Obrazy na stronie

kärbir, inflectio. This name more particularly applied to its mouth ; the true appellation in the interior was Boas. (Arrian, Per. M. Eur. 119, Blanc.) AcANrhus, I. a city near Mt. Athos, founded by a colony of Andrians, on a small neck of land connecting the promontory of Athos with the continent. Strabo (Epit. l. 7, 330) places it on the Singiticus Sinus, as does Ptolemy (p. 82), but Herodotus distinctly fixes it on the Strymonicus Sinus (6, 44; 7, 22), as well as Scymnus (r. 646) and Mela (2, 3), and their opinions must prevail against the two authors above mentioned. Mannert (7,451) supposes the city to have been placed on the Singiticus Sinus, the harbour on the Sinus Strymonicus. On the other hand, Gail (Geogr. d'Hérod. 2, 280–Atlas, Ind. 2–Anal. des Cartes, p. 21) makes two places of this name to have existed, one on the Strymonicus, the other on the Singiticus Sinus. Probably Erissos is the site of ancient Acanthus. Ptolemy speaks of a harbour named Panormus, probably its haven (p. 82—Cramer's Anc. Greece, 1, 262—Walpole's Collect. 1, 225.) The Persian fleet despatched under Mardonius, suffered severely in doubling the promontory of Athos; and Xerxes, to hard against a similar accident, caused a canal to be 5. through the neck of land on which Acanthus was situated; through this his fleet was conducted. (Herod. 7, 22.) From the language of Juvenal (10, 173), and the general sarcasm of Pliny (5, 1, “portentosa Graecia mendacia”), many regard this account of the canal as a fable, invented by the Greeks to magnify the expedition of Xerxes, and thus increase their own renown. But vestiges of the canal were visible in the time of AElian (H. A. 13, 20); modern travellers also discover traces of it (Choiseul-Gouffer, Woy. Pittoresque 2, 2, 148.—Walpole, l. c.).-II. A city of Egypt, the southernmost in the Memphitic Nome. Ptolemy gives it a plural form, probably from the thorny thickets in its vicinity, àxavtat: Strabo (809) adopts the singular form, as does also Diodorus Siculus (1,97). Ptolemy places this city 15 minutes distant from Memphis ; D'Anville and Mannert agree in identifying it with Dashur. AcARNANIA, a country of Greece Proper, along the western coast, having Ætolia on the east. The natural boundary on the AEtolian side was the Achelous, but it was not definitely regarded as the dividing limit until the period of the Roman dominion. (Strab. 450.) Acarnania was for the most part a productive country, with good harbours (Scylar 13). The inhabitants, however, were but little inclined to commercial intercourse with their neighbours; they were almost constantly engaged in war against the AEtolians, and consequently remained far behind the rest of the Greeks in culture. Hence, too, we find scarcely any city of importance within their territories; for Anactorium and Leucas were founded by Corinthian colonies, and formed no part of the nation, though they engrossed nearly all its traffic. Not only Leucadia, indeed, but also Cephalenia, Ithaca, and other adjacent islands, were commonly regarded as a geographical portion of Acarnania, though, politically considered, they did not belong to it, being inhabited by a different race. (Mannert, 8, 3.3.) The Acarnanians and Ætolians were descended from the same parent-stock of the Leleges or Curetes, though almost constantly at variance. The most important event for the Acarnanians was the arrival among them of Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus, who came with a band of Argive settlers a short time previous to the Trojan war, and united the inhabitants of the land and his own followers into one nation. His new territories were called Acarnania, and the people Acarnanians. The origin of the name Acarmania, however, is uncertain. It was apparently not used in the age of Homer, who is silent about it, though he mentions by name the AEtolians, Curetes, the inhabitants of the Echinades, and the Teleboans

or Taphians. According to some, it was derived from Acarnas, son of Alcmaeon (Strabo, 462.—Apollod. 3, 7, 7.—Thuc. 2, 102.-Paus. 8, 24). But the remark just made relative to the silence of Homer about the Acarnanes seems to oppose this. More likely the appellation was grounded on a custom, common to the united race, of wearing the hair of the head cut rery short, akapār, a intens, and keipo, in imitation of the Curetes, who cut their hair close in front, and allowed it to grow long behind (rid. Abantes). The AEtolians and Acarnanians were in almost constant hostility against each other, a circumstance adverse to the idea of a common origin. It is curious, however, that the AEtolians appear to have had no other object in view, in warring on their neighbours, than to compel them to form with them one common league; which they would scarcely have done towards persons of a different