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him great influence, even beyond the bounds of the Roman empire; and neighbouring monarchs spontaneously made him the arbiter of their differences. His private life was frugal and modest, and in his mode of living and conversing he adopted that air of equality and of popular manners which, in men of high station, is at once so rare and attractive. Too much indulgence to an unworthy wife (Faustina) is the only weakness attributed to him, unless we include a small share of ridicule thrown upon his minute exactness by those who are ignorant of its value in complicated business. He died A.D. 161, aged seventythree, having previously married Marcus Aurelius to his daughter Faustina, and associated him with himself in the cares of government. His ashes were deposited in the tomb of Hadrian, and his death was lamented throughout the empire as a public calamity. The sculptured pillar erected by Marcus Aurelius and the senate to his memory, under the name of the Antonine column, is still one of the principal ornaments of Rome. (Gorton's Biogr. Dict., vol. 4, p. 87, seqq.) —II. MARcus ANN1Us AURELIUs, was born at Rome A.D. 121. Upon the death of Ceionius Commodus, the Emperor Hadrian turned his attention towards Marcus Aurelius; but he being then too young for an early assumption of the cares of empire, Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius, on condition that he in his turn should adopt Marcus Aurelius. His father dying early, the care of his education devolved on his paternal grandsather, Annius Verus, who caused him to receive a general education; but philosophy so early became the object of his ambition, that he assumed the philosophic mantle when only twelve years old. The species of philosophy to which he attached himself was the stoic, as being most connected with morals and the conduct of life; and such was the natural sweetness of his temper, that he exhibited none of the pride which sometimes attended the artificial elevation of the stoic character. This was the more remarkable, as all the honour and power that Antoninus could bestow upon him became his own at an early period, since he was practically associated with him in the administration of the empire for many years. On his formal accession to the sovereignty, his first act was of a kind which at once proved his great disinterestedness, for he immediately took Lucius Verus as his colleague, who had indeed been associated with him by adoption, but who, owing to his defects and vices, had been excluded by Antoninus from the succession, which, at his instigation, the senate had confined to Marcus Aurelius alone. Notwithstanding their dissimilarity of character, the two emperors reigned conjointly without any disagreement. Verus took the nominal guidance of the war against the Parthians, which was successfully carried on by the lieutenants under him, and, during the campaign, married Lucilla, the daughter of his colleague. The reign of Marcus Aurelius was more eventful than that of Antoninus. Before the termination of the Parthian war, the Marcomanni and other German tribes began those disturbances which more or less annoyed him for the rest of his life. Against these foes, after the termination of hostilities with Parthia, the two emperors marched; but what was effected during three years' war and negotiation, until the death of Verus, is little known. The sudden decease of that unsuitable colleague, by an apoplexy, restored to Marcus Aurelius the sole dominion; and for the next five years he carried on the Pannonian war in person, without ever returning to Rome. During these fatiguing campaigns he endured all the hardships incident to a rigorous climate and a military life, with a patience and serenity which did the highest honour to his philosophy. Few of the particular actions of this tedious warfare have been fully described ; although, owing to conflicting religious zeal, one of them has been exceedingly celebrated. This was
the deliverance of the emperor and his army from imminent danger, by a victory over the Quadi, in consequence of an extraordinary storm of rain, hail, and lightning, which disconcerted the barbarians, and was, by the conquerors, regarded as miraculous. The emperor and the Romans attributed the timely event to Jupiter Tonans; but the Christians affirmed that God granted this favour on the supplications of the Christian soldiers in the Roman army, who are said to have composed the twelfth or Meletine legion; and, as a mark of distinction, we are informed by Eusebius that they received from an emperor who persecuted Christianity the title of the “Thundering Legion.” Yet this account, not of a fact, but of the cause of one, and that of such a nature as no human testimony can ever determine, was made the subject of a controversy, in the early part of the last century, between Moyle and the eccentric Whiston, the latter of whom elaborately supported the genuineness of the miracle. The date of this event is fixed by Tillemont in A.D. 174. The general issue of the war was, that the barbarians were repressed, but admitted to settle in the territories of the empire as colonists; and a complete subjugation of the Marcomanni might have followed, had not the emperor been called off by the conspiracy of Avidius Cassius, who assumed the purple in Syria. This usurper was quickly destroyed by a conspiracy among his own officers; and the clemency shown by the emperor to his family was most exemplary. After the suppression of this revolt, he made a progress through the East, in which journey he lost his wife Faustina, daughter of Antoninus Pius, a woman as dissolute as she was beautiful, but whose irregularities he never seems to have noticed; a blindness or insensibility that has made him the theme of frequent ridicule. While on this tour he visited Athens, added greatly to its privileges, and, like Hadrian, was initiated in the