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Maurice, Indian Antiquities, 7 vols. 8vo, London, 1806. Mayo, System of Mythology, 8vo, 4 vols., Philadelphia, 1815. M’Culloch, Researches concerning the Aboriginal History of America, 8vo, Baltimore, 1829. Menard, Antiquités de la ville de Nismes, 8vo, Nismes, 1829. Menzel, Geschichte der Teutschen, 4to, Stuttgard, 1837. Mercy, Traités d'Hippocrate, &c., 12mo, Paris, 1818. Merian, L’Etude comparative des Langues, 8vo, Paris,

1828. Micali, L'Italia avanti il dominio dei Romani, 8vo, 4 vols., Firenze, 1821. , Storia degli antichi Popoli Italiani, 3 vols. 8vo, Firenze, 1832. Michaelis, Spicilegium Geographiæ Hebræorum exteras, 4to, 2 vols., Gottingae, 1769. Michelet, Histoire Romaine, 3 vols. 12mo, Brux., 1835. Middleton's Life of Cicero, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1823. Mitman, History of the Jews, 12mo, 3 vols., New-York, i831. Milner, History of the Seven Churches of Asia, 8vo, London, 1 Miscellanea Dramatica, 8vo, Cambridge, 1828. Mitchell, Comedies of Aristophanes, 8vo, 2 vols., London, 1820–22. Mitford, History of Greece, 8 vols. 8vo, Boston, 1823. Mohnke, Geschichte der Literatur der Griechen und Römer, 8vo, vol. 1, Greifswald, 1813. Mone, Geschichte des Heidenthums in Nordlichen Europa, 2 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1823. Montesquieu, QEuvres de, 8vo, 8 vols., Paris, 1822. Monumenta Paderbornensia, 4to, Francof., 1713. Moore, Lectures on the Greek Language and Literature, 12mo, New-York, 1835. , Ancient Mineralogy, 12mo, New-York, 1834. Moreri, Grand Dictionnaire Historique, fol., 6 vols., 1724. Moritz, Götterlehre, 12mo, Berlin, 1825. Moss, Manual of Classical Biography, 2 vols. 8vo, 1837, 2d edit. Müller, C.O., Die Etrusker, 2 vols. 8vo, Breslau, 1828. —, Geschichte hellenischer Stämme, &c., 8vo, 3 vols., Breslau, 1828. Wol. 1, Orchomenos und die Minyer; { vols. 2 and 3, Die Dorier. , De Phidiae Vita et Operibus, 4to, Gottingae, 1827. —, Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen Mythologie, 8vo, Götting., 1835. —, Dorians, translated by Tuffnell and Lewis, 2 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1830. , Archaeologie der Kunst, 8vo, Breslau, 1835. —, History of Greek Literature, prepared for the Library of Useful Knowledge, vol. 1, London, 8vo, 1835–40. - , C., AEgineticorum Liber, 12mo, Berol., 1817. —, P. E., Sagaenbibliothek dess Scandinavischen Alterthums, 8vo, Berlin, 1816. o , Ueber die àchtheit der Asalehre, 12mo, Kopenhagen, 1811. , J. G., Allgemeine Geschichte, 3 vols. 8vo, Tūbingen, 1817. , W., Homerische Worschule, 8vo, Leipzig, 1836. Munter, Religion der Karthager, 8vo, Copenhagen, 1816. Muratori, Storia d'Italia, 4to, 12 vols., Monaco, 1761–4. Murray, A., History of European Languages, 2 vols. 8vo, so 1823.

- istorical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Africa, 8vo, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1818. Museum Criticum, or Cambridge Classical Researches, 8vo, 2 vols., 1814. Museum der Alterthumswissenschaft, 8vo, 2 vols., Berlin, 1807. Museum Antiquitatis Studiorum, 8vo, Berol., 1808.

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London, 1827. —, Dissertation on the Geography of Herodotus, 8vo, Oxford, 1830. Neugriechische, oder sogenannte Reuchlinische Aus. o der Hellenischen Sprache; aus dem Dänisi. ubersetzt von P. Friedrichsen, 8vo, Parchim, S39. Nieupoort, Historia Romana, 12mo, 2 vols., Traj., 1723. , Rituum Romanorum Explicatio, 12mo, Traj,

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1734. Nitzsch, Beschreibung des Zustandes, &c., der Griechen, 12mo, 4 vols., Erfurt, 1806. —, Beschreibung des Zustandes, &c., der Römer, vol. 1, 12mo, Erfurt, 1807. , Entwurf der alten Geographie, ed. Mannert, 12mo, Leipzig, 1829. , G. W., De Historia Homeri, 4to, fasc. 1, 2, Han., 1830-7. —, Anmerkungen zu Homer's Odyssee, 8vo, 2 vols., Hannov., 1826–31. Noel, Dictionnaire de la Fable, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1803. Notitia Utraque Dignitatum, cum Orientis, tum. Occidentis, fol., Lugd., 1608. No. Dignitatum, cura Ed. Böcking, 3 vols. 8vo, Bonn, 39. Numismatique Ancienne, Grecque et Romaine, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1825. Numismatique du Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis, 8vo, Paris, 1823. Numismata Regum et Imperatorum Romanorum, fol., Col. Brandenb., 1700. Nyerup, Wörterbuch und Sprache der Scandinavischen Mythologie, 12mo, Copenhagen, 1816.