race. (Mannert,8, 46.) This constant and mutual warfare so weakened the two countries eventually, that they both fell an easy prey to the Macedonians, and afterward to the Romans. The latter people, however, amused the Acarnanians in the outset with a show of independence, declaring the country to be free, but soon annexed it to the province of Epirus. The dominion of the Romans was far from beneficial to Acarnania; the country soon became a mere wilderness; and as a remarkable proof, no Roman road was ever made through Acarnania or Ætolia, but the public route lay along the coast, from Nicopolis on the Ambracian Gulf to the mouth of the Achelous. (Mannert,8, 60.). The present state of Acarnania (now Carnia) is described by Hobhouse (Journ. 174, Am. ed) as a wilderness of forests and unpeopled plains. The people of Acarnania were in general of less refined habits than the rest of the §. and from Lucian's words (Dial. Meretr. 8,227, Bip.), roupiakor 'Akapwdvtos, their morals were generally supposed to be depraved. Independently, however, of the injustice of thus stigmatizing a people on slight grounds, considerable doubt attaches to the correctness of the received reading, and the explanation commonly assigned to it. , Guyetus conjectures 'Arapustic, and Erasmus, explaining the adage, favours this correction. (Compare Bayle, Dict. Hist. 1, 40.) The Acarnanians, according to Censorinus (D. N. 19), made the year consist of but six months, in which respect they resembled the Carians; Plutarch (Num. 19) states the same fact. (Compare Fabricii Menol. p. 7.) Aca RNAs and AM photérus, sons of Alcmaeon and Callirhoe. Alcmaeon having been slain by the brothers of Alphesiboea, his former wise, Callirhoe obtained from Jupiter, by her prayers, that her two sons, then in the cradle, might grow up to manhood, and avenge their father. On reaching man's estate, they slew Pronous and Agenor, brothers of Alphesiboea, and, soon after, Phegeus her father. Acarnas, according to some, gave name to Acarnania; but rid. Acarnania. (Paus. 8, 24.) AcAstus, son of Pelias, king of Iolcos in Thessaly. Peleus, while in exile at his court, was falsely accused by Astydamia, or, as Horace calls her, Hippolyte, the wife of Acastus, of improper conduct. The monarch, believing the charge, led Peleus out, under the pretence of a hunt, to a lonely part of Mount Pelion, and there, having deprived him of every means of defence, left him exposed to the wild beasts. Chiron came to his aid, having received for this purpose a sword from Vulcan, which he gave to Peleus as a means of defence. According to another account, his deliverer was Mercury. Peleus returned to Iolcos, and slew the monarch and his wife. There is some doubt, however, whether Acastus suffered with his queen on this occasion. He is thought by some to have been merely driven into exile. (Ov. Met. 8, 306–Heroid, 13, 25.—Apollod. 1, 9, &c.—Schol. ad Apoll. Rh. 1, 224.) AccA LAURENTIA, I. more properly LARENTIA (Heins. ad Orid. Fast. 3, 55), the wife of Faustulus, shepherd of king Numitor's flocks. She became foster-mother of Romulus and Remus, who had been found by her husband while exposed on the banks of the Tiber and suckled by a she-wolf. Some explain the tradition by making Lupa (“she-wolf”) to have been a name given by the shepherds to Larentia, from her immodest character (Plut. Rom. 4); a most improbable solution. We have here, in truth, an old poetic legend, in which the name Larentia (Lar), and the animals said to have supplied the princes with sustenance (rid. Romulus), point to an Etrurian origin for the fable. When the milk of the wolf failed, the woodpecker, a bird sacred to Mars, brought other food; other birds, too, consecrated to auguries by the Etrurians, hovered over the babes to drive away the insects. (Niebuhr's Rom. Hist. 1, 185.)—II. The Romans yearly celebrated certain festivals, called Larentalia, a foolish account of the origin of which is given by Plutarch (Quast. Rom. 272). There is some resemblance between Plutarch's story and that told by Herodotus (2, 122) of Rhampsinitus, king of Egypt, and the goddess Ceres; and it may, therefore, like the latter, have for its basis some agricultural or astronomical legend. (Consult Baehr, ad Herod. l.c.) Accia, or, more correctly, Atia, the sister of Julius Caesar, and mother of Augustus. Cicero (Phil. 3, 6) ives her a high character. She was the daughter of . Atius Balbus. (Cic. l. c.—Suet. Aug. 4.) Accius, L., a Roman tragic poet, more correctly written Attius. (Wid. Attius, and compare Seyfert, Lat. Sprachl. p. 95.—Grotefend, Lat. Gram., § 176, 2d ed.—Baehr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. vol. i., p. 80, in notis.)