Eleusinian Mysteries. His return to Rome did not take place until after an absence of eight years, and his reception was in the highest degree popular and splendid. After remaining in the capital for nearly two years, and effecting several popular reforms, he was once more called away by the necessity of checking the Marcomanni, and was again successful, but fell ill, at the expiration of two years, at Windobóna, now Vienna. His illness arose from a pestilential disease which prevailed in the army ; and it cut him off in the 59th year of his age, and 19th of his reign. His death occasioned universal mourning throughout the empire. Without waiting for the usual decree on the occasion, the Roman senate and people voted him a god by acclamation; and his image was long afterward regarded with peculiar veneration. Marcus Aurelius, however, was no friend to the Christians, who were persecuted during the greater part of his reign; an anomaly in a character so universally merciful and clement, that may be attributed to an excess of pagan devotion on his part, and still more to the influence of the sophists by whom he was surrounded. In all other points of policy and conduct he was one of the most excellent princes on record, both in respect to the salutary regulations he adopted and the temper with which he carried them into practice. Compared with Trajan or Antoninus Pius, he possibly fell shor; of the manly sense of the one, and the simple and unostentatious virtue of the other; philosophy or scholarship on a throne always more or less assuming the ap: pearance of pedantry. The emperor was also himself a writer, and his “Meditations,” composed in the Greek language, have descended to posterity: They are a collection of maxims and thoughts in the spirit of the stoic philosophy, which, without much connexion or skill in composition, breathe the purest sentiments of piety and benevolence. Marcus Aurelius left one son, the brutal Commodus, and three daughters. Among the weaknesses of this good emperor, his too great consideration for his son is deemed one of the most striking; for although he was unremitting in his endeavours to reclaim him, they were accompanied by much erroneous indulgence, and especially by an early and ill-judged elevation to titles and honours, which uniformly operate injuriously upon a base and dissolute character. The best edition of the Meditations of Antoninus is that of Gataker, Cantab., 1652, 4to. (Gorton's Biogr. Dict., vol. 1, p. 88.)— III. Bassianus Caracalla. Vid. Caracalla.—IV. Two works have come down to us, styled Itineraria Antonini, which may be compared to our modern books of routes. They give merely the distances between places, unaccompanied by any geographical remarks. One gives the routes by land, the other those by sea. They have been supposed by some to be the productions of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, while others assign them to a geographical writer named Antoninus, whose age is unknown. Both these opinions are evidently incorrect. It is more than probable, that the works in question were originally compiled in the cabinet of some one of the Roman emperors, perhaps that of Augustus, and were enlarged by various additions made during successive reigns, according as new routes or stations were established. Some critics, however, dissatisfied with this mode of solving the question, have sought for an ancient writer, occupied with pursuits of an analogous nature, to whom the authorship of these works might be assigned. They find two ; and their suffrages, consequently, are divided between them. The first of these is Julius Honorius, a contemporary of Julius Caesar's, of whose productions we have a few leaves remaining, entitled, “Ercerpta, que ad Cosmographiam pertinent.” The other writer is a certain AEthicus, surnamed Ister, a Christian of the fourth century, to whom is attributed a work called “Cosmographia,” which still exists. Mannert declares himself unconditionally in favour of 4.hicus. (Introd. ad Tab. Peut., p. 8, seqq.) Wesseling is undecided. The best edition of the Itineraties is that of Wesseling, Amst, 1735, 4to. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 258, seqq.)—V. Liberalis, a mythological writer, supposed to have lived in the age of the Antonines, and to have been a freedman of one of them. He has left us a work entitled MetaHopdockov Svvaywyń, “A Collection of Metamorphoses,” in forty-one chapters; a production of considerable interest, from the fragments of ancient poets contained in it. An idea of the nature of the work may perhaps be formed from the following titles of some of the chapters: Ctesylla, the Meleagrides, Cragaleus, Lamia, the Emathides, and many others drawn from the Heteracumena of Nicander; Hierar, Ægypius, Anthus, Aédon, &c., from the Ornithogonia of Boeus; Clinis from Simmias; Battus from the Boeo of Hesiod; Metiocha and Menippa from Corinna, &c. There exists but a single MS. of Antoninus Liberalis, which, after various migrations, has returned to the library of Heidelberg. It has been decried by Bast, in his Critical Epistle. The best edition of this Writer is that of Verheyk, Lugd. Bat., 1774, 8vo. It does not, however, supply all the wants of the scholar; and some future editor, by ascending to the sources whence Antoninus drew his materials, and taking for his model the labour bestowed by Heyne and Clavier on Apollodorus, may have it in his power to supply us with an editio optima. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 5, p. 44.) Antoxinopólis, a city of Mesopotamia, placed by D'Anville on the northern confines of the country, but more correctly, by Mannert, in the vicinity, and to the northeast, of Charrie and Edessa. (Mannert, Geogr., Yol. 5, p. 304.) It is supposed to have been founded by Severus or Caracalla, and named after the emperor Antoninus. It was, subsequently called Constantia, foom Constantine, who enlarged and strengthened it.
