Obrazy na stronie

whole earth without tasting food. But there are strong doubts as to the accuracy of the text given by Wesseling and Walckenaer. The old editions read Öc töv biarov Teptépêpe očov atteåuevoc, which agrees with the account given in the Fragment of Lycurgus cited by Eudocia (Willois. Anecd. 1, 20), where he is said to have traversed all Greece, holding an arrow as the symbol of Apollo. The time of his arrival in Greece is variously given (Bentl. Phal. 95). Some fix it in the 3d Olympiad (Harpocr—Suid.), others in the 21st, others much lower. One authority is weighty : Pindar, as cited by Harpocration, states that Abaris came to Greece while Croesus was king of Lydia. An extraordinary occasion caused his visit. The whole earth was ravaged by a pestilence; the oracle of Apollo, being consulted, gave answer that the scourge would only cease when the Athenians should offer up vows for all nations. Another account makes him to have left his native country during a famine (Willois. Anecd. l. c.). He made himself known throughout Greece as a performer of wonders; delivered oracular responses (Clem. Aler. Str. 399); healed maladies by charms or exorcisms (Plato, Charm. 1, 312, Bekk.); drove away storms, pestilence, and evils. His oracles are said to have been left in writing (Apollon. Hist. Comment. c. 4. Compare Schol. Aristoph. p. 331, as emended by Scaliger). The money obtained for these various services, Abaris is said to have consecrated, on his return, to Apollo (Iambl. V. P. 19), whence Bayle concludes, that the collecting of a pious contribution formed the motive of his journey to Greece (Dict. Hist. et Crit. 1, 4). He formed also a Palladium out of the bones of Pelops, and sold it to the Trojans (Jul. Firmicus,16). Modern opinions vary: Brucker (Hist. Phil. 1,355–Enfield, 1, 115) regards him as one who, like Empedocles, Epimenides, Pythagoras, and others, went about imposing on the vulgar by false pretensions to supernatural powers; and Lobeck (Aglaoph. vol. i., p. 313, seq.) is of the same opinion. Creuzer (Symb. 2, 1, 267) considers Abaris as belonging to the curious chain of connexion between the religions of the North, and those of Southern Europe, so distinctly indicated by the customary offerings sent to Delos from the country of the Hyperboreans. The same writer then cites a remarkable passage from the Hialmarsaga: “From Greece came Abor and Samolis, with many excellent men; they met with a very cordial reception; their servant and successor was Herse of Glisisvalr.” The allusion here is evidently to Abaris and Zamolxis; and if this passage be authentic, Abaris would have been a Druid of the North, and the country of the Hyperboreans the Hebrides. The doctrines of the Druids, as well as those of Zamolxis, resemble the tenets of the Pythagorean school, and in this way we may explain that part of the story of Abaris which connects him with Pythagoras (Origen. Philos. 882, 906, ed. de la Rue.—Chardon de la Rochette, Melang. de Crit. vol. i., p. 58). Unfortunately, the Saga of Hialmar is by the ablest critics of the North considered a forgery (Muller's Sagabibl. 2,663). Still, other grounds have been assumed for making Abaris a Druidical priest; and the opinion is maintained by several writers (Toland's Misc. Works, 1, 181— Higgins' Celtic Druids, 123.—Southern Rev. 7, 21.) One argument is derived from Himerius (Phot. Bibl. vol. ii., p. 374, ed. Bekker), that he travelled in Celtic costume; in a plaid and pantaloons. Creuzer, after some remarks on this history, indulges in an ingenious speculation, by which Abaris becomes a personification of writing, and the doctrines communicated by it, as well as the advantages resulting from these doctrines, and from science or wisdom in general. As the Runic characters of the North are here referred to, a part of his argument rests on the etymology of “Rumic,” rinnen, runen, “to run,” “to move rapidly along.” This, together with the arrow-like form of most of