—II. More correctly Attius Tullus, leader of the Volsci in the time of Coriolanus. (Vid. Attius.) Acco, a general of the Gauls, at the head of the confederacy formed against the Romans by the Senones, Carnutes, and Treviri. Caesar (B. G. 6, 4, 44), by the rapidity of his march, prevented the execution of Acco's plans; and ordered a general assembly of the Gauls to inquire into the conduct of these nations. Sentence-of death was pronounced on Acco, and he was instantly executed. Acé, a seaport town of Phoenicia, a considerable distance south of Tyre. On the gold and silver coins of Alexander the Great, struck in this place with Phoenician characters, it is called Aco. The Hebrew Scriptures (Judges, 1, 31) term it Accho, signifying “straitened” or “confined.” Strabo calls it 'Axi, (758). It was afterward styled Ptolemais, in honour of Ptolemy, son of Lagus, who long held part of southern Syria under his sway. The Romans, in a later age, appear to have transformed the Greek accusative Ptolemaida into a Latin nominative, and to have designated the city by this name; at least it is so written in the Itin. Antonin. and Hierosol. The Greeks, having changed the original name before this into 'Axis, connected with it the fabulous legend of Hercules having been bitten here by a serpent, and of his having cured (sixéoua) the wound by a certain leaf. (Steph. B. v. IIrożeuaic.). The compiler of the Etym. Magn. limits the name of 'Aki to the citadel, but assigns a similar reason for its origin. (Compare the learned remarks of Reland, on the name of this city, in his Palest., p. 535, seq.) Accho was one of the cities of Palestine, which the Israelites were unable to take (Judges, 1, 31). The city is now called Acre, more properly Acca, and lies at the northern angle of the bay, to which it gives its name, which extends, in a semicircle of three leagues, as far as the point of Carmel. During the Crusades it sustained several sieges. After the expulsion of the Knights of St. John, it fell rapidly to decay, and was almost deserted till Sheikh Daher, and, after him, Djezzar Pasha, by repairing the town and harbour, made it one of the first places on the coast. In modern times it has been

rendered celebrated for the successful stand which it made, with the aid of the British, under Sir Sidney Smith, against the French, under Bonaparte, who was obliged to raise the siege after twelve assaults. The strength of the place arose in part from its situation. The port of Acre is bad, but }. Clarke (Travels, 6, 89) represents it as better than any other along the coast. All the rice, the staple food of the people, enters the country by Acre; the master of which city, therefore, is able to cause a famine over all Syria. This led the French to direct their efforts towards the possession of the place. Hence, too, as Dr. Clarke observes, we find Acre to have been the last position in . Holy Land from which the Christians were expelled. AcELUM, a town of Cisalpine Gaul, among the Euganei, north of Patavium, and east of the Medoacus Major, or Brenta. It is now Asola. (Plin. 3, 19.Ptol. 63.) Acerbas, a priest of Hercules at Tyre, who married Dido, the sister of Pygmalion the reigning monarch, and his own niece. Pygmalion murdered him in order to get possession of his riches, and endeavoured to conceal the crime from Dido; but the shade of her husband appeared to her, and disclosing to her the spot where he had concealed his riches during life, exhorted her to take these and flee from the country. Dido instantly obeyed, and leaving Phoenicia, founded Carthage on the coast of Africa. (Vid. Dido.) Virgil calls the husband of Dido Sichaeus; but Servius, in his commentary, informs us, that this appellation of Sicharus is softened down from Sicharbes. Justin (18, 4) calls him. Accrbas, which appears to be an intermediate form. Gesenius (Phaen. Mon., p. 414) makes Sicharbas come from Isicharbas (“vir gladii") or Masicharbas (“opus gladii,” i.e., qui gladio omnia sua debet). If we reject the explanation of Servius, the name Sichaeus may come from Zachi, “purus, justus.” AceRRAE, I. a town of Cisalpine Gaul, west of Cremona and north of Placentia; supposed to have occupied the site of Pizzighetone; called by Polybius (2,34) 'Axëhat, and regarded as one of the strongholds of the Insubres. It must not be confounded with another Celtic city, Acara ('Akapa, Strabo, 216), or Acerra: (Plin. 3, 14), south of the Po, not far from Forum Lepidi and Mutina (Mannert,9, 170): Tzschucke incorrectly reads 'Ayopat for "Akapa, making the two places identical. (Tzsch. ad Strab. l. c.)—II. A city of Campania, to the east of Atella, called by the Greeks 'Axépéat, and made a Municipium by the Romans at a very early period (Liry, 8, 14). It remained faithful when Capua yielded to Hannibal, and was hence destroyed by that commander. It was subsequently rebuilt, and in the time of Augustus received a Roman colony, but at no period had many inhabitants, from the frequent and destructive inundations of the Clanius. (Frontinus, de Col. 102.—Virg. G. 2, 225, et Schol.) The Modern Acerra stands nearly on the site (Mannert, 9, 780). Acer's ecomes, a surname of Apollo, signifying “unshorn,” i.e., ever young (Jur. 8, 128). Another form is ákesperóumc. Both are compounded of a priv., Reipo, fut., AEol. képao, to cut, and köpin, the hair of the head. The term is applied, however, as well to Bacchus as to Apollo. (Compare the Lat. intonsus, and Ruperti, ad Jur. l.c.) Aces, a river of Asia, on the confines, according to Herodotus (3, 117), of the Chorasmians, Hyrcanians, Parthians, Sarangeans, and Thamaneans. The territories of all these nations were irrigated by it, through means of water-courses; but when the Persians conquered this part of Asia, they blocked up the outlets of the stream, and made the reopening of them a source of tribute. The whole story is a very improbable one. Rennell thinks that there is some allusion in it to the Oxus or Ochus, both of which rivers have undergone considerable changes in their courses, partly by the management of dams, partly by their own deposites. (Geogr. of Herod., vol. i., p. 258). For other opinions on the subject, consult Baehr, ad Herod, l.c. Acesises, a large and rapid river of India, falling into the Indus. It is commonly supposed to be the Rarei, but Rennell makes it, more correctly, the Jenaub. (Vincent's Comm. and Nap. of the Anc. 1, 95–Arrian, 5, 22.—Theophr. 4, 12.—Pliny,37, 12.) Acestus, I. a bishop of the Novatians, in the reign of the Emperor Constantine, A.D. 325. ... (Socr. 1, 7. —Sozom. 1, 2.)—II. A surname of Apollo, as god of medicine, from dikéouat, sano. Acest A. Wid. A gesta. Acestes. Vid. A gestes. Acestoft, an ancient statuary, mentioned by Pausanias (6, 7, 2). He was a native of Cnossus, or at least exercised his art there for some time, and was the father of that Amphion who was the pupil of Ptolichus of Corcyra. Ptolichus lived about Olymp. 80, 82, and Acestor must have been his contemporary. (Sillig, Dict. of Anc. Artists, s. v., William's transl.) AchAEA, Axata, a surname of Pallas. Her temple among the Daunians, in Apulia, contained the arms of Diomede and his followers. It was defended by dogs, which sawned on the Greeks, but fiercely attacked all other persons (Aristot. de Mirab.).—II. Ceres was also called Achaea, from her grief (oxor) at the loss of Proserpina (Plut. in Is. et Os). Other explanations are given by the scholiast(ad Aristoph. Acharn,674). Consult also Kuster and Brunck, ad loc., and Suidas, s. v. AchAE1, one of the main branches of the great Æolic race. (Wid. Achaia and Graecia, especially the latter article.) Achaemi:Nes, the founder of the Persian monarchy, according to some writers, who identify him with the Giem Schid, or Djemschid, of the Oriental historians (rid. Persia). The genealogy of the royal line is given by Herodotus (7, 11) from Achaemenes to Xerxes. The earlier descent, as given by the Grecian writers, and according to which, Perses, son of Perseus and Andromeda, was the first of the line, and the individual from whom the Persians derived their national appellation, is purely fabulous. AEschylus (Pers. 762) makes the Persians to have been first governed by a Mede, who was succeeded by his son; then came Cyrus, succeeded by one of his sons; next Merdis, Maraphis, Artaphernes, and Darius; the last not being, however, a lineal descendant. For a discussion on this subject, consult Stanley, ad loc. : Larcher, ad Herod. 7, 11, and Schütz, Excurs. 2, ad AEsch. Pers. l. c. AchA.M.E.Nibes, I. a branch of the Persian tribe of Pasargadae, named from Achaemenes, the founder of the line. From this family, the kings of Persia were descended (Herod. 1, 126). Cambyses, on his deathbed, entreated the Achaemenides not to suffer the kiss dom to pass into the hands of the Medes (3,65)—II. A Persian of the royal line, whom Ctesias (32) makes the brother, but Herodotus (7, 7) and Diodorus Sicuhus (11,74) call the uncle of Artaxerxes I. The latter styles him Achaemenes. (Baehr, ad Ctes. l.c.— Wessel. ad Herod. l. c.) AchA:5Rust statío, I. a place on the coast of the Thracian Chersonesus, where Polyxena was sacrificed to the shade of Achilles, and where Hecuba killed Polymnestor, who had murdered her son Polydorus.— II. The name of Achaeorum Portus was given to the harbour of Corone, in Messenia. AchAEus, I. a son of Xuthus. (Wid. Graecia, relative to the early movements of the Grecian tribes.)— II. A tragic poet, born at Eretria, B.C. 484, the very year Æschylus won his first prize. We find him contending with Sophocles and Euripides, B.C. 447. With such competitors, however, he was, of course, not very successful. He gained the dramatic victory