Mannert supposes it to be the same with the ruined city of Uran Schar, mentioned by Niebuhr (vol. 2, p.
390). ANToNius, I. M. Antonius Gnipho, a native of Gaul, instructed in Greek literature at Alexandrea, where he was educated, and in Latin literature at Rome. He first gave instruction in grammar at this latter city, in the paternal mansion of Julius Cæsar, who was then very young. Afterward he opened a school at his own residence, where he also professed rhetoric. Cicero attended his lectures when praetor. Gnipho left a work on the Latin tongue, in two volumes. According to Suetonius (de Illustr. Gramm., 7), he never stipulated with his pupils for any fixed compensation, and hence obtained the more from their liberality. The same writer informs us that he did not live beyond his 50th year—II. Marcus Antonius, a Roman orator, and the most truly illustrious of the Antonian family, flourished about the middle of the seventh century of Rome. After rising successively through the various offices of the commonwealth, he was made consul in the year of the city 655, and then governor of Cilicia, in quality of proconsul, where he performed so many valorous exploits that a public triumph was decreed to him. In order to improve his talent for eloquence, he became a scholar to the most able men in Rhodes and Athens. He was one of the greatest orators among the Romans; and, according to Cicero, who in the early part of his life was a contemporary, it was owing to him that Rome became a rival in eloquence to Greece. The same great authority has given us the character of his oratory, from which it appears that earnestness, acuteness, copiousness, and variety formed his distinguishing qualities; and that he excelled as much in action as in language. By his worth and abilities he had rendered himself dear to the most illustrious characters of Rome, when he fell a sacrifice in the midst of the bloody confusion excited by Marius and Cinna. Taking refuge at the house of a friend from their relentless proscription, he was accidentally discovered and betrayed to Marius, who immediately sent an officer, with a band of soldiers, to bring him the orator's head. It was brought accordingly; and that sanguinary leader, after making it the subject of his brutal ridicule, ordered it to be stuck upon a pole before the rostra, and, on the whole, treated it as Marc Antony, the worthless grandson of Antonius, treated the head of Cicero. This event occurred B.C. 87. He left two sons, Marcus, surnamed Creticus, and Caius, both of whom discredited their parentage. (Cic, de Orat., 1, 24.—Id, ibid., 2, 1.— Gorton's Biogr. Dict, vol. 1, p. 90.-Ernesti, Clav. Cic. Index. Hist., s. v.)—III. Marcus, surnamed Creticus, elder son of the orator. He was guilty, while ractor, of great extortions in Sicily and o quarters, aving received the same commission which Pompey afterward obtained, for importing corn and exterminating the pirates. He afterward invaded Crete, without any declaration of war, but was deservedly and shamefully defeated, whence he obtained, in derision, the surname of Creticus.—IV. Caius, brother of the preceding, and son of the orator. He bore arms under Sylla, in the war against Mithradates, and raised such disturbances in Greece, that for this and other malpractices he was afterward expelled from the senate by the censors. Obtaining, however, the consulship with Cicero, at a subsequent period, through the aid of Crassus and Caesar, he was appointed to head the forces sent against Catiline. A pretended attack of the gout, however, caused him to confide the army of the republic, on the day of battle, to his lieutenant Petreius. He was afraid, it seems, of meeting Catiline, with whom he had at first been concerned in the conspiracy, lest the latter might taunt him with unpleasing reminiscences. He received, as proconsul, the province of Macedonia, by yielding which unto him, Cicero had induced him to prove faithful to the state; but he governed it with such extortion and violence, that he was tried, convicted, and sent into banishment.