Obrazy na stronie

gusta, after Augustus. It is now Air, eight miles southeast of Avignon. In its vicinity Marius defeated the Ambrones and the Teutones. Aquaeductus, an aqueduct. Mention of these is frequently made in the Roman writers. Some of them brought water to the capital from more than the distance of sixty miles, through rocks and mountains, and over valleys, supported on arches, in some places above 109 feet high, one row being placed above another. The care of them originally belonged to the censors and aediles. Afterward certain officers were appointed for that purpose by the emperors, called curatores aquarum, with 720 men paid by the public, to keep them in repair. These persons were divided into two bodies; the one called Familia Publica, first instituted by Agrippa, under Augustus, consisting of 260 men; the other Familia Casaris, of 460, instituted by the Emperor Claudius. The slaves employed in taking care of the waters were called Aquarii. The construction of aqueducts is treated of by Vitruvius and Pliny, and their description is curious, not only as giving the methods used by the ancients in those stupendous works, but as indicating a knowledge of some hydrodynamical laws, the discovery of which is usually assigned to a much later period. Frontinus, also, a Roman author, who had the superintendence of the aqueducts in the reign of Nerva, has left a treatise on these erections. From his enumeration, there were nine aqueducts which brought water to Rome in his time. The water of these varied in its qualities, that of some being preferred for drinking, of others for bathing, for irrigating the gardens, or cleansing the sewers. The best drinking-water they brought into Rome was the Aqua Marcia, being most highly prized, according to Pliny, for its coldness and salubrity. The aqueduct at Nemausus, the modern Nismes, is probably one of the earliest constructed by the Romans out of Italy. Its origin is attributed to Agrippa. Aqueducts, however, became eventually common throughout the whole Roman empire, and many stupendous remains still exist to attest their former magnificence. (Consult Stuart's Dictionary of Architecture, vol. 1, s. v.) Aquila, a native of Sinope in Asia Minor. He first applied himself to the study of mathematics and architecture, and the Emperor Hadrian, according to Saint Epiphanius, made him a superintendent of public buildings, and gave him in charge the restoration and enlargement of Jerusalem, under its new name of AElia Capitolina. This commission afforded him an opportunity of becoming acquainted with Christianity, which he accordingly embraced, and received the rite of baptism. Becoming subsequently addicted, however, to judicial astrology, he was excommunicated, and then attached himself to Judaism. Aquila is rendered famous by his Greek version of the Old Testament, which he published A.D. 138. It is the first that was made after the Septuagint translation, and appears to have been executed with great care, notwithstanding what Buxtorf urges against it, who denies to its author, on very feeble grounds, a thorough acquaintance with the Hebrew tongue. Aquila's method was to translate word for word, and to express, as far as this could conveniently be done, even the etymological meaning of terms. Although his version was undertaken with the view of opposing and superseding that of the Septuagint, of which last the churches made use after the example of the apostles, still the ancient fathers found it in general so exact, that they often, in preference, drew their texts from it. St. Jerome, who had at first censured it, afterward praised its exactness. The Hellenistic Jews preferred it also for the use of their synagogues. Some fragments of it are preserved in the Hexapla of Origen. Aquila joined to a second edition of his version some Jewish traditions which he had obtained from the Rabbi Akiba, his preceptor. This edition was still more fa

vourably received by the Hellenistic Jews than the previous one had been. The Emperor Justinian, however, interdicted the reading of it, because it only made the Jews more stubborn in their error. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 345, seq.) Aquileia, I. a celebrated city of Italy, in the territory of Venetia, between the Alsa and Natiso, and about seven miles from the sea. It appears to have been first founded by some Transalpine Gauls about 187 B.C.; but being soon after taken possession of by the Romans, it was made a Latin colony five years after its establishment. (Liv., 39, 22;45, 54.—Id., 40, 54). The earliest author that mentions Aquileia is Polybius, who, in a fragment preserved by Strabo (208), speaks of it as having some valuable gold-mines in its neighbourhood. Eustathius, in his commentary on Dionys. Perieg., asserts that its name was derived from the Latin word Aquila, as denoting the legionary standard of the Romans, who had been encamped here. Aquileia soon became the bulwark of Italy on its northeastern frontier. It was already an important military post in the time of Caesar (B. Civ., 1,2), and continued to increase in prosperity and consequence till the fall of the Roman empire. In Strabo's time it had become the great emporium of all the trade of Italy with the nations of Illyria and Pannonia; these were furnished with wine, oil, and salt provisions, in exchange for slaves, cattle, and hides. The passage of Mount Ocra, the lowest point of the Julian or Carnic Alps, was easy for land-carriage; and at Nauportus on the other side, a navigable stream conveyed vessels to the Saave, and from that river into the Danube. (Strabo, 214.—Id., 207–Mela, 2, 4.—Sueton., Aug., 20– Id., Tib., 7–Id., Vesp., 6.--Tac., Hist, 2, 46, and 85, &c.) Ausonius assigns to Aquileia the ninth place among the great cities of the empire. It withstood successfully a severe siege against Maximinus, who, being unable to take the place, was slain by his own soldiers. (Herodian, 8.) But it could not hold out against the fury of Attila; its resistance served only to increase the savage ferocity of the conquerors who caused it to be sacked and razed to the ground. (Cassiodor., Chron—Procop., Vand. Rer, 1.—Freculf, Chron.) The port of Aquileia was situate at the mouth of the Natiso (Plin., 3, 18), and is now called Porto di Grado. The modern Aquileia stands near the ruins of the ancient city. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 128.)—II. A town of Etruria, marked in the ancient Itineraries as the first stage from Florentia or Florence. It is supposed to have been in the immediate vicinity of Incisa. (Cluv., Ital. Ant., 1,570.-Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 214.) Aquilius, I. Nepos, Manius, a Roman consul, and colleague of Marius, who was intrusted with the war against the slaves in Sicily. This war was continued during the succeeding year, when Aquilius, as proconsul, still held the command. In a conflict with the foe, the two commanders, it is said, agreed to decide the affair by single combat. Aquilius, being a man of great strength, laid his antagonist dead at his feet by a single blow; and the Romans thereupon rushing in, gained the victory after a severe conflict. Aquilius was honoured with an ovation. After this he was accused of extortion, but acquitted on account of his successful operations in Sicily. Being subsequently sent into Asia against Mithradates, he was defeated by that monarch in Bithynia, and, having been afterward treacherously delivered into his hands, was put to death with every circumstance of ignominy. Mithradates is said to have even poured melted gold down his throat in token of, and as a punishment for, his cupidity. (Liv., Epit., 77. —Appian, Bell. Mithrad., 21–Cic, Agrar. 2, 30.) —II. Gallus, a Roman lawyer, who flourished about 65 B.C. He was a pupil of Scaevola's, and was intimate with Cicero, having been a colleague of his in the quastorship. Cicero represents him as a man of

acuteness, and of ready talent in replying to an oppoment. He wrote a treatise, “de dolo malo,” which Cicero eulogizes very highly; another, “depostumorum institutione;” a third, “de stipulatione,” &c. (Cic., Brut, 42–Id, de Off., 3, 14, &c.)—III. Sabinus, a Roman lawyer, who flourished in the third century of our era. His wisdom and acquirements gained for him the appellation of Cato. He was elected consul A.U.C. 214, and again in 216. According to some, he was the father or brother of Aquilia Severa, the vestal virgin whom Heliogabalus compelled to become his wife. None of his works have reached us. (Lamprud., Wit. Heliogab.—Cassiod, Chron.—Rutil., in Wit. Juriscons.) Aquilonia, I. a city of Samnium, on the Volscian frontier, about 20 miles from Cominium, and the same distance from Bovianum. Its site is now occupied by the little town of Agnone, near the source of the Trigno. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 229.)—II. Another city of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, nearly midway between Beneventum and Venusia. Its site corresponds to that of the modern Lacedogna. (Plin, 3, 11.—Puol., p. 67.) Aquinum, I. a town of Cisalpine Gaul, south of Mutina, or Modena. (Plin., 3, 15.) It is placed by Cluvenus at the modern Acquario.—II. A city of Latium, on the Latin Way, a little beyond the place where the road crosses the Íñ. and Melfis. It is now Aquino. Both Strabo (237) and Silius Italius (8, 404) describe it as a large city. Aquinum was the birthplace of Juvenal, as that poet himself informs us. (Sat., 3, 318.) Here also was born the Emperor Pescennius Niger, and in modern times the celebrated Thomas Aquinas. The place was famous for its purple dye. (Horat, Ep., 10, 26.) Aquitania, a country of Gaul between the Garumna or Garonne, and the Pyrenees. As it was less than either of the other two divisions of Gaul, Augustus extended it to the Ligeris or Loire. (Vid Gallia.) The Aquitani, according to Strabo (190), differed from the Gallic race both in physical constitution and in language. They resembled, he tells us, the Iberians rather than the Gauls. According to Caesar, the Aquitani, besides a peculiar idiom of their own, had also peculiar institutions. Now, historical facts inform us that these institutions bore, for the most part, the Iberian character; that the national attire was Iberian ; that there were the strongest ties of amity and alliance between the Aquitanic and Iberian tribes. We find, then, an accordance between historical proofs and those deduced from an examination of languages, to warrant the belief that the Aquitani were of Iberian extraction. (Consult Thierry, Hist, des Gaul., vol. 1, p. xxiii., Introd—ld., vol.2, p. 11, seqq.) Ana Lugdunk Nsis, an altar erected to Augustus, at the confluence of the Arar and Rhone, near the city of Lugdunum or Lyons, by sixty Gallic communities. It was reared after the tumult excited in Gaul by the Proclaiming of the census had been quelled by Drusus. (Lir, Epit, 137.—Strab., 192.) The spot became famous under Caligula for the literary contests which took place there. A crowd of orators and poets flocked to the scene from the remotest quarters of the emPoe, notwithstanding the severity of the regulations which are said to have prevailed here. The vanquish“were compelled to bestow rewards upon the victors, * Compose pieces in their praise; while those whose productions showed least talent were obliged to efface their own writings with a sponge or with the tongue, or else, as an alternative, to submit to be scourged, and then cast into the neighbouring stream. (Sueton., Cahg.20–Dio Cass, 54, 32.-Jur., Sat., 1,44.) The . was called by the writers of the middle ages At:* is now the point of Annai. (Lemaire,

**, *hige country of Asia, forming a peninsu

labetween the Arabian and Persian Gulfs. Its length, from the Cape of Babelmandeb to the extreme angle on the Euphrates, is about 1800 British miles, and its mean breadth 800. The Arabians recognise for their ancestors Joktan, or Khatan, the son of Eber, and Hshmael, the son of Abraham. Arabia was called by the inhabitants of Palestine, the Eastern, and by the Babylonians, the Western, country. Hence the Arabians were sometimes denominated Orientals, and sometimes the people of the West. (2 Chron., 9, 14.— Jer, 3, 2.) The derivation, moreover, commonly assigned to the term Arab is in accordance with this latter idea, making it signify an inhabitant of the West, as Arabia lay to the west of Upper Asia. (Consult, however, Wahl, Vorder und Mittel Asien, vol. 1, p. 327, in not., where other explanations are given.)—The Arabs anciently denominated themselves, and do to this day, by either of these names. Megasthenes and Ptolemy divided the country into the Happy, Petraea, and the Deserted; an arrangement unknown, however, to the inhabitants of the east. Arabia Felix, or the Happy, derived this appellation from its rich produce. This tract is a peninsula, which is so bordered by the Red Sea (more properly called the Arabian Gulf), by the Mare Erythraeum, and by the Persian Gulf, that it would be perfectly surrounded, were a line drawn from the inland extremity of the Persian Gulf to port Allan or AElan, situate near the eastern extremity of the Red Sea. Arabia Petraea was so called, either from its stony character (Térpa, “a rock” or “stone”), or, what is far more probable, from an ancient fortified emporium, called Petra. It was bounded on the east by Arabia Deserta, on the west by Egypt and the Mediterranean, on the south by the Red Sea, which here divides and runs north in two branches, and on the north by Palestine. Idumaea, otherwise called Seir, is the northeastern part of Arabia Petraea. Arabia Deserta is that tract which has Arabia Felix on the south, Babylonia and the Euphrates on the east, the Euphrates and Syria on the north, and Gilead on the west. Instead, however, of the division just given, the more natural one is that which distinguishes the coast, covered with aloes, manna, myrrh, frankincense, indigo, nutmegs, and especially coffee, from the inte

rior, consisting of a desert of moving sand, with thorns

and saline herbs. The climate is very various. Regions where it rains half the year alternate with others where dew supplies the place of rain for the whole season. The greatest cold prevails on high places, and the most oppressive heat in the plains. Damp winds succeed to the dry simoom, which is as dangerous to life as the harmattan and khamseen in Africa. The soil consists of sandy deserts and the most fruitful fields. Wheat, millet, rice, kitchen ... coffee (which grows on trees in Arabia, its home, and on bushes in America, the plants being kept low for the sake of gathering their fruit more easily), manna, sugar-cane, cotton, tropical fruits, senna-leaves, gums, aloes, myrrh, tobacco, indigo, odorous woods, balsam, &c., are the rich products of Arabia. There are also precious stones, iron, and other metals (gold excepted, which the ancients, however, seem to have found pure in rivers and in the earth). The animals are mules, asses, camels, buffaloes, horned cattle, goats, noble horses, lions, hyaenas, antelopes, foxes, apes, jerboas; birds of all sorts, pelicans, ostriches, &c.; esculent locusts, scorpions, &c.—The Arabians are still, as in the most ancient times, Nomades, of patriarchal simplicity. The older Arabian historians understand by Arabia only Yemen (Arabia Felix). Hedsjaz (the rocky) they regard as belonging partly to Egypt, partly to Syria; and the rest of the country they call the Syrian Desert. The princes (tobhai) of this land were anciently entirely of the race of Khatan, to which belonged the family of the Homeyrites, who ruled over Yemen two thousand years. The Arabians of Yemen and a part of the desert of Arabia lived in cities, and practised agriculture: they had commerce also with the East Indies, Persia, Syria, and Abyssinia. The rest of the population then, as now, led a wandering life in the deserts.-The religion of the Arabians, in the time of their ignorance (as they call the period before Mohammed), was, in general, adoration of the heavenly bodies, or Sabaism; varying much, however, in the different tribes, each of whom selected a different constellation as the highest object of worship.–For a thousand years the Arabians mansully defended the freedom, faith, and manners of their fathers against all the attacks of the Eastern conquerors, protected by deserts and seas, as well as by their own arms. Neither the Babylonian and Assyrian, nor the Egyptian and Persian kings, could bring them under their yoke. At last they were overcome by Alexander the Great; but immediately after his death, they took advantage of the disunion of his generals and successors to recover their independence. At this period the northern provinces of the country were bold enough to extend their dominion beyond the limits of Arabia. The Arabian Nomades, especially in winter, made deep inroads into the fertile Irak or Chaldaea. They finally conquered a portion of it, which is hence still called Irak Araby. Thence the tribe of Hareth advanced into Syria, and settled in the country of Gassan, whence they received the appellation of Gassanides. Three centuries after Alexander, the Romans approached these limits. The divided Arabians could not resist the Roman arms everywhere successfully ; their country, however, was not completely reduced to a province ; the northern princes, at least, maintaining a virtual independence of the emperors. The old Homeyrites in Yemen, against whom an unsuccessful war was carried on in the time of Augustus, preserved their liberty. Their chief city, Saba, was destroyed by a flood. With the weakness of the Roman government, the struggle for absolute independence increased, which a union of all the Arabian tribes would have easily gained; but, weakened and scattered as they were, they spent several centuries in this contest, during which the mountainous country of the interior (Nedschid) became the theatre of those chivalrous deeds so often sung by Arabian poets, till a man of extraordinary energy united them by communicating to them his own ardour, and union was followed by augmented force.—Christianity early found many adherents here, and there were even several bishops who acknowledged as their metropolis Bosro in Palestine, on the borders of Arabia. Yet the original worship of the stars could not be entirely abolished. The former opposition of the Arabians to the despotism of Rome drew to them a multitude of heretics, who had been persecuted in the orthodox empire of the East, especially the Monophysites and the Nestorians, who were scattered through all the East; and the religious enthusiasm of those exiles rekindled the flame of opposition. The Jews also, after the destruction of Jerusalem, became very numerous in this country, and made many proselytes, particularly in Yemen. The last king of the Homeyrites (Hamjarites) was of the Jewish faith, and his persecutions of the Christians, A.D. 502, involved him in a war with the King of Æthiopia, which cost him his life and his throne. To the indifference excited by so great a variety of sects is to be referred the quick success of Mohammed in establishing a new religion. He raised the Arabians to importance in the history of the world, and with him begins a new epoch in the history of this people. (Iahn's Bibl. Archaeol., p. 8, Upham's transl.—Encyclop. Americ., vol. 1, p. 316, seqq.). ARAbicus sinus, that part or branch of the Mare Erythraeum which interposes itself between Egypt and Arabia. It is now called the Red Sea. The meaning of this modern appellation must be looked for, not in

any colour of its waters or sands, but in the name of Idumea (or the land of Edom), whose coasts this sea touches on the north. Edom, in the Hebrew tongue, signifies red, and was the name given to Esau for selling his birthright for a mess of red pottage. This country, which his posterity possessed, was called after his name, and so was the sea which adjoined it. The Greeks, however, not understanding the reason of the appellation, translated what is in Hebrew the Sea of Edom, by éputpä Sääagoa. Thence comes the Latin form Mare rubrum, and the modern name Red Sca. It is otherwise called Golso di Mecca. (Compare Well’s Sacred Geogr., No. 160.—Calmet's Dict., vol. 5, p. 63, Eng. transl.—Bähr, ad Ctes., p. 359.) The shores of this gulf consist principally of limestone rocks. The bottom is covered with a carpet of greenish coral, and, in calm weather, when it comes into view, is not unlike a series of verdant submarine forests and meadows. The coral, however, is inscrior in quality to that of the Mediterranean. (Plin., 32, 2.) The beautiful fuci attracted the admiration of antiquity (Artemid., ap. Strab., 766), and procured for the Arabian Gulf in Hebrew the name of Bahr Sooph, i.e., “the sea of algae.” (Malte-Brun, 2,84, Brussels ed.) ARAbius, ARAbis, or ARBIs, a river of Gedrosia, near its eastern boundary, running into the Indian Ocean, now the Araba or ll-Mend. (Arrian, 6, 21.) Aracca and AREccA, a city of Susiana, east of the Tigris, now Wasit. It has attracted the attention of the learned by reason of the affinity of its name with that of Erech, mentioned in the Old Testament among the cities constructed by Nimrod. (Ammian. Marcell., 23, 21.—Bochart, Geogr. Sacr., col. 236.-Michaelis, Spicileg., vol. 1, p. 220, seqq.) ARAchnaeus Mons, a chain of mountains in Argolis, running along the upper coast in a southeastern direction. #. the time of Inachus it was called Sapyselaton. (Pausan, 2, 25.-Compare Sichelis, ad loc.) Hesychius reports that it also bore the name of Hysselinus (s. v. "Yoatãuvov.—Compare Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Apaxvalov). Mount Arachnaeus is mentioned by AEschylus (Agam., 299) as the last station of the telegraphic fire by which the news of the capture of Troy was transmitted to Mycenae. The modern name is Sophico, according to the latest maps. Part of this chain, communicating with the mountains of Nemea and Phlius, bore the name of Celossa. (Strabo, 382.-Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 282.) ARAchne, a Maeonian maiden, who was so proud of her skill in weaving and embroidering, in which arts Minerva had instructed her, that she ventured to deny her obligations to the goddess, and even challenged her to a trial of skill. Minerva, assuming the form of an old woman, warned her to desist from her boasting; but, when she sound that her admonitions were vain, she resumed her proper form, and accepted the challenge. The skill of Arachne was such, and the subjects she chose (the love-transformations of the gods) were so offensive to Minerva, that she struck her several times in the forehead with the shuttle. The highspirited maiden, unable to endure this affront, hung herself, and the goddess, relenting, changed her into a spider (ěpáxvn).-The name of this insect, most prob: ably, gave rise to the sable, though the story itself would seem to be of Oriental origin, the art of ...; having come into Western Asia from Babylonia an the countries adjacent. (Ovid, 6, 1, seqq-Neightley's Mythology, p. 122.—Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, 749.)

P Arachosia, a province of the Persian empire, lying to the west of the river Indus, and north of Gedrosia. The Greek writers usually call the inhabitants Arachöti ("Apaxwrot), sometimes Arachötar (Apaxcoat. Dion. Perićg., 1096). Arachosia was of considerable importance as a frontier province, and had always, therefore, a satrap or governor of its own, both before and after the time of Alexander. Through this

country, moreover, lay the nearest and safest route to India. Syburtius, the Greek governor after Alexander's death, cultivated friendly relations with the Indian monarch Sandrocottus, and Megasthenes was often sent by him to the court of the latter. (Arrian, 5, 6.) The ancient Arachosia answers to the modern Arokhage. (Mannert, 5, pt. 2, p. 76.) Arachóta, and Arachóti, the inhabitants of Arachosia. (Wud. Arachosia.) They are styled AlváxMayot, from their linen attire. (Dionys. Perieg., 1096–Compare Eustath., ad loc.—Arrian, 3, 23.) Arachötus, I. or Arachosia, the chief city of Arachosia, called also Cophe (Kaos), and said to have been built by Semiramis. It did not lie, as some remark, on the river Arachotus, but a considerable distance east of it, on a road leading in a northern direction towards the modern Candahar. (Mannert, 5, pt. 2, p. 80)—II. A river of Arachosia, rising in the hills northeast of the modern Gazni, and losing itself in a marsh about four miles to the south of Candahar. Its modern name, according to Wahl, is Naodah. D'Anville, however, makes it Kare. (Isid., Charac, ap. Geogr. Gr. Min., vol, 2, p. 8.-Plin., 6, 23.) ARAchthus, ARAEThus, or AREThon, a river of Epims, flowing from that part of the chain of Pindus which belonged to the ancient Tymphaei, and running by Ambracia into the Ambracian Gulf. Lycophron (v. 40%), who calls it Araethus ("Apattoo), speaks of it as the boundary of Greece on this side. Ambracia, therefore, being always accounted a city of Greece Proper, must have stood on its left bank. We cannot, therefore, admit, with Pouqueville, that this city occupitil the site of Regous, since that ruined fortress is situated on the right bank of the Luro river, which that writer considers to be the Arachthus. That the Arachthus is a considerable stream, may be inferred from Livy, who relates (43, 21) that Perseus, king of Macedon, was detained on its banks by high floods, on his way to Acarnania. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 151, seqq.) ARACYNThus, T. a chain of mountains in AEtolia, running in a southeasterly direction from the Achelous to the Evenus. Its present name is Mount Zigos. Pliny (4,1) and other writers, with less propriety, astribe Aracynthus to Acarnania.—II. A mountain of otia, sacred to Minerva, whence this goddess reoved the appellation of Aracynthia. Č. ap. Śleph. Byz, s. v. 'Apákvvdog.) It was situate not far from Thebes. Aoints, I. a city on an island of the same name, on the coast of Phoenicia. According to Strabo, it Wis sounded by a band of exiles from Sidon. The *land on which it stood was a mere rock, not quite **on stadia in circumference; and hence, as the pop*ion of the city increased, they were compelled to electedifices many stories in height, to make amends for theimited area of the place. The position of Aradus ** well adapted for commerce. e modern name she island is Ruad, according to Pococke (vol. 2, p, *} and traces still remain of the cisterns anciently *in the rock to hold the rain-water for the use of the inhabitants. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. *8, seq.)—II. An island, according to some, on the * of Arabia, in the Persian Gulf. It is supposed ** in part, the original settlements of the Phoe* Previous to their establishing themselves on the coast of the Mediterranean. Much doubt exists, o, with regard to the accuracy of this statement; i. Mamer, among others, thinks that the name Araus, as designating an island in this quarter, is indebtto: * existence to the love of theory alone. o vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 154—Compare, and tifo Spicileg., vol. 1, p. 166, seqq., * Vid. Egimurus.

ARAE PhilaenoruM. Wid. Philaeni. ARAR, a very slow, smooth-running river of Gaul. It rises near Mons Vogesus, and, after a southern course, falls into the Rhodanus at Lugdunum. (Cas., B. G., 1, 12.-Plin., 3, 4.) Ammianus Marcellinus, who flourished towards the close of the fourth century of our era, first calls the Arar by the name of Saucona, speaking of this latter as a common appellation on the part of the inhabitants in that quarter, “Ararum, quem Saucomam appellant” (15, 11). Gregory of Tours, at a later period, styles it Saugona; and from this comes the modern French appellation Saône. (Compare Lemaire, Indez Geogr., ad Cats. Comm., p. 190.) ARATEA, a festival celebrated at Sicyon, upon the birthday of Aratus, and in memory of that distinguished patriot. (Plut., Wit. Arat., 53.) ARātus, I. a Greek poet, born at Soli (Pompeiopolis) in Cilicia. He flourished about 270 B.C., was a favourite of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and a firm friend to Antigonus Gonatas, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes. He was also a contemporary of Theocritus, who makes mention of him in the sixth and seventh Idyls, and was on very friendly terms with him. At the instance of Antigonus, Aratus composed an astronomical poem, entitled Patváueva, “Appearances,” and treating of the heavenly bodies, their names, movements, &c. The materials for this production he is said to have principally derived from the works of Eudoxus of Cnidus, who wrote two treatises on the celestial bodies and phanomena, one entitled "Evorspov, or “the Mirror,” and the other patváueva. (Buhle, de Arat. Script. Comment., p. 466.) What other writers he followed besides Eudoxus, cannot now be ascertained. Salmasius, indeed, insists that he did not follow Eudoxus at all, but Phanus or Meton (Salm., ad Solin., p. 822); this opinion, however, is refuted by Petavius. (Doctr. Temp., 6, 9.) Aratus was the author also of another poem, entitled Atoo mucia, or “Signs from Jove,” the materials for which he borrowed from Hesiod, the meteorological writings of Aristotle, and Theophrastus on the signs of the winds. Some of the ancients, and several of the moderns, too, have united the pawóueva and Atoampsia into one poem, probably because, in the latter, he draws his signs indicative of changes in the atmosphere from the relative positions of the sun, moon, and constellations of the zodiac as regards the earth. They are, however, distinct productions, and are regarded as such by the best ancient and modern authorities. (Schol. ad Diosem, init.— Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac., 1086.-Vitruv., 9, 7– Buhle, ibid., p. 462.)—In the two poems just referred to, Aratus gives us, in correct and rather elegant verse, a general view of what was then known of the heavens, with their signs, appearances, &c., although it is evident, both from ancient authority as well as from the poem itself, that he was not a professed astronomer, or even very accurately acquainted with the principles of the science. (Cic., de Orat., 1, 16–Buhle, p. 467.) Ovid passes a high eulogium on Aratus, “cum sole et luna semper Aratus erit” (Amor., 1, 15); but this exaggerated compliment, and the admiration of Ovid, were very probably owing to the circumstance of no other poet's having taken the astronomic sphere for his theme prior to Aratus. (Buhle, p. 471.) The truth is, the subject matter of both poems is far from being congenial to poetry, as is well remarked by Quintilian, who adds of Aratus himself, “sufficit tamen operi, cui se parem credidit (10, 1, 55). As one proof of the consideration which Aratus enjoyed, we may cite the monument which his compatriots erected to his memory, and which became famous by reason of a physical phaenomena that Mela mentions. (“Juxta in parvo tumulo Arati poeta monumentum, ideo referendum quia, ignotum quam ob causam, jacta in id sara dissiliant,” 1, 13.) Aratus, moreover, is the writer

to whom St. Paul refers in his speech before the Are

opagus (Acts, 17, 28), a circumstance which entitled the poet to great favour among the fathers of the church, although it is evident that the Apostle makes no allusion to his poetic merit. M. Delambre remarks, in speaking of Aratus, that he “has transmitted to us almost all that Greece at that time knew of the heavens, or, at least, all that could be put into verse. The perusal of Autolycus or Euclid gives more information on the subject to him who wishes to become an astronomer. Their notions are more precise and more geometrical. The principal merit of Aratus is the description he has left us of the constellations; and yet, even with this description to aid us, one would be much puzzled to construct a celestial chart or globe.” (Delambre. Hist. de l'Astronomie Ancienne, vol. 1, p. 74.)—The two poems of Aratus were thrice translated into Latin verse, first by Cicero, secondly by Germanicus, of the line of the Caesars, and thirdly by Avienus. Cicero's translation is lost, with the exception of some fragments. The translation, or, rather, imitation of the Phaenomena by Germanicus, and his commencement of the Diosemea, as well as the version of Avienus, remain to us. Virgil, also, in his Georgics, is under many obligations to our poet. Although Aratus has been accused of possessing but a slight acquaintance with the subject on which he treats, still a number of mathematicians united themselves with the grammarians in commenting on his work. Many of these commentaries are lost: we still have, however, four remaining ; one by Hipparchus of Nicaea, another by Achilles '..." the other two are anonymous, for those are in error who attribute one of them to Eratosthenes. Aratus wrote many other works, which have not come down to us. They treated of physical, astronomical, grammatical, critical, and poetic themes, and a list of them is given by one of his editors, Buhle (vol. 2, p. 455, seqq.):-The best editions of this poet are, that of Buhle, Lips., 1793– 1801, 2 vols. 8vo, and that of Matthiae, Francof, 1817–1818. We have also a German version by J. H. Voss, Heidelb., 1824, published with the Greek text and illustrations—II. A celebrated Grecian patriot, born at Sicyon, B.C. 273. When he was but seven years of age, his father Clinias, who held the government of Sicyon, was assassinated by Abantidas, who succeeded in making himself absolute. Aratus took refuge in Argos, where he was concealed by the friends of the family, and where he devoted himself with great success to physical exercises, gaining the prize in the five exercises of the pentathlum. After some revolutions and changes of rulers at Sicyon, the government came into the hands of Nicocles, when Aratus, then hardly twenty years of age, formed the project of freeing his country, and, having assembled some exiles, surprised the city of Sicyon. The tyrant having fled, Aratus gave liberty to his fellowcitizens, and induced them to join the Achaean league, still as yet feeble, and only in the twenty-fourth year of its existence. The return of the exiles, however, occasioned much trouble at Sicyon; those who had purchased their property refused to restore it, and Aratus was compelled to have recourse to Ptolemy Philadelphus, to whom he had rendered some services, and who gave him 150 talents, with which he indemnified the new possessors, and restored their property to his fellow-exiles. Being chosen, for the second time, Praetor of the Achaeans, 244 B.C., he seized by surprise on the citadel of Corinth, which Antigonus had guarded with great care as one of the keys of the Peloponnesus, and prevailed upon the Corinthians to join the confederacy. Similar success attended his efforts in other quarters, and many of the most important states and cities of southern Greece became through his means members of the league. Some time after, the AEtolians, jealous of the prosperity of the Achaeans, and reckoning on the aid of Antigonus, the

guardian of Philip, formed an alliance with the Lacedaemonians, the natural enemies of the Achaean league. Aratus marched to the aid of those cities of Arcadia which belonged to the confederacy, and which were menaced by Cleomenes, king of Sparta; but he was defeated in three successive engagements, and found himself obliged to have recourse to Antigonus. In order to induce this prince to lend aid, he surrendered to him, on his expressly requiring it, the citadel of Corinth ; and Antigonus, on having come with an army, was appointed generalissimo of the Achaean troops. Plutarch pretends that Cleomenes had offered peace to the Achaeans, on condition of being appointed commander of their forces, and that Aratus opposed him through jealousy; and he even reproaches him for preferring a barbarian to a descendant of Hercules. But the truth was, Aratus could not hesitate between Antigonus, a humane prince, and a religious observer of his oaths, and Cleomenes, who had now become a tyrant over his own country, to which he wished to make all the Peloponnesus subject. The aid of Antigonus changed entirely the aspect of affairs; and this prince having eventually entered into Laconia, compelled Cleomenes, after a defeat at Sellasia, to flee from the country, took Sparta, and restored to it the laws which Cleomenes had abrogated. Antigonus always showed great consideration for Aratus, and governed himself by his counsels in what related to the affairs of Greece. Philip, his nephew and successor, did the same during the early part of his reign; but in process of time a less friendly feeling arose between the latter and Aratus, as the evil qualities of Philip began to display themselves, and the Grecian patriot eventually fell a victim to the unprincipled monarch, who had caused a slow poison to be given to him. Some time before his death, Aratus was observed by one of his friends to spit blood, and, when the latter expressed his surprise at this, he merely exclaimed, “Such, Cephalon, are the fruits of royal friendship !” He was buried with distinguished honours by his countrymen, and a festival, called Aratea, was celebrated every year in memory of him. Aratus wrote Memoirs, now lost, which Polybius cites with eulogiums. His character may be summed up in a few words. He was a pure and ardent patriot, and, in addition to this, a statesman of no small degree of merit, but not very conspicuous for military abilities. Aratus died in the 62d year of his age, B.C. 213. (Plut., Wit. Arat.)—III. A son of the preceding, nearly of the same age with Philip, king of Macedonia. He was on intimate terms with this monarch, a circumstance, however, which did not prevent the latter from administering a potion, that threw him into a deplorable state of idiocy, so that his friends regarded his death, which occurred in the flower of his age, as a blessing rather than a misfortune. (Plut., Wit. Arat, ult.) ARAUsio, the chief city of the Cavares, in Gallia Narbonensis, to the north of Avenio. It is now Orange, in the department of Vaucluse. In the vicinity are some remains of a triumphal arch, erected in commemoration of the victory of Marius over the Cimbri and Teutones. (Plin., 3, 4.) Araxes, I. a river of Armenia Major, issuing from Mons Abus, on the side opposite to that whence the southern arm of the Euphrates flows. It runs east until it meets the mountains which separate Armenia from northern Media, when it turns to the north, and, after receiving the Cyrus, falls into the Caspian Sea. It is now the Arras. (Plin., 6, 9.—Strab., 363– Ptol., 5, 13.)—II. Another in Persia, running by Persepolis, and falling into the Medus, now Bend-Emir. —Xenophon calls the Chaboras by the name of Araxes (rid. Chaboras), and gives the name of Phasis to the Armenian Araxes. (Xen. Anab., 1, 4, 19.-Compare the Inder Nom. to the edition of Zeune, and the remarks of Kruger, ad Xen., Anab, 4, 6, 4)–III. A

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