them, will make Abaris, travelling on his arrow, to be him that moves rapidly along, Runa, the scribe, prophet, deliverer; and, at the same time, the personification of writing, as the source of all knowledge, and of safety to man. Thus the legend of Abaris may mark the propagation of writing from the summits of Caucasus, for spreading civilization as well to the Greeks, as the nations of the North. For other speculations, compare Müller (Dorier, 1, 364) and Schwenk (Etymol-Myth. Andeut. 358), who see in Abaris the god himself, Apollo'Adapet's or 'Affaios, “luminous,” under the Macedonian form 'Abapto, become his own priest (Creuzer,2, 1, 269)—II. A city of Egypt, called also Araris ('Atapur, or Ağaptc). Manetho places it to the east of the Bubastic mouth of the Nile, in the Saltic Nome (Joseph. c. Ap. 1, 14). Mannert identifies it with what was afterward called Pelusium ; for the name Abaris disappeared, when the shepherd-race retired from Egypt, and the situation of Pelusium coincides sufficiently with the site of Abaris, as far as authorities have reached us. Manetho, as cited by Josephus, says, that Salatis, the first shepherd-king, finding the position of Abaris well adapted to his purpose, rebuilt the city, and strongly fortified it with walls, garrisoning it with a force of 240,000 men. To this city Salatis repaired in summer time, in order to collect his tribute, and to pay his troops, and to exercise his soldiers with the view of striking terror into foreign states. Manetho also informs us, that the name of the city had an ancient theological reference (kažovuévrov Ó' ató ruvoc dpraiac Geožoytaç Aïapw). Other writers make the term Abaris denote “a pass,” or “crossing over,” a name well adapted to a stronghold on the borders. Compare the Sanscrit upari (over, above), the Gothic ufar, the Old High German ubar, the Persian eber, the Latin super, the Greek itép, &c. AbARNis, or -us, I. a name given to that part of Mysia in which Lampsacus was situate. Venus, according to the fable, here disowned (ármpvisaaro) her offspring Priapus, whom she had just brought forth, being shocked at his deformity. Hence the appellation. The first form Aparnis, was subsequently altered to Abarns (Steph. B.).—II. A city in the above-mentioned district, lying south of Lampsacus (Steph. B.). ABAs, I. or Abus, a mountain of Armenia Major; according to D'Anville, the modern Abi-dag, according to Mannert (5, 196), Ararat; giving rise to the southern branch of the Euphrates. (Vid. Arsanias.)—II. A river of Albania, rising in the chain of Caucasus, and falling into the Caspian Sea. Ptolemy calls it Albanus. On its banks Pompey defeated the rebellious Albanians (Plut. Wit. Pomp. 35)—III. The 12th king of Argos, son of Belus, some say of Lynceus and Hypermnestra ; father of Proetus and Acrisius ; said to have built Abae; reigned 23 years, B.C. 1384. (Paus. 2, 16; 10, 35–Apollod. 2, 2.)—IV. A Latin chief who assisted AEneas against Turnus, and was killed by Lausus (AEn. 10, 170, &c.).-W. A soothsayer, to whom the Spartans erected a statue for his services to Lysander, before the battle of Ægospotamos. He is called by some writers Hagias ("Ayiac). Consult Wesseling, ad Herod. 9, 33, and Paus. 10, 9. Abasitis, a district of Phrygia Epictetus, in the vicinity of Mysia; in it was the city of Ancyra, and here, according to Strabo (576), the Macestus or Megistus arose. Abitos. Wid. Philae. AbdaloniMus, one of the descendants of the kings of Sidon, so poor that, to maintain himself, he worked in a garden. When Alexander took Sidon, he made him king, and enlarged his possessions for his disinterestedness. (Justin, 11, 10.—Curt. 4, 1.) Diodorus Siculus (17,46) calls him Ballonymus, a corruption of the true name as given by Curtius and Justin. Wesseling (ad Diod. S. l.c.) considers the word equiv

alent, in the Phoenician tongue, to Abd-al-anim, “Scrpus Dei pradatoris,” and thinks that the latter part of the compound, anim, may be traced in the name of the god Ananmeiech (2 Kings, 17, 31). Gesenius (Gesch. der Hebr. Sprache und Schrift, 228) makes Abdalonimus, as an appellation, the same with Abd-alonim, “Servant of the gods.” Aspera, I. a city of Thrace, at the mouth of the Nestus: Ephorus (Steph. B.) wrote in sing. A6ómpov, but the plural is more usual, Tā ‘Abónpa. The Clazomenian Timesius commenced founding this place, but, in consequence of the Thracian inroads, was unable to complete it; soon after, it was recolonized by a large body of Teians from Ionia, who abandoned their city, when besieged by Harpagus, general of Cyrus (Herod. 1, 168). any Teians subsequently returned home; yet Abdera remained no inconsiderable city. There are several other accounts of the origin of this place, but the one which we have given is most entitled to credit. The city of Abdera was the birthplace of many distinguished men, as Anaxarchus, Democritus, Hecataeus, and Protagoras; the third, however, must not be confounded with the native of Miletus. (Creuzer, Hist. Antiq. Gr. Fragm. 9, 28.) But, notwithstanding the celebrity of some of their fellow-citizens, the people of Abdera, as a body, were reputed to be stupid. In the Chiliads of Erasmus, and the Adagia Veterum, many sayings record this failing; Cicero styles Rome, from the stupidity of the senators, an Abdera (Ep. ad Att. 4, 16); Juvenal calls Abdera itself, “the native land of blockheads” (terrecum patriam, 10, 50 ; compare Martial, 10, 25; “Abderitana pectora plebis”). uch of this is exaggeration. Abdera was the limit of the Odrysian empire to the west (Thuc. 2, 29). It afterward fell under the power of Philip ; and, at a later period, was delivered up by one of its citizens to Eumenes, king of Pergamus (Diod. S. Fragm. 30, 9, 413, Bp.). É. the Romans it became a free city (Abdera libera), and continued so even as late as the time of Pliny (4, 11). It was famous for mullets, and other fish (Dorio, ap. Athen. 3, 37.—Archestr, ap. eund. 7, 24). In the middle ages Abdera degenerated into a very small town, named Polystylus, according to the Byzantine historian, Curopalate (Wasse, ad Thuc. 2, 97). Its ruins exist near Cape Baloustra. (French Strabo, 3, 180, § 3.)—II. A town of Hispania Baetica, east of Malaca, in the territory of the Bastuli Poeni, lying on the coast; Strabo calls the place Atómpa (157). Ptolemy A66apa, Steph. B. "Atlémpa, a coin of Tiberius Abdera (Vaullant, col. 1, p. 63.-Rasche's Ler. Rei Num. 1, 23). It was founded by a Phoenician colony, and is thought to correspond to the modern Adra. (Ukert's Geogr. 2, 351.) ABDERUs, a Locrian, armour-bearer of Hercules; torn to pieces by the mares of Diomedes, which the hero, warring against the Bistones, had intrusted to his care. According to Philostratus (Icon. 2, 35), Hercules built the city of Abdera in memory of him. (But rid. Abdera I.) Abella, a town of Campania, northeast of Nola, founded by a colony from Chalcis, in Euboea, according to Justin (20, 1). Its ruins still exist in Arella Vecchia. Small as was Abella, it possessed a republican government, retaining it until subdued by the Romans; the inhabitants Abellani, are frequently mentioned by ancient writers; the only fact worthy of record is, that their territory produced a species of nut, nur Abellana or Arellana, apparently the same with what the Greek writers call kápvov IIovruków, 'Hpakzeta.ruków or Žetrów (Dioscor. 1, 179–Athen. 2, 42). The tree itself is the kapúa IIovrtkm, and corresponds to the corylus of Virgil, and the corylus Arellana of Linnaus, class 21. (Fée, Flore de Virgile, 223.) Abellinux, I. now Abellino, a city of the Hirpini, in Samnium; the inhabitants of which were called, for distinction'sake, Abellinates Protropi (Plin. 3, 2– Ptol. 67).-II. A city of Lucania, near the source of

the Aciris; called Abellinum Marsicum. It is thought by Cluver (Ital. Antiq. 2, 1280) and D'Anville (Geogr. Anc. 57) to accord with Marsico Vetere (Cramer's Anc. Italy, 2, 379).

Abg Arus, I. a name common to many kings of Edessa, in Mesopotamia; otherwise written Abagarus, Agbarus, Augarus, &c. The first monarch of this name (Euseb. H. E. 1, 13) wrote a letter to our Saviour, and received a reply from him (rud. Edessa). The genuineness of these letters has been much disputed among the learned. (Cave's Lit. Hist. 1, 2–Lardner's Cred. 7, 22.)—II. The name, according to some authorities, of the Arabian prince or chieftain who perfidiously drew Crassus into a snare, which proved his ruin; called "Akbapoc by Appian (B. P. 34), 'Apuduvno (Plut. Crass. 21), Aiyapoc (Dio Cass. 40, 20).

AbíA, the southernmost city of Messenia, on the eastern shore of the Messenian Gulf. Pausanias (4, 30) identifies it with Ire, ‘Ipm, one of the places offered by Agamemnon to Achilles (Il 9, 292). Abia, together with the adjacent cities of Thuria and Pherae, separated from Messenia, and became part of the Achaean confederacy; afterward they again attached themselves to the Messenian government. At a later period, Augustus, to punish the Messenians for having favoured the party of Antony, annexed these three cities to Laconia. But this arrangement continued only for a short time, since Ptolemy and Pausanias include them again among the cities of Messenia. A small village, Zamata, stands on or near the site of Abia. (Polyb. Exc. de Legat. 53.)

Abii, a Scythian nation, supposed by the earlier Greeks to inhabit the banks of the Tanais. Homer is thought to allude to them, Il. 13, 6, where for dyavān. some read 'Atiaw re. By others they are supposed to be identical with the Macrobii. The name "Attou is thought by Heyne (ad. Il. l.c.) to allude to their living on lands common to the whole nation, or to their having a community of goods, or perhaps to their poverty, and their living in wagons. Curtius (7,6) states, that these Abii sent ambassadors to Alexander with professions of obedience. But the Macedonians encountered no Abii; they only believed that they had found them. The name they probably had learned from Homer, and knew that they were a people to the north, forming part of the great Scythian race. Supposing themselves, therefore, on the banks of the Tamais, they gave the name Abit to the people, who had sent ambassadors, merely because they had heard that the Abii dwelt on that river.

ABILA, or Aby LA, I. a mountain of Africa, opposite Calpe (Gibraltar), supposed to coincide with Cape Serra. It is an elevated point of land, forming a peninsula, of which a place named Ceuta closes the isthmus. Of the two forms given to the name of this mountain by ancient writers, that of Abyla is the more common. The name is written by Dionysius (Perieg. 336), 'A24,67. According to Avienus (Ora Marut. 345), Abila is a Carthaginian or Punic appellative for “any lofty mountain.” This name appears to have passed over into Europe, and to have been applied, with slight alteration of form, to the opposite mountain, the rock of Gibraltar. Eustathius (ad Dionys. P. 64) informs us that in his time the latter mountain was named Calpe by the Barbarians, but Aliba by the Greeks; and that the true Abila, on the African side, was called Abenna by the natives, by the Greeks Kvvnymrukň. At what time the present Gibraltar began to be called Calpe, is difficult to determine; probably long antecedent to the age of Eustathius. Calpe itself is only Aliba shortened, and pronounced with a strong Oriental aspirate. In the word Aliba we likewise detect the root of Alp, or, rather, the term itself, which may be traced directly to the Celtic radical Alb. The situation of Abila gave it, with the opposite Calpe, a conspicuous place in the Greek mythology (vid. Herculis Columnae, and Mediterraneum Mare).-II. A city of Palestine, 12 miles east of Gadara (Euseb. v. "Abe'. 'AuréAov). Ptolemy is supposed to refer to it under the name Abida, an error probably of copyists (Manmert, 6, 1,323)—III. A city of Coelesyria, now Bellinas, in a mountainous country, about 18 miles northwest of Damascus. Ptolemy gives it the common name "A61%a. Josephus calls it "A6eža, and also 'A6eAuaxéa, the latter coming from the Hebrew name Abel Beth Maacha, or Abel Malacha (Reland, Palest. 520). It was the capital of Abilene, a province over which Lysanias was tetrarch (Luke, 3, 1). AbileNE, a district of Caelesyria, the capital of which was Abila. (Vid. preceding article, No. III.) ABNóba, according to Ptolemy (2, 11), a chain of mountains in Germany, which commenced on the banks of the Moenus, now Mayne, and, running between what are now Hesse and Westphalia, terminated in the present Duchy of Paderborn. Out of the northeastern part of this range, springs, according to the same authority, the Amisus, now Ems. Subsequent writers, however, seem to have limited the name Abnoba to that portion of the Black Forest where the Danube commences its course, and in this sense the term is used by Tacitus. A stone altar, with ABNOBA inscribed, was discovered in the Black Forest in 1778; and in 1784, a pedestal of white marble was found in the Duchy of Baden, bearing the words DIANAE ABNOBAE. These remains of antiquity, besides tending to designate more precisely the situation of the ancient Mons Abnoba, settle also the orthography of the name, which some commentators incorrectly write Arnoba. (Compare La Germanie de Tacite, par Panckouke, p. 4, and the Atlas, Planche deuxième.) Abonitichos, a small town and harbour of Paphlagonia, southeast of the promontory Carambis. . It was the birthplace of an impostor, who assumed the character of Æsculapius. Lucian (Pseud. 58) states, that he petitioned the Roman emperor to change the name of his native city to Ionopolis, and that the request of the impostor was actually granted. The modern name Incholi is only a corruption of Ionopolis. (Marcian, Peripl., p. 72.—Steph. B.) AborigiNEs, a name given by the Roman writers to the primitive race, who, blending with the Siculi, founded subsequently the nation of the Latins. The name is equivalent to the Greek airóxbovec, as indicating an indigenous race. According to the most credible traditions, they dwelt originally around Mount Velino, and the Lake Fucinus, now Celano, extending as far as Carseoli, and towards Reate. This was Cato's account (Dionys. H. 2, 49); and if Varro, who enumerated the towns they had possessed in those parts (Id. 1, 14), was not imposed on, not only were the sites of these towns distinctly preserved, as well as their names, but also other information, such as writings alone can transmit through centuries. Their capital, Lista, was lost by surprise; and exertions of many years to recover it, by expeditions from Reate, proved fruitless. Withdrawing from that district, they came down the Anio; and even at Tibur, Antemnae, Ficulea, Tellena, and farther on at Crustumerium and Aricia, they found Siculi, whom they subdued or expelled. The Aborigines are depicted by Sallust and Virgil as savages living in hordes, without manners, law, or agriculture, on the produce of the chase, and on wild fruits. This, however, does not ee with the traces of their towns in the Apennines; but the whole account was, perhaps, little else than an ancient speculation on the progress of mankind from rudeness to civilization. The Aborigines are said to have revered Janus and Saturn. The latter taught them husbandry, and induced them to choose settled habitations, as the founders of a better way of life. From this ancient race, as has already been re

marked, blending with a remnant of the Siculi, sprang the nation of the Latins; and between Saturn and the time assigned for the Trojan settlement, only three kings of the Aborigines are enumerated, Picus, Faunus, and Latinus. (Niebuhr, Rom. Hist, 1,62, Cambr.) As to the name of this early race, the old and genuine one seems to have been Casci or Cassei (Saufcius in Serv. ad AEn. 1, 10); and the appellation of Aborigines was only given them by the later Roman writers. (Heyne, Eccurs. 4, ad AEn. 7.) Cluver, and others, have maintained the identity of the Aborigines and Pelasgi, a position first assumed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Mannert (9, 436) thinks, that the Pelasgi were a distinct race, who, on their arrival in Italy, united with the people in question, and that both became gradually blended into one race, the Etrurian. Some are in favour of writing Aberrigines, and refer to the authority of Festus, who so styles them as having been wanderers (al, erro), when they took possession of that part of the country where they subsequently dwelt. In this Festus is supported by the author of the Origin of the Romans, but the opinion ls an II) correct one. Abor RAs. Vid. Chaboras. , Abraditas, a king of Susa, who submitted, with his army, to Cyrus, when he learned that his wife Panthea, who had been made prisoner by the latter, was treated by him with great kindness and humanity. He was subsequently siain in fighting for Cyrus. His wife, unable to survive his loss, slew herself upon his corpse. Cyrus erected a monument to their memory. (Xen. Cyrop. 5, 6, &c.) AbriNcatü1, a nation of Gaul, situate, according to the common opinion, on the western coast, north of the Liger, or Loire, and whose capital, Ingena, is supposed to coincide with Arranches (D’An. Geogr. Anc.— Cellar. Geogr. Ant. 1, 161, Schw.). If we follow Ptolemy, this people rather seem to have occupied what would now correspond to a part of Eastern Normandy, in the district of Ouche, and stretching from the vicinity of the Rille to the banks of the Seine (Mannert, 2, 167). Abro, I. an Athenian, who wrote on the festivals and sacrifices of the Greeks. His work is lost. (Steph. B. s. v. Bárm.)—II. A grammarian of Rhodes, who taught rhetoric at Rome in the reign of Augustus. He was a pupil of Tryphon. (Suid. s. v.)—III. A grammarian, who wrote a treatise on Theocritus, now lost.—IV. An Athenian, son of the orator Lycurgus. (Plut. Wit. X. Orat.)—V. An Argive of most luxurious and dissolute life, who gave rise to the proverb, 'A6povoc Biog (Abronis vita). (Erasm. Chil. . 487.) p AbrocóMAs, a son of Darius, by Phrataguna daughter of Otanes. He accompanied Xerxes in his Grecian expedition, and was slain fighting bravely at Thermopylae. (Herod. 7, 224.) AB Rooi Aetus. Vid. Parrhasius. AbroNius, Silo, a Latin poet, of the Augustan age, and the pupil of Porcius Latro. He wrote some fables, now lost. (Senec. Suasor. 2, 23.) According to Vossius (de Poet. Lat. 2), there were two of this name, a father and son. Abrostóla, a town of Galatia, on the frontiers of Phrygia, and, according to the Itinerary, twenty-four miles from Pessinus. It is recognised by Ptolemy (p. 120), who assigns it to Phrygia Magna. Abröta, the wife of Nisus, king of Megaris. As a memorial of her private virtues, Nisus, after her death, ordered the garments which she wore to become models of female attire in his kingdom. Hence, according to Plutarch, the name of the Megarian robe &046poua. (Quast. Graec. p. 294.) AbrotöNUM, a town of Africa, near the Syrtis Mi nor, and identical with Sabrata. (Vid. Sabrata.) Absinthii. Wid. Apsynthii.

Assyrtines, islands at the head of the Adriatic, in the Sinus Flanaticus, Gulf of Quarnero; named, as tradition reported, from Absyrtus the brother of Medea, who, according to one account, was killed here. (Hygin, 23.-Strabo,315–Mela,2, 7–Pliny,3, 26.) Apollonius Rhodius (4,330) calls them Brygeides, and states (c. 470) that there was in one of the group a temple erected to the Brygian Diana. Probably the name given to these islands was a corruption of some real apellation, which, though unconnected with the fable, still, from similarity of sound, induced the ts to connect it with the name of Medea's brother. he principal island is Absorus, with a town of the same name. (Ptol. 63.) These four islands are, in modern geography, Cherso, Osero (the ancient Absorus), Ferosina, Chao. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, 1, 137.) Assy Roros, a river falling into the Adriatic Sea, near which Absyrtus was murdered. The more correct form of the name, however, would seem to have been Absyrtis, or, following the Greek, Apsyrtis ("Agapric). Consult Grotius and Corte, ad Luc. Pharsal. 3, 190. Absyrtus ("An'groc), a son of Æetes, and brother of Medea. According to the Orphic Argonautica (v. 1027), Absyrtus was despatched by his . with a large force in pursuit of Jason and Medea, when their flight was discovered. Medea, on the point of falling into the hands of the young prince, deceived him by a stratagem, and the Argonauts, having slain him, cast his body into the sea. The corpse, floating about for some time, was at last thrown up on one of the islands, thence called Absyrtides. According to Apollonius Rhodius (4, 207), Absyrtus, having reached the Adriatic before the Argonauts, waited there to give them battle. Mutual fear, however, brought about a treaty, by which the Argonauts were to retain the fleece, but Medea was to be placed in one of the neighbouring islands, until some monarch should decide whether she ought to accompany Jason, or return with her brother. Medea, accordingly, was placed on an island sacred to Diana, and the young prince, by treacherous promises, was induced to meet his sister by night in order to persuade her to return. In the midst of their conference he was attacked and slain by Jason, who lay concealed near the spot, and had concerted this scheme in accordance with the wishes of Medea. The body was interred in the island. Both these accounts differ from the common one, which makes Medea to have taken her brother with her in her flight, and to have torn him in pieces to stop her father's pursuit, scattering the limbs of the young prince on the probable route of her parent. This last account makes the murder of Absyrtus to have taken place near Tomi, on the Euxine, and hence the name given to that city, from the Greek touff, sectio; just as Absyrtus, or Apsyrtus, is said to have been so called from diró and aipo. (Hygin. 23.—Apollod. 1, 9, 24.—Cic. N. D. 3, 19.-Orid, Trist. 3, 9, 11.Heyne, ad Apollod. l. c.) According to the Orphic Poem. Absyrtus was killed on the banks of the Phasis, in Colchis. Ancient writers differ also as to the young prince's name; by some he is styled Absyrtus, by others Metapontius; by Diodorus Siculus (4, 45) AEgialeus. Consult Wesseling, ad loc. Abus, a river of Britain, now the Humber. Camden (Brit.,p. 634) derives the ancient name from the old British word Aber, denoting the mouth of a river, or an estuary. The appellation will suit the Humber extremely well, as it is rendered a broad estuary by the waters of the Ouse. ABYDENus, I. a pupil of Berosus, flourished 268 B.C. He wrote in Greek an historical account of the Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Assyrians, some fragments of which have been preserved for us by Eusebius, Cyrill, and Syncellus.—II. A surname of Palaetus, from his having been a native of Abydos.