—W. Marcus, son of Antonius Creticus, grandson of the orator, and well known by the historical title of the Triumvir. Losing his father when young, he led a very dissipated and extravagant life, and wasted his whole patrimony before he had assumed the manly gown. He afterward went abroad to learn the art of war under Gabinius, who gave him the command of his cavalry in Syria, where he signalized his courage and ability in the restoration of Ptolemy, king of Egypt. He also distinguished himself on other occasions, and obtained high reputation as a commander. From Egypt he proceeded to Gaul, where he remained some time with Caesar, and the latter having furnished him with money and credit, he returned upon this to Rome, and succeeded in obtaining first the quastorship, and afterward the office of tribune. In this latter office he was very active for Caesar, but finding the senate exasperated against this commander, he pretended to be alarmed for his own safety, and fled in disguise to Caesar's camp. Casar, upon this, marched immediately into Italy, the flight of the tribunes giving him a plausible pretext for commencing operations. Caesar, having made himself master of Rome, gave Antony the government of Italy. During the civil contest, the latter proved himself on several occasions a most valuable auxiliary, and, after the battle of Pharsalia, was appointed by Caesar his master of the horse. After the death of Caesar Antony delivered a very powerful address over his corpse in the forum, and inflamed to such a degree the soldiers and populace, that Brutus and Cassius were compelled to depart from the city. Antony now soon became powerful, and began to tread in Caesar's footsteps, and govern with absolute sway. The arrival of Octavius at Rome thwarted, however, his ambitious views. The latter soon raised a formidable party in the senate, and was strengthened by the accession of Cicero to his cause. Violent quarrels then ensued between Octavius and Antony. Endeavours were made to reconcile them, but in vain. Antony, in order to have a pretence of sending for the legions from Macedonia, prevailed on the people to grant him the government of Cisalpine Gaul, which the senate had before conferred on Decimus Brutus, one of the conspirators against Caesar. Matters soon came to an open rupture. Octavius offered his aid to the senate, who accepted it, and passed a decree, o of his conduct and that of Brutus, who, at the head of three legions, was preparing to oppose Antony, then on his march to seize Cisalpine Gaul. Brutus, not being strong enough to keep the field against Antony, shut himself up in Mutina, where his opponent besieged him. The senate declared Antony an enemy to his country. The consuls Hirtius and Pansa took the field against him along with Octavius, and advanced to Mutina in order to raise the siege. In the first engagement, Antony had the advantage, and Pansa was mortally wounded, but he was defeated the same day by Hirtius as he was returning to his camp. In a subsequent engagement, Antony was again vanquished, his lines were forced, and Octavius had an opportunity of distinguishing himself, Hirtius being slain in the action, and the whole command devolving on the former. Antony, aster this check, abandoned the siege of Mutina, and crossed the Alps, in hopes of receiving succours from his friends. This was all that Octavius wanted; his intent was to humble Antony, not to destroy him, foreseeing plainly that the republican party would be uppermost, and his own ruin must soon ensue. A reconciliation was soon effected between him and Antony, who had already gained an accession of strength by the junction of Lepidus. These three leaders had an interview near foil, in a small
island of the river Rhenus, where they came to an agreement to divide all the provinces of the empire, and the supreme authority, among themselves for five years, under the name of triumvirs, and as reformers of the republic with consular power. Thus was formed the second triumvirate. The most horrid part of the transaction was the cold-blooded proscription of many of their friends and relatives, and Cicero's head was given in exchange by Octavius for Antony's uncle and for the uncle of Lepidus. Octavius and Antony then passed into Macedonia, and defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. After this, the latter passed over to the eastern provinces, where he lived for a time in great dissipation and luxury with the famous Cleopatra, at Alexandrea. Upon the death of his wife Fulvia, he became reconciled to Octavius, against whom Fulvia had raised an army in Italy, for the purpose, it is supposed, of drawing her husband away from Cleopatra, and inducing him to come to the latter country. Octavius gave Antony his sister Octavia in marriage, and a new division was made of the empire. Octavius had Dalmatia, Italy, the two Gauls, Spain, and Sardinia; Antony all the provinces east of Codropolis in Illyricum, as far as the Euphrates; while Lepidus received Africa. On returning to the east, Antony once more became enslaved by the charms of Cleopatra. An unsuccessful expedition against the Parthians ensued, and at last the repudiation of Octavia involved him in a new war with Octavius. The battle of Actium put an end to this contest and to all the hopes of Antony. It was fought at sea, contrary to the advice of Antony's best officers, and chiefly through the persuasion of Cleopatra, who was proud of her naval force. She abandoned him in the midst of the fight with her fifty galleys, and took to flight. This drew Antony from the battle and ruined his cause. Besieged, after this, in Alexandrea, by the conqueror, abandoned by all his followers, and betrayed, as he thought, even by Cleopatra herself, he fell by his own hand, in the 56th year of his age, B.C. 30. The peculiar events connected with the life of Marc o have given him a celebrity which one would never have expected from his character. Gifted with some brilliant qualities, he possessed neither sufficient genius nor sufficient strength of soul to entitle him to be ranked among great men. Neither can he be ranked among men of worth, since he was always without principle, immoderately attached to pleasure, and often cruel. And yet few men had more devoted friends and partisans, for many of his actions announced a generosity of disposition far preferable to the cautious prudence and cold policy of his rival Octavius. (Plut., Wit. Ant.)—WI. Iulus, a son of Marc Antony and Fulvia. He stood high in the favour of Augustus, and received from him his sister's daughter in marriage. After having filled, however, some of the most important offices in the state, he engaged in an intrigue with Julia, the daughter of the emperor, and was put to death by order of the latter. According to Welleius Paterculus (2, 100), he fell by his own hand. It would appear that he had formed a plot, along with the notorious female just mentioned, against the life of Augustus. (Compare Lips., ad Tacit., Ann., 1, 10.) Acron informs us, in his scholia to Horace (Od., 4, 2, 33), that Antonius had distinguished himself by an epic poem, in twelve books, entitled Diomedeis-VII. Caius, a brother of Marc Antony. Having fallen into the hands of Brutus, his life was spared until that commander heard of Cicero's end, when he was put to death on the principle of retaliation. (Consult Ernesti, Clav. Cic, s. v.)—Lucius, another brother of Marc Antony, who was consul A.U.C. 713. Having quarrelled with Octavius during his continuance in this osfice, he was besieged in Perusia, and compelled to surrender. The conqueror spared his life, and he passed the rest of his days in obscurity. (Well. Paterc., 3
74.)—IX. Felix, a freedman of the Emperor Claudius, appointed governor of Judaea. (Wid. Felix.)—X. Musa, a celebrated physician in the time of Augustus. (Wid. Musa.)—XI. Primus, a Roman commander whose efforts were very influential in gaining the crown for Vespasian. He was also an able public speaker, and had a turn likewise for poetic composition, having written numerous epigrams. He was a friend of the poet Martial. (Tac., Ann., 14, 40.-Id., Hist., 11, 86.) ANtorides, a painter, who flourished, according to Pliny (35, 10), about Olympiad 110. (Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.) ANübis, an Egyptian deity, the offspring of Osiris, and of Nephthys the sister and spouse of Typhon. He inherited all the wisdom and goodness of his father, but possessed the nature of the dog, and had also the head of that animal. He accompanied Isis in her search after the remains of Osiris. Jablonski (Panth. AEgypt., p. 19) derives the name from the Coptic Nouh, “gold.” In this he is opposed by Champollion (Précis, p. 101, seqq.), who denies also the propriety of confounding Anubis with Hermes. Plutarch says (de Is. et 0s., p. 368 et 380), that some of the Egyptian writers understood by Anubis the horizontal circle which divides the invisible from the visible part of the world. Other writers tell us that Anubis presided at the two solstitial points, and that two dogs (or, rather, two jackals), living images of this god, were supposed to guard the tropics along which the sun rises towards #. north or descends towards the south. If this be correct, we must suppose two deities, an Anubis, properly so called, the guardian of the lower hemisphere and of the darker portion of the year, and an Hermanubis, the guardian of the luminous portion and of the upper hemisphere. On the whole subject of