only once. Athenaeus, however (6, p. 270), accuses Euripides of borrowing from this poet. The number of plays composed by him is not correctly ascertained. Suidas (s. v.) gives three accounts, according to one of which he exhibited 44 plays; according to another, 30; while a third assigns to him only 24. Most of the plays ascribed to him by the ancients are suspected by Casaubon (de Sat. Poes. 1, 5) to have been satyric. —III. A river, which falls into the Euxine on the eastern shore, above the Promontorium Heracleum. The Greek form of the name is 'Azatoic, -owroc. (Arrian, Per. Mar. Eur, 130, Blanc.)—IV. An historian mentioned by the scholiast on Pindar (Ol. 7,42). Vossius (Hist. Gr. 4, p. 501) supposes him to be the same with the Achaeus alluded to by the scholiast on Aratus (r. 171); but Boeckh throws very great doubt on the whole matter. (Boeckh, ad Schol. Pind. i. e., vol. ii., p. 166.)—V. A general of Antiochus the Great, by whom he was made governor of all the provinces of Asia this side of Mount Taurus (ori rāče row Taipov). He revolted, and assumed the crown, but after a contest of eight years, was betrayed into the hands of Antiochus by a Cretan, and ignominiously put to death. (Polyb. 4, 2, 6, &c.—Id. 6, 23.) Achai A. I. a district of Thessaly, so named from the Achaei (rid. Graecia). It embraced more than Phthiotis, since Herodotus (7, 196) makes it comprehend the country along the Apidanus, Assuming this as its western limit, we may consider it to have reached as far as the Sinus Pelasgicus and Sinus Maliacus on the east. (Mannert, 7, 599.) Larcher (Hist. d'Herod. 8, 7, Table Geogr.) regards Melitara as the limit on the west, which lies considerably east of the Apidanus. That Phthiotis formed only part of Achaia, appears evident from the words of Scymnus (r. 604). Tottett’, ‘Azatol trapáàtot 46torukoi (Gail, ad loc.) Homer (Il 3, 258) uses the term 'Axaltda, &c. 2ópav, in opposition to Argos, "Apyor, and seems to indicate by the former, according to one scholiast, the Peloponnesus; according to another, the whole country occupied by the Hellenes (riv rázav E22#vov yiv, Schol. Il. 3, 75).-II. A harbour on the northeastern coast of the Euxine, mentioned by Arrian, in his Periplus of the Eurine (131, Blanc.), and called by him Old Achaia (Thy ražatáv 'Aratav). The Greeks, according to Strabo (416), had a tradition, that the inhabitants of this place were of Grecian origin, and natives of the Boeotian Orchomenus. They were returning, it seems, from the Trojan war, when, missing their way, they wandered to this quarter. Appian (B. M. 67, 102, Schw.) makes them to have been Achaeans, but in other respects coincides with Strabo. Müller (Gesch. Hellen. Stämme, &c., 1, 282) supposes the Greeks to have purposely altered the true name of the people in question, so as to make it resemble Achari ('Axalos), that they might crect on this superstructure a mere edifice of fable—III. A country of the Peloponnesus, lying along the Sinus Corinthiacus, north of Elis and Arcadia. A number of mountain-streams, descending from the ridges of Arcadia, watered this re. gion, but they were small in size, and many mere wintertorrents. The coast was for the most part level, and was hence exposed to frequent inundations. It had few harbours; not one of any size, or secure for ships. On this account we find, that of the cities along the coast of Achaia, none became famous for maritime enterprise. In other respects, Achaia may be ranked, as to extent, fruitfulness, and population, among the middling countries of Greece. Its principal productions were like those of the rest of the Peloponnesus, namely, oil, wine, and corn. (Mannert, 8,384.—Heeren's Ideen, &c., 3, 27.) The most ancient name of this region was Ægialea or AEgialos, Aiyazóg, “seashore,” derived from its peculiar situation. It embraced originally the territory of Sicyon, since here stood the early capital of the Ægialii or Ægialenses. The origin of the AEgialii appears to connect them with the great Ionic race. Ion, son of Xuthus, came from Attica, according to the received accounts, settled in this quarter (Paus. 7, 1–Strabo,383), obtained in marriage the daughter of King Selinus, and from this period the inhabitants were denominated AEgialean Ionians. Pausanias, however, probably from other sources of information, makes Xuthus, not Ion, to have settled here. The Pelasgi appear also to have spread over this region, and to have gradually blended with the primitive inhabitants into one community, under the name of Pelasgic AEgialeans (Herod. 