Lycambes.) This story, however, appears to have been invented after the poet's time; and one of the scholiasts on Horace remarks, that Neobule did not destroy herself on account of any injurious verses on the part of Archilochus, but out of despair at the death of her father. (Horat., Epod, 6, 13.) Archilochus states one fact relative to himself, in some verses that have come down to us, which is, that in a battle between the Thasians and people of Thrace, he saved himself by flight, throwing away at the same time his buckler. This act of weakness or cowardice was the occasion of a galling affront which he afterward received : for, having visited Sparta, he was ordered by the magistrate to quit the city immediately. Dissatisfied eventually with the posture of affairs at Thasos, which the poet often represents as desperate, Archilochus must have quitted Thasos and returned to Paros, since we are informed, by credible writers, that he lost his life in a war between the Parians and the inhabitants of the neighbouring island of Naxos. The ancients ascribe to Archilochus the invention of a great number of poetic measures. (Consult, on this subject, Victorinus, lib. 4, p. 2588, ed. Putsch ; and, as regards the Epode, which he is also said to have invented, compare the remarks of Vandenbourg, in his edition of Horace, vol. 2.). With respect to iambic verse, of which he is, in like manner, named as the author (Hor., Ep. ad Pis., 79), some difference of opinion seems to exist; and it has been thought that the invention, in this case, relates less to the iambic rhythm, which appears so natural to the Greek language, than to a particular kind of versification. (Compare Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol.

for the part he had acted in the Sacred war.—W. Son | 1, p. 199, seqq.) Archilochus was, in general, regard

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ed by the ancients as one of the greatest poets that Greece had produced. Cicero classes him with Homer, Sophocles, and Pindar (Orat. 1); and in an epigram in the Anthology (vol. 2, p. 286), the Emperor Hadrian remarks, that the Muses, fearing for the glory of Homer, inspired Archilochus with the idea of composing in iambics. One production of this poet's, in particular, his Hymn in honour of Hercules, was the subject of high eulogium; this piece he himself sung at the Olympic games. The anniversary of his birth was celebrated, as in the case of Homer; and the rhapsodists recited his verses as they did those of the Iliad. Blame, however, attaches itself to the bitter and vindictive spirit that characterized his verses, as well to the indecency which pervaded them; and it is probably to this latter cause that we must ascribe the loss of his poems, of which we possess only a few fragments, preserved as citations in the writings of Athenæus, St. Clement of Alexandrea, Stobaeus, the scholasts, &c. If the ancients speak of the Fables of Archilochus, it is not because he ever published any collections of apologues, but because he was accustoined to give life and movement to his iambics by introducing into them occasionally this species of comPosition. The fragments of Archilochus were published by H. Stephens and Froben in their respective collections, and by Brunck in his Analceta. An edition of them by i. with a critical commentary, appeared from the Leipsic press in 1812, and also in an enlarged form, in 1819, 8vo. Archixãdes, the most celebrated mathematician among the ancients, a native of Syracuse in Sicily, and related to King Hiero. He flourished about 250 B.C. Under what masters he studied, or how much of his extraordinary knowledge he acquired from his . is not known. That he travelled into gypt appears certain; but it is probable that, in his scientific acquaintance with that country, he communicated more than he received, and that he owes the feat name which he has transmitted to posterity to is own vigorous and inventive intellect. He was equally skilled in the science of astronomy, geomeo, mechanics, hydrostatics, and optics, in all of which he excelled, and produced many extraordinary inven* His ingenuity in solving problems had in Ci**'s days become proverbial; and his singular ingenuity in the invention and construction of warlike *gines is much dwelt upon by Livy. His knowledge of the doctrine of specific gravities is proved by #. well-known story of his discovery of the mixture of * with gold in King Hiero's crown, which fraud he *cted by comparing the quantity of water displaced by equal weights of gold o silver. The thought oc"rod to him while in the bath, on observing that he *Placedabulk of water equal to his own body, when, **te, perceiving a train of consequences, he ran naked out of the bath into the street, exclaiming, Popov, "I have found it!” This part of the story, "ever, is regarded by some as a mere exaggeration. (Biogr. Unir, vol. 2, p. 379.) To show Hiero the "derful effects of mechanic power, he is said, by **p of ropes and pulleys, to have drawn towards him, with perfect ease, a galley which lay on the shore *d and loaded. His intimate acquaintance with * Poets of the lever is evinced by his famous declaration to the same monarch : Aog Troö aro, kai roy '''"ow, “Give me where I may stand, and I . *he world.” But his greatest efforts of me3 hit oil were displayed during the siege of Syra"", when he contrived engines of annoyance of the o: *"Pendous nature. Among other applications ****, he is said to have fired the Roman fleet 3. of reflecting mirrors, of which story, long (Mem :: fable, Busion has proved the credibility. wanti * "Acad des Sciences, 1747.) There are not "ş Poisons, however, even at the present day,