Anubis, however, and particularly on his nonidentity with Thoth and Sirius, consult the learned annotations of Guigniaut to Creuzer's Symbolik (vol. 2, Pt. 2, p. 851, seqq.). ANIUR, the Wolscian name of Terracina. (Wid. Terracina.) La Cerda and others contend for the Greek derivation of the name, which makes Jupiter #upoo, or “the beardless,” to have been worshipped here; and they maintain that, in conformity with this, the name of the place should be written Azur, as it is found on some old coins. Heyne, however, supposes the letter n to have been sometimes onited, in consequence of its slight sound. (Heyne, ad Virg, En, 9, 799, in War. Lect.). Asīra, a poetess of Tegea, who flourished about 300 B.C. She exercised the calling of Xpmauoroioc, “maker of oracles,” that is to say, she versified the *cles of Æsculapius at Epidaurus. We have only a few remains of her productions, namely, twenty epio remarkable for their great simplicity. (Schöll, * * Lit. Gr, vol. 3, p. 70.) .**frus, an Athenian demagogue, who, in conjunc* with Melitus and Lycon, preferred the charges *ist Socrates which occasioned that philosopher's *mnation and death. After the sentence had been *d on Socrates, the fickle populace repented of what had been done ; Melitus was condemned to death, and Anytus, to escape a similar fate, went into exile. Ælian, W.H. 2, 13.) - Aos, a son of Neptune, who first collected together ***, as is said, the scattered inhabitants of Eu. | Boeotia. Hence the name Aonians given to the earlier inhabitants of Boeotia. (Wid. Aones.) .***, the earlier inhabitants of Boeotia. They, E. with the Hyantes, succeeded the Ectenes. On **al of Cadmus, the Hyantes took up arms to 3. him, but were routed, and left the country on : **ing night. The Aones, however, submitted, * * incorporated with the Phoenicians. The \lses * called Aonia, from Mount Helicon in Bae
otia. (Pausan., 9, 5.—Ovid, Met., 3. 7, 10, 13.Virg., G., 3, 11.) AoNize, an epithet applied to the Muses, from Mount Helicon in Boeotia, the earlier name of this country having been Aonia. Aor Nos, or Aor Nis, a lofty rock in India, taken by Alexander. It was situate on the Suastus, or Suwat. The Macedonians gave it the name of Aornos (āopvoc) on account of its great height; the appellation implying that it was so high that no bird could fly over it (a priv. et àpvtc.—Curt., 8, 11.—Arrian, 4, 28.-Plut., Wit. Alez.)—II. Another in Bactriana, east of Zariaspa Bactria. It is now Telckam, situate on a high mountain called Nork-Koh, or the mountain of silver. Aöus, or AEAs, a river of Illyria, now Voioussa, which flowed close to Apollonia. It was said by the ancients to rise in that part of the chain of Pindus to which the name of Mount Lacmon was given. (Herod., 9, 94.—Strab., 316.) According to Polybius and Livy, it was navigable from its mouth to Apollonia. (Polyb., 5, 109.--Liv., 24, 40.) APAMA, I. wife of Seleucus Nicator, and mother of Antiochus Soter. (Strab., 578.)—II. Sister of Antiochus Theos, married to Magas. After her husband's death, she prevailed upon Antiochus to make war against Ptolemy Philadelphus.—III. Wife of Prusias, king of Bithynia, and mother of Nicomedes. (Strab., 563.) Apam#A, I. a city of Phrygia, built by Antiochus Soter on the site of the ancient Cibòtus, and called, after his mother, Apama. The name of the earlier place, Cibòtus, is thought to have been derived from Kubords, an ark or coffer, because it was the mart or common treasury of those who traded from Italy and Greece to Asia Minor. This name was afterward added, for a similar reason, to Apamea. It was situate above the junction of the Orgas and Maeander, and, according to Mannert, is now called Aphom KaraHisar, or the black castle of opium, which drug is collected in its environs. (Mannert, vol.6, pt. 3, p. 120, seqq.) The more correct opinion, however, would seem to be in favour of Dinglare or Deenare. (Pococke, Trav., vol. 3, p. 2, c. 15.-Arundell, Visit, &c., p. 107, seqq.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 51, seqq.)—II. Another in Bithynia, near the coast of the Sinus Cianus. It was originally called Myrlea, and flourished under this name, as an independent city, for several years, until it was taken and destroyed by Philip, father of Perses, who ceded the territory to Prusias, sovereign of Bithynia, his ally. This prince rebuilt the town, and called it Apamea, after his queen. (Strab., 563.) The ruins of Apamea are near the site now called Modania, about six hours north of Broussa. (Wheeler, vol. 1, p. 209.-Pococke, vol. 3, b. 2, c. 25.)—III. Another in Syria, at the confluence of the Orontes and Marsyas, which form here a small lake. It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, and called after his wife. It is now Famieh. Seleucus is said to have kept in the adjacent pastures 500 war-elephants. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 463.)—IV. Another in Mesopotamia, on the Tigris, in a district which lay between the canal and the river, whence the epithet Messene applied to this city, because it was in the midst of that small territory which is now called Digel. (Mannert, vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 271.)—W. Another on the confines of Media and Parthia, not far from Ragas. It was surnamed Raphane. (Mannert, vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 179.)—VI. Another at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates, now Koma. (Mannert, vol. 5, pt. 2, . 361.) p ApatūrīA, a festival at Athens, which received its name, according to the common, but erroneous account, from drárm, deceit, because it was instituted (say the etymologists who favour this derivation) in memory of a stratagem by which Xanthus, king of Boeotia, was 153
killed by Melanthus, king of Athens, upon the follow
ing occasion: when a war arose between the Boeotians and Athenians about a piece of ground which divided their territories, Xanthus made a proposal to the Athenian king to decide the point by single combat. Thymoetes, who was then on the throne of Athens, refused, and his successor Melanthus accepted the challenge. When they began the engagement, Melanthus exclaimed that his antagonist had some person behind him to support him ; upon which Xanthus looked behind, and was killed by Melanthus. From this success, Jupiter was called drativup, deceiver; and Bacchus, who was supposed to be behind Xanthus, was called Mežavayic, clothed in the skin of a black goat.—Thus much for the commonly received derivation of the term 'Arratospta. It is evident, however, that the word is compounded of either Tatip or Trárpa, which expression varies, in its signification, between yévoc and @parpía, and with the Ionians coincided rather with the latter word. Whether it was formed immediately from Tatip or trispa, is difficult to determine on etymological grounds, on account of the antiquity of the word : reasoning, however, from the analogy of oparáp or opátop, Opatopta and opárpa, the most natural transition appears to be Tarsip (in composition traráp), traróptoc (whence Tarot plot, prarotopia), Túrpa ; and, accordingly, the 'Atratotipua means a festival of the paternal unions, of the Tatopiat, of the Irúrpat. (Müller, Dorians, vol. 1, p. 95.)— The Apaturia was peculiar to the great Ionic race. The festival lasted three days; the first day was called dopreia, because suppers (66pmot) were prepared for all those who belonged to the same Phratria. The second day was called āvāśvalg (timē Toi &vo Spüetw), because sacrifices were offered to Jupiter and Minerva, and the head of the victim was generally turned up towards the heavens. The third was called Kovàeóric, from Kočpoc, a youth, because on that day it was usual to enrol the names of young persons of both sexes on the registers of their respective phratriae ; the enrolment of &muoroumrot proceeded no farther than that of assignment to a tribe and a borough, and, consequently, precluded them from holding certain offices both in the state and priesthood. (Consult Wachsmuth, Gr. Ant., vol. 1, § 44.)—The Ionians in Asia had also their Apaturia, from which, however, Colophon and Ephesus were excluded; but exclusions of this nature rested no more on strictly political grounds, than did the right to partake in them, and the celebration of festivals in general. A religious stigma was, for the most part, the ground of exclusion. (Wachsmuth, vol. 1, § 22—Compare Herodotus, 1, 147.— The authorities in favour of the erroneous etymology from drárm may be found by consulting Fischer, Ind. ad Threophrast. Charact., s. v. 'Atratoćpta. – Larcher, ad Herod., Wit. Hom., c. 29.-Schol, Plat., ad Tim., p. 201, ed. Ruhnken.—Schol., Aristid., p. 118, seqq., ed. Jebb.—Ephori fragm., p. 120, ed. #. rz.) Apella, a word occurring in one of the satires of Horace (1, 5, 100), and about the meaning of which a great difference of opinion has existed. Scaliger is undoubtedly right in considering it a mere proper name of some well-known and superstitious Jew of the day. Wieland adopts the same idea in his German version of Horace's satires: “Das glaub' Apella der Jud, ich nicht!" Bentley's explanation appears rather forced. It is as follows : “Judaei habitabant trans Tiberim, et multo marimam partem erant libertini, ut fatetur Philo in legatione ad Caium. Apella autem libertinorum est momen satis frequens in inscriptionibus retustis. Itaque credat Judaeus Apella, quasi tu dicas, credat superstitiosus aliquis Judaeus Transtiberinus.” (Ep. ad Mill., p. 520, ed. Lips.) As regards the opinion of those who make Apella a contemptuous allusion to the rite of circumcision, it is sufficient to observe, that such a mode of forming com
pounds (i.e., half Greek and half Latin—a priv. et pellis) is at variance with every principle of analogy, and cannot for a moment be admitted. Apelles, a painter in the age of Alexander the Great, exalted by the united testimony of all antiquity to the very highest rank in his profession, so that the art of painting was sometimes termed “ars Apellêa,” as by Martial (11, 9) and Statius (Sylv., 1, 1, 100). Ancient writers differ as to the country of Apelles. Pliny (35, 10) and Ovid (A. A., 3, 401) mention the island of Cos; Suidas contends for Colophon ; while Strabo (642) and Lucian (Calum. non tem cred., 2) notice him as an Ephesian. The origin of this last opinion, however, is sufficiently accounted for in the remark of Suidas, who makes him to have been an Ephesian by adoption merely. Another reason for his being called by some an Ephesian, may be found in the circumstance of his having been instructed at Ephesus. (Tolken, ap. Bottig. Amalth, 3, 123.) And so, in modern times, Titian is sometimes styled a Venetian, though born at Cadore in Friuli; and Raphael a Roman, though his native place was Urbino. There can be no question, however, as to the period in which Apelles flourished, because it is universally admitted that Alexander the Great would not suffer his portrait to be taken by any other artist. Apelles must have been engaged in his profession, according to the most exact calculation, from about Olymp. 107 to Olymp. 118. His instructers were Ephorus the Ephesian, Pamphilus of Amphipolis, and Melanthius; and when he became the pupil of these artists, he had himself acquired some distinction by his paintings. (Plut., Wit. Arat., 13.) Athenaeus assigns him a fourth instructer, named Arcesilaus (10, p. 420). The most important passage respecting Apelles occurs in Pliny (35, 10), and this passage contains an enumeration of nearly all his productions. One of the most celebrated of these was the Venus Anadyoméné, or Venus rising from the waves, i. e., the sea-born. This famous painting was subsequently placed by Augustus in the temple of Julius Caesar. The lower part of the picture becoming injured by time, no artist was found who would venture to retouch it. When it was at last quite destroyed by age, the Emperor Nero substituted for it another Venus from the pencil of Dorotheus. The Venus Anadyomene was universally regarded as the masterpiece of Apelles. (Propert., El.., 3, 7, 11.) A description of it is given in several Greek epigrams (Antip. Sidon., in Anthol. Planud., 4, 12, 178, &c.—Compare Ilgen, Opusc., 1, 15, 34.) Apelles commenced another Venus, represented in a sleeping state, for the Coans, which he meant should surpass his previous effort; but he died before completing it, having painted merely the head and neck of the figure, which, according to Cicero, were executed with the utmost skill. (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 1, 9.—Plin., 35, 11.) Another famous painting of this artist's represented Alexander holding a thunderbolt; and Pliny says that the fingers which grasped the bolt, as well as the bolt itself, appeared to project from the canvass. This picture was purchased for twenty talents of gold, about $211,000, and hu up in the temple of Diana at Ephesus. He painte also a horse; and, finding that his rivals in the art, who contested the palm with him on this occasion, were about to prevail through unfair means, he caused his own piece and those of the rest to be shown to some horses, and these animals, fairer critics in this case than men had proved to be, neighed at his painting alone. The name of Apelles, indeed, in Pliny, is the synonyme of unrivalled and unattainable excellence; but the enumeration of his works points out the modification which we ought to apply to that superiority. It neither comprises exclusive sublimity of invention, the most acute discrimination of character, the widest sphere of comprehension, the most judicious