7, 94). Twelve cities now arose, the capital being Helice, founded by Ion. At the period of the Trojan war, these cities were subject to the Achaeans, and acknowledged the sway of Agamemnon as the head of that race. Matters continued in this state until the Dorian invasion of the Peloponnesus. The Achaeans, driven by the Dorians from Argos and Lacedæmon, took refuge in AEgialea, under the guidance of Tisamenos, son of Orestes. The Ionians gave their new visiters an unwelcome reception; a battle ensued, the Ionians were defeated, and shut up in Helice; and at last were allowed by treaty to leave this city unmolested, on condition of removing entirely from their former settlements. They migrated, therefore, into Attica (Paus. 7, 1), but soon after left this latter country for Asia Minor (rid. Iones and Ionia). The Achaeans now took possession of the vacated territory, and changed its name to Achaia. Tisamenos having fallen in the war with the Ionians, his sons and the other leaders divided the land among themselves by lot, and hence the old division of .. cantons or districts, as well as the regal form of government, continued until the time of Ogygus or Gygus. (Strabo, 384.—Paus. 7, 6–Polyb. 2, 41.) After this monarch's decease, each city assumed a republican i. The Dorians, from the very first, had made several attempts to drive the Achaeans from their newly-acquired possessions, and had so far succeeded as to wrest from them Sicyon, with its territory, which was ever after regarded as a Dorian state. All farther attempts at conquest were unsuccessful, from the defence made by the Achaeans, and the aid afforded to them by their Pelasgic neighbours in Arcadia. The result of this was an aversion on the part of the Achaeans to everything Dorian. Hence i. took no part with the rest of the Greeks against Xerxes; hence, too, we find them, even before the Peloponnesian war, in alliance with the Athenians; though, in the course of that war, they were forced to remain neutral, or else at times, from a consciousness of their weakness, to admit the Dorian fleets into their harbours. (Thucyd. 1, 111 and 115.-Id. 2, 9.-Id. 8, 3.-Id. 2, 84.) The Achaeans preserved their neutrality also in the wars raised by the ambition of Macedon; but the result proved most unfortunate. The successors of Alexander seemed to consider the cities of Achaia as fair booty, and what they spared became the prey of domestic tyrants. Even after the Peloponnesus had ceased to be the theatre of war, and a Macedonian garrison was merely kept at the Isthmus, the public troubles seemed only on the increase. The whole country, too, began to be infested by predatory bands, whose numbers were daily augmented by the starving cultivators of the soil. At length, four of the princi

al cities of Achaia, viz., Patrae, Dyme, Tritata, and

hara, formed a mutual league for their common safety. (Polyb. 2, 41.) The plan succeeded, and soon ten cities were numbered in the alliance. About twenty-five years after, Sicyon was induced to join the league by the exertions of Aratus, and he himself was chosen commander-in-chief of the confederacy. All the more important cities of the Peloponnesus gradually joined the coalition. Sparta alone kept aloof. and, in endeavouring to enforce her compliance, Ara

tus was defeated by the Lacedæmonian monarch Cleomenes. The Achaean commander, in an evil hour, called in the aid of Macedon ; for though he succeeded by these means in driving Cleomenes from Sparta, yet the Macedonians from this time remained at the head of the league, and masters of the Peloponnesus. Aratus himself fell a victim to the jealous policy of Philip. The troubles that ensued gave the Romans an opportunity of interfering in the affairs of Greece, and at last Corinth was destroyed, and the Achaean league annihilated by these new invaders. (Wid. AEtolia and Corinth.), Mummius, the Roman general, caused the walls of all the confederate cities to be demolished, and the inhabitants to be deprived of every warlike weapon. The land was also converted into a Roman province, under the name of Achaia, embracing, besides Achaia proper, all the rest of the Peloponnesus, together with all the country north of the isthmus, excepting Thessaly, Epirus, and Macedonia. (Wid. Epirus and Macedonia.) The dismantled cities soon became deserted, with the exception of a few, and in what had been Achaia proper only three remained in later times, Ægium, AEgira, and Patrae. In our own days, the last alone survives, under the name of Patras. The entire coast from Corinth to Patras shows only one place that deserves the name of a city, or, rather, a large village; this is Vostitza, near the ruins of the ancient AEgium. (Mannert, 8, 392.) Achaicum BELLUM. Vid AchAIA, III., towards the close, and also AEtolia and Corinth. AchARNAE, "Arapyat (or, as Stephanus Byzantinus writes the name, 'Axipva), one of the most important boroughs of Attica, lying northwest of Athens and north of Eleusis. It furnished 3000 heavy-armed men as its quota of troops, which, on the supposition that slaves are not included, will make the entire population about 15,000. (Thucyd. 