ARCHIMEDES.

who, from the silence of Polybius, Livy, and Plutarch on this subject, still view the tale with an eye of unbelief. (Compare Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 381.—Foreign Retiew, No. 1, p. 305.) Eminent as this great mathematician was for his knowledge of mechanics, he was still more so for the rare talent which he possessed of investigating abstract truths, and inventing conclusive demonstrations in the higher branches of geometry. According to Plutarch (Wit. Marcell.), intellectual speculations of this nature most delighted him ; and he did not deem it worth his while to leave any account in writing of his mechanical inventions. We have, indeed, no precise indication of any works in which they are described, except it be with regard to a sphere representing the movements of the stars, of which Cicero and Claudian make inention. Archimedes prided himself on the discovery of the ratio between the cylinder and the inscribed sphere, and requested his friends to place the figures of a sphere and cylinder on his tomb, with an inscription expressing the proportion between them; a desire that afterward led to its discovery by Cicero. The Roman orator, when he was quaestor in Sicily, discovered this monument in the shape of a small pillar, and showed it to the Syracusans, who did not know that it was in being. He says there were some iambic verses inscribed upon it, the latter halves of which were almost eaten out by time; and that there were likewise to be seen (as those verses asserted) the figures of a cylinder and a sphere. From the death of this great mathematician, which happened A.U.C. 542, to the quaestorship of Cicero, A.U.C. 678, a hundred and thirty-six years had elapsed. This period, though it had not effaced the cylinder and the sphere, had put an end to the learning of Syracuse, once so respectable in the republic of letters. (Cic., Tusc. Quast., 5, 23.) Archimedes's sepulchre, which stood near one of the city gates, was almost overgrown with thorns, and briers, and, but for the exertions of Cicero, would most probably have never been discovered. Various accounts are given by Plutarch of the manner of Archimedes' death. The period when it occurred was during the capture and storming of Syracuse. According to the narrative most commonly received, Archimedes was engaged in study when the city fell; and so intent was he upon a geometrical figure which he was tracing in the sand, as to be altogether unconscious of the confusion around him. A soldier suddenly entered his room, and ordered him to follow him to Marcellus, the Roman general having given particular orders to spare him. Archimedes refused to go until he had finished his demonstration, whereupon the soldier, in a passion, drew his sword and killed him. The Roman commander took upon himself the charge of his funeral, and protected and honoured his relations.—Several valuable remains of this celebrated mathematician are preserved. In abstract geometry there are two books * On the Sphere and Cylinder;" a treatise “On the Dimensions of the Circle;” two books “On obtuse Conoids and Spheroids;” a book “On Spiral Lines;” and another “On the Quadrature of the Parabola.” Besides these geometrical works, he wrote a treatise, entitled kaupitznc (Arenarius), in which he demonstrates that the sands of the earth might be numbered by a method somewhat similar to that of logarithms. In mechanics he has lest a treatise “On Equiponderants, or Centres of Gravity;” and in hydrostatics, a treatise “On bodies floating in fluids.” Other works of Archimedes are mentioned by ancient writers, which are now lost. Of those that remain various editions have appeared, the latest of which was issued in 1792 from the Clarendon press in Oxford, with a new Latin trans: lation, a preface, notes by Torrelli of Verona, purchased of his executor Albertini, and with various readings.

The edition was published under the care of the Rev. A. Robertson, ..". Church, oso may be

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