Huet (Demonst. Evang., p. 99) thinks that he was the same with the Abydenus first named, but the opinion ls an erroneous one. Abydos, I. a celebrated city of Upper Egypt, northwest of Diospolis Parva. Strabo (813) describes it as once next to Thebes in size, though reduced in his days to a small place. The same writer mentions the palace of Memnon in this city, built on the plan of the labyrinth, though less intricate. Osiris had here a splendid temple, in which neither vocal nor instrumental music was allowed at the commencement of sacrifices. Plutarch (de Is. et Os. 359, 471, Wytt.) makes this the true burial-place of Osiris, an honour to which so many cities of Egypt aspired; he also informs us that the more distinguished Egyptians frequently selected Abydos for a place of sepulture. (Zoéga, de Obel. 284.—Creuzer's Comment. Herod. 1, 97.) All this proves the high antiquity of this city, and accounts for the consideration in which it was held. Ammianus Marcellinus states (19, 12) that there was a very ancient oracle of the god Besa in this place, to which applications were wont to be made orally and in ...; (Compare Euseb. H. E. 6, 41.) Abydos is now a heap of ruins, as its modern name, Madsuné, implies. The ancient appellation has been made to signify, by the aid of the Coptic, “abode, or habitation, common to many.” (Creuzer, l.c., 1, 100.)—II. An ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, founded by the Thracians, and still inhabited by them after the Trojan war. Homer (Il. 2, 837) represents it as under the sway of prince Asius, a name associated with many of the earliest religious traditions of the ancient world (cid. Asia). At a later period the Milesians sent a strong colony to this place to aid their commerce with the shores of the Propontis and Euxine. (Strabo,591–Thuc. 8, 62.) Abydos was directly on the Hellespont, in nearly the narrowest part of the strait. This, together with its strong walls and safe harbour, soon made it a place of importance. It is remarkable for its resistance against Philip the Younger, of Macedon, who finally took it, partly by force, partly by stratagem. (Polyb. 16, 31.) In this quarter, too, was laid the scene of the fable of Hero and Leander. Over against Abydos was the European town Sestos; not directly opposite, however, as the latter-was somewhat to the north. The ruins of Abydos are still to be seen on a promontory of low land, called Nagara-Bornou, or Pesquies Point. (Hobhouse's Jour. 2,217, Am. ed.) Wheeler has rectified in this particular the mistake of Sandys (Voyage, 1,74), who supposed the modern castle of Natolia to be on the site of the ancient Abydos. The castles Chanāk-Kalessi, or SultanieKalessi, on the Asiatic side, and Chelit-Bancri, or Kelidir-Bahar, on the European shore, are called by the Turks Bogaz-Hessarleri, and by the Franks the old castles of Natolia and Roumelia. The town of Chanāk-Kalessi, properly called Dardanelles, has extended its name to the strait itself (Hobhouse, 215). Over the strait between Abydos and Sestos, Xerxes caused two bridges to be erected when marching against Greece, and it was here that, seated on an eminence, where a throne had been erected for him, he surveyed his fleet, which covered the Hellespont, while the neighbouring plains swarmed with his innumerable troops. (Herod. 7,44.) The intelligent traveller above quoted remarks: “The Thracian side of the strait, immediately opposite to Nagara, is a strip of stony shore, projecting from behind two cliffs; and to this spot, it seems, the European extremities of Xerxes' bridges must have been applied, for the height of the neighbouring cliffs would have prevented the Persian monarch from adjusting them to any other position. There is certainly some ground to believe, that this was the exact point of shore called from that circumstance Apobathra (Strabo, 591), since there is, within any probable distance, no other flat land on the Thraclan side, except at the bottom of deep bays, the choice of which would have doubled the width of the passage. Sestos was not opposite to the Asiatic town, nor was the Hellespont in this place called the Straits of Sestos and Abydos, but the Straits of Abydos. Sestos was so much nearer the Propontis than the other town, that the ports of the two places were 30 stadia, or more than 3 1-2 miles from each other. The bridges were on the Propontic side of Abydos, but on the opposite quarter of Scstos; that is to say, they were on the coasts between the two cities, but nearer to the first than to the last.” (Hobhouse, l. c.) The ancient accounts make the strait in this quarter seven stadia, or 875 paces, broad, but to modern travellers it appears to be nowhere less than a mile across.

ABY L.A. Wid. Abila.

AcAcesium, a town of Arcadia, situate on a hill called Acacesius, and lying near Lycosura, in the southwestern angle of the country. Mercury Acacesius was worshipped here (Paus. 8, 36). Some make the epithet equivalent to umóevög kakoú trapairtos, mullius mali auctor, ranking Mercury among the dei averrunci (Spanh. ad Callum. H. in D. 143.-Heyne, ad Il. 16, 185).

Acacius, I. a disciple of Eusebius, }*. of Caesarea, whom he succeeded in 338 or 340. e was surnamed Movo990%uoc (Luscus), and wrote a Life of Eusebius, not extant; 17 volumes of Commentaries on Ecclesiastes; and 6 volumes of Miscellanies. Acacius was the leader of the sect called Acacians, who denied the Son to be of the same substance as the Father. (Socr. Hist. 2, 4.—Epiph. Haer. 72–Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 5, 19.—Care's Lit. Hist. 1, 206.)—II. A patriarch of Constantinople in 471, who established the superiority of his see over the eastern bishops. He was a favourite with the Emperor Zeno, who protected him against the pope. Two letters of his are extant, to Petrus Trullo, and Pope Simplicius. (Theodor. 5, 23.--Care, 1,417.)—III. A bishop of Beroea, assisted at the Council of Constantinople in 381. (Theodor. 5, 32.)—IV. A bishop of Mytilene, in Armenia Minor, present at the Council of Ephesus in 431, and has left in the Councils (vol. 3) a Homily against Nestorius (Nicephor. 16, 17.-Care 1, 417).-W. A bishop of Amida, distinguished for piety and charity in having sold church-plate, &c., to redeem 7000 Persian prisoners on the Tigris, in Mesopotamia. His death is commemorated in the Latin church on April 9th. (Socr. 7, 21.—Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 5, 19.—Crabbe, Hist. Dict. s. v.)

Academia, a public garden or grove in the suburbs of Athens, about 6 stadia from the city, named from Academus or Hecademus, who left it to the citizens for gymnastics (Paus. 1, 29). It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus (Suid.); adorned with statues, temples, and sepulchres of illustrious men; planted with olive and plane trees; and watered by the Cephissus. The olive-trees, according to Athenian fables, were reared from layers taken from the sacred olive in the Erechtheum (Schol. (Ed. Col. 730.-Paus. 1, 30), and af. forded the oil given as a prize to victors at the Panathenaean festival (Schol. l. c.—Suid. v. Moptal) The Academy suffered severely during the siege of Athens by Sylla; many trees being cut down to supply timber for machines of war (Appian, B. M. 30). Few retreats could be more favourable to philosophy and the Muses. Within this enclosure Plato possessed, as

art of his humble patrimony, a small garden, in which }. opened a school for the reception of those inclined to attend his instructions (Diog. L. Wit. Plat.). Hence arose the Academic sect, and hence the term Academy has descended, though shorn of many early honours, even to our own times. . The appellation Academia is frequently used in philosophical writings, especially in Cicero, as indicative of the Academic sect. In this

sense, Diogenes Laertius makes a threefold division of the Academy, into the Old, the Middle, and the Neuc. At the head of the Old he puts Plato, at the head of the Middle Academy, Arcesilaus, and of the New, Lacydes. Sextus Empiricus enumerates five divisions of the followers of Plato. He makes Plato founder of the 1st Academy; Arcesilaus of the 2d ; Carneades of the 3d ; Philo and Charmides of the 4th; Antiochus of the 5th. Cicero recognises only two Academies, the Old and New, and makes the latter commence as above with Arcesilaus. In enumerating those of the Old Academy, he begins, not with Plato, but Democritus, and gives them in the following order: Democritus, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Parmenides, Xenophanes, Socrates, Plato, Speusippus, Xenocrates, Polemo, Crates, and Crantor. In the New, or Younger, he mentions Arcesilaus, Lacydes, Evander, Hegesinus, Carneades, Clitomachus, and Philo. (Acad. Quaest. 4, 5.) If we follow the distinction laid down by Diogenes, and alluded to above, the Old Academy will consist of those followers of Plato who taught the doctrine of their master without mixture or corruption; the Middle will embrace those who, by certain innovations in the manner of philosophizing, in some measure receded from the Platonic system without entirely deserting it; while the New will begin with those who relinquished the more obnoxious tenets of Arcesilaus, and restored, in some measure, the declining reputation of the Platonic school.—II. A Villa of Cicero near Puteoli (Pliny,31, 2). As to the quantity of the penult in Academia, Forcellini (Ler. Tot. Lat.) makes it common. Bailey cites Dr. Parr in favour of its being always long in the best writers. Maltby (in Morell's Thes.) gives 'Akaðmuia, and 'Akaðīueta. Hermann (ad Aristoph. Nuh. 1001) makes the penult of 'Akaðmuta short by nature, but lengthened by the force of the accent, as the term was in common and frequent use. (Compare the remarks of the same scholar, in his work de Metris, p. 36, Glasg.) AcadéMus, an ancient hero, whom some identify with Cadmus. According to others (Plut. Thes. 32), he was an Athenian, who disclosed to Castor and Pollux the place where Theseus had secreted their sister Helen, after having carried her off from Sparta; and is said to have been highly honoured, on this account, by the Lacedaemonians. From him the garden of the Academia, presented to the people of Athens, is thought to have been named (vid. Academia). AcALANDRus, or AcALYNDRUs, a river of Magna Graecia, falling into the Bay of Tarentum. Pliny (3, 2) places it to the north of Heraclea, but incorrectly, since, according to Strabo (283), it flowed in the vicinity of Thurii. The modern name, according to D'Anville, is the Salandrella; but, according to Mannert (9, 2, 231), the Roccanello. AcAMANtis, I. a name given to the island of Cyprus, from the promontory Acamas. (Steph. B.)—II. An Athenian tribe. AcKMAs, I. a promontory of Cyprus, to the northwest of Paphos. It is surmounted by two sugarloaf summits, and the remarkable appearance which it thus presents to navigators as they approach the island on this side, caused them, according to Pliny (5, 31), to give the name of Acamantis to the whole island.—II. A son of Theseus and Phaedra. He was deputed to accompany Diomede, when the latter was sent to Troy to demand Helen. During his stay at Troy he became the father of Munitus by Laodicea, one of the daughters of Priam. He afterward went to the Trojan war, and was one of the warriors enclosed in the wooden horse. On his return to Athens, he gave name to the tribe Acamantis. (Paus. 10, 26.—Quint. Sm. 12Hygin. 108.) AcAMPsis, a river of Colchis, running into the Euxine; the Greeks called it Acampsis from its impetuous course, which forbade approach to the shore, a, non,

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