2, 20–Mannert,8,330.) This large number, however, did not all dwell in villages, but were scattered over the borough, which contained some of the finest and most productive land in Attica. From a sarcasm of Aristophanes (Acharn. 213–Id, ibid. 332, seqq.) we learn, that many of the Acharnenses ('Axapweig) followed the business of charcoal-burning. This borough belonged to the tribe OEneis (Olvinic), and was distant 60 stadia from Athens. (Thucyd. 2, 21.) Achâtes, a friend of Æneas, whose fidelity was so exemplary, that Fidus Achates became a proverb. (Virg. AEn. 1, 312.) Achelóides, a patronymic given to the Syrens as daughters of Achelous. (Ovid, Met. 5, fab. 15.— Gierig, ad loc.) Achelóus, I. a river of Epirus, now the Aspro Potamo, or “White River,” which rises in Mount Pindus, and, after dividing Acarnania from Ætolia (Strab. 450), falls into the Sinus Corinthiacus. It was a large and rapid stream, probably the largest in all Greece, and formed at its mouth, by depositions of mud and sand, a number of small islands called Echinades. The god of this river was the son of Oceanus and Tethys, or of the Sun and Terra. Fable speaks of a contest between Hercules and the river god for the hand of Deianira. The deity of the Achelous assumed the form of a bull, but Hercules was victorious and tore off one of his horns. His opponent, upon this, having received a horn from Amalthea, the daughter of Oceanus, gave it to the victor, and obtained his own in return. Another account (Ovid, Met. 9, 63) makes him to have first assumed the form of a serpent, and afterward that of a bull, and to have retired in disgrace into the bed of the river Thoas, which thenceforward was denominated Achelous. A third version of the fable states, that the Naiads took the horn of the conquered deity, and, after filling it with the various productions of the seasons, gave it to the goddess of plenty, whence the origin of the cornucopia. They who pretend to see in history an explanation of this legend, make the river Achelous to have laid waste, by its frequent inundations, the plains of Calydon. This, introducing confusion among the landmarks, became the occasion of continual wars between the AEtolians and Acarnanians, whose territories the river divided as above stated, until Hercules, by means of dikes, restrained its ravages, and made the course of the stream uniform. Hence, according to this explanation, the serpent denoted the windings of the stream, and the bull its swellings and impetuosity, while the tearing off of the horn refers to the turning away of a part of the waters of the river, by means of a canal, the result of which draining was shown in the fertility that succeeded. (Diod. Sic. 4, 35.) The Achelous must have been considered a river of great antiquity as well as celebrity, since it is often introduced as a general representative of rivers, and is likewise frequently used for the element of water. (Eustath, ad Il. 21, 194– Eurip. Bacch. 625–Id. Androm. 167–Aristoph. Lysistr. 381—Heyne, ad Il. 21, 194.) The reason of this peculiar use of the term will be found in the remarks of the scholiast. The Achelotis was the largest river in Epirus and Ætolia, in which quarter were the early settlements of the Pelasgic race, from whom the Greeks derived so much of their religion and mythology. Hence the frequent directions of the Oracle at Dodona, “to sacrifice to the Achelous,” and hence the name of the stream became associated with some of their oldest religious rites, and was eventually used in the language of poetry as an appellation, kar'é5óxm', for the element of water and for rivers, as stated above (Axtoow Tāv Tryalov böwp).—II. There was another river of the same name, of which nothing farther is known, than that, according to Pausanias (8, 38), it flowed from Mount Sipylus. Homer, in relating the story of Niobe (Il. 24, 615), speaks of the i. mountains in Sipylus, where are the beds of the goddess-nymphs, who dance around the Achelotis.-III. Ariver of Thessaly, flowing near Lamia. (Strab. 434.) Acherous, a borough of the tribe Hippothoontis, in Attica. (Steph. B.-Aristoph. Eccles. 360.) Achéron, I. a river of Epirus, rising in the mountains to the west of the chain of Pindus, and falling into the Ionian sea near Glykys Limen (TAvkix Auñv). In the early part of its course, it forms the Palus Acherusia ('Axepovaía Aiuvn), and, after emerging from this sheet of water, disappears under ground, from which it again rises and pursues its course to the * Strabo (324) makes mention of this stream only After its leaving the Palus Acherusia, and appears to have been unacquainted with the previous part of its course. Thucydides, on the other hand (1,46), would *eem to have misunderstood the information which he had received respecting it. His account is certainly a onfused one, and has given rise to an inaccuracy in D'Anville's map. The error of D'Anville and others consists in placing the Palus Acherusia directly on the *st, and the city of Ephyre at its northeastern ex*mity; in the position of the latter contradicting the Yoy words of the writer on whom they rely. No * ancient authority places the Palus Acherusia on coast. Pausanias (1, 17) makes the marsh, the "...and the city, to have been situated in the interior "Thesprotis; and he mentions also the stream Co* (which he styles ióop &repréoratov), as being in **ine quarter. He likewise states it as his opin* that Homer, having visited these rivers in the Soo of his wanderings, assigned them, on account * their peculiar nature and properties, a place among overs of the lower world. The poets make Acheon to have been the son of Sol and Terra, and to o: been precipitated into the infernal regions and * changed into a river, for having supplied the o with water during the war j they waged * Jupiter. Hence its waters were muddy and bit

ter; and it was the stream over which the souls of the dead were first conveyed. The Acheron is represented under the form of an old man arrayed in a humid vestment. He reclines upon an urn of a dark colour, out of which flow waters full of foam. Sometimes also an owl is placed near him.—II. A river of Bruttium, flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum a short distance below Pandosia. Alexander, king of Epirus, who had come to the aid of the Tarentines, lost his life in passing this river, being slain by a Lucanian exile. He had been warned by an oracle to beware of the Acherusian waters and the city Pandosia, but supposed that it referred to Epirus and not to Italy. (Justin, 12, 2.— Liv. 8, 24.)—III. A river of Elis, which falls into the Alpheus. On its banks were temples dedicated to Ceres, Proserpina, and Hades, which were held in high veneration. (Strab. 344.)—IV. A river of Bithynia, near the cavern Acherusia, and in the vicinity of Heraclea. (Apollon. Rhod. 2, 745.) AcheroNTIA, I. a town of Bruttium, placed by Pliny on the river Acheron (Plin. 3, *f; A city of Lucania, now Acerenza, on the confines of Apulia. It was situated high up on the side of a mountain, and from its lofty position is called by Horace nidus Acherontia, “the nest of Acherontia.” Procopius speaks of it as a strong fortress in his days. (Horat. Od. 3, 4, 14, et schol. ad loc.—Procop. 3, 23.) Acherusia, I. a lake in Epirus, into which the Acheron flows. (Wid. Acheron.)—II. According to some modern expounders of fable, a lake in Egypt, near Memphis, over which the bodies of the dead were conveyed, previous to their being judged for the actions of their past lives. The authority cited in support of this is Diodorus Siculus (1, 92). A proper examination of the passage, however, will lead to the following conclusions: 1st, that no name whatever is given by Diodorus for any particular lake of this kind; and, 2d, that each district of Egypt had its lake for the o mentioned above, and that there was not merey one for the whole of Egypt. (Diod. Sic. 1, 92, et Wesseling, ad loc.)—III. A cavern in Bithynia, near the city of Heraclea and the river Oxinas, probably on the very spot which Arrian (Peripl. Mar. Euz., p. 125, ed. Blancard) calls Tyndaridae. Xenophon (Anab. 6, 2) names the whole peninsula, in which it lies, the Acherusian Promontory. This cavern was two stadia in depth, and was regarded by the adjacent inhabitants as one of the entrances into the lower world. Through it Hercules is said to have dragged Cerberus up to the light of day; a fable which probably owed its origin to the inhabitants of Heraclea. (Diod. Sic. 14, 31.-Dionys. Perieg. 790, et Eustath. ad loc.) Apollonius Rhodius (2,730) places a river, with the name of Acheron, in this quarter. This stream was afterward called, by the people of Heraclea, Soonautes (Xoovatormc), on account of their fleet having been saved near it from a storm. (Apollon. Rhod. 2, 746, et schol. ad loc.) Are the Acheron and the Oxinas the same river! Achillas, one of the officers of Ptolemy Dionysius, to whom the assassination of Pompey was committed. He was executed by order of Caesar, against whose life he had plotted. (Plutarch, wit. Pomp.–Id. vit. Caes.) Achillia, an island near the mouth of the Borysthenes, or, more properly, the western part of the Dromus Achillis insulated by a small arm of the sea. (Wid. Dromus Achillis and Leuce.) Achilliis, a poem of Statius, turning on the story of Achilles. (Vid. Statius.) Achilles, I. a son of the Earth (ymyévmc), unto whom Juno fled for refuge from the pursuits of Jupiter, and who persuaded her to return and marry that deity. Jupiter, grateful for this service, promised him that all who bore this name for the time to come should be illustrious personages. (Ptol. Hephæst.

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