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Pacho, Voyage dansla Marmarique, &c., 4to, Paris, 1828. Porous Res Memorabiles, 2 pts. 4to, Francos., 1629– Panckoucke, La Germanie de Tacite, 8vo, Paris, 1824 Parallèle des Religions, 4to, 6 vols., Paris, 1792. Paschalius, De Coronis, 8vo, Lugd. Bat., 1681. Passerii Paralipomena, fol., Lucas, 1767. Patterson, National Character of the Athenians, Edinb., 8vo, 1828. Pauly, Real-Encyclopädie der Classischen Alterthums wissenschaft, vols. 1, 2, 8vo, Stuttgart, 1839–40. Pelloutier, Histoire des Celtes, 2 vols. 4to, Paris, 1771. Penn, Primary argument of the Iliad, 8vo, Lond., 1821. Peritsol, Cosmographia, ed. Hyde, Oxon, 1691. Perizonius, Origines Babylonica et AEgyptiacae, 12mo, 2 vols., Lugd. Bat., 1711. Peyrard, Les CEuvres d'Euclide, 3 vols. 4to, Paris, 1814. Pezron, Antiquities of Nations (Eng. trans.), 8vo, Lon don, 1706. Pfister, Geschichte der Teutschen, 8vo, 2 vols., Hamburg, 1829. Philological Museum, 8vo, Cambridge, 1831-33, 5 Nos. Picot, Tablettes Chronologiques, &c., 8vo, 2 vols., Geneve, 1808. Pictet, De l'affinité des langues Celtiques avec le Sanscrit, 8vo, Paris, 1837. Pierer, Universal-Lexikon, 26 vols. 8vo, Altenburg, 1835–6. Pinkerton, Dissertation on the Scythians or Goths, 8vo, London, 1787. Plass, Wor..und Ur-Geschichte der Helener, 2 vols. 8vo, Leipz., 1832. Platonische AEsthetik von A. Ruge, 8vo, Halle, 1832. Pline, Histoire Naturelle, annotée par plusieurs savans, 20 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1829–33. Pott, Etymologische Forschungen, 8vo, Lemgo, 1833.

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Rabelleau, Histoire des Hébreux, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1828. Raoul-Rochette, Cours d’Archéologie, 8vo, Paris, 1838. Rasche, Lexicon Universa rei numariae veterum, 8vo, 12 vols., Lipsiae, 1775–1802. Reichard, kleine geographische Schristen, 8vo, Güns, 1836. Reingarum, Das alte Megaris, 12mo, Berlin, 1825. Reisig, Worlesungen über Lateinische Sprachwissenschaft, 8vo, Leipzig, 1839. Relandi, Palaestina, ex monumentis veteribus illustrata, 4to, Norimb, 1716. Remusat, Mélanges Asiationes, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1825. , Nouveaux Mélanges Asiatiques, 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1829. Rennell, Geography of Herodotus, 8vo, 2 vols., London, 1830. ——, Geography of Western Asia, 8vo, 2 vols., Lon. don, 1831 (with atlas). ———, Illustrations of Xenophon's Anabasis, 4to, Lon. don, 1816. —, Observations on the Topography of the Plain of Troy, 4to, London, 1814. Repertorium für Biblische und Morgenlandische Literatur, 18 vols. in 5, 8vo, Leipzig, 1777–85. Retrospective Review, 16 vols. 8vo, London, 1820–28. Rheinisches Museum, 8vo, Bonn, 1827. Rhode, Die hellige Sage, &c., der alten Baktrer, Meder, &c., 8vo, Frankfurt, 1820. ——, Die religiose Bildung, &c., der Hindus, 8vo, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1827. Rich, Journey to the Site of Babylon, &c., 8vo, London, 1839.

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Sainte-Croix, Examen des historiens d'Alexandre le Grand, 4to, Paris, 1810 (2d edition). -----, Recherches sur les Mystères du Paganisme, 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1817 (2d edition). so Des Sciences Occultes, &c., 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, --—, Essai Historique et Philosophique surles Noms joine, de Peuples, et de Lieux, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, Sartorius, Geschichte der Ostgothen, 8vo, Leipz., 1830. Schaaff, Encyclopædie der Classischen Alterthumskunde, 8vo, 2 vols., Magdeburg, 1820. Schelling, Die Gottheiten von Samothrace, 8vo, Stuttgart, 1817. Schlegel, F., Geschichte der Alten und neuen Litteratur, 8vo, 2 vols., Wien, 1815. ------, Die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier, Heidelburg, 1808. Tiso.T.” Sämmtliche Werke, 8vo, 8 vols., Wien, -, A. W., Ueber Dramatische Kunst und Litter. atur, 12mo, 3 vols., Heidelb., 1817. ---, A. G., Leçons sur l’Histoire et la Theorie des Beaux Arts, 8vo, Paris, 1830. societ, Platons Werke, 8vo, 5 vols., Berlin, –26.

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: Introduction to the Dialogues of Plato, translated by Dobson, 8vo, London, 1836. Schlichthorst, Geographia Africa. Herodoteae, 12mo, Gottingae, 1788. Schmieder, Lehrbuch der alten Erdbeschreibung, 12mo, Berlin, 1802. Schöll, Histoire de la Littérature Grecque, 8vo, Paris, 1823–25. —, Histoire abrégée de la Littérature Romaine, 8vo, 4 vols., Paris, 1815. —, Histoire abrégée de la Littérature Grecquesacrée, 8vo, Paris, 1832. , Geschichte der Griechischen Litteratur, aus dem Französischen übersetzt von Schwarze und Finder, 3 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1828–30. Schwenck, Etymologisch-Mythologische Andeutungen, &c., 8vo, Elberfeld, 1823. Selden, De anno civili veterum Judaeorum, 12mo, Lugd. Bat., 1683. Seyfarth, Rudimenta Hieroglyphices, 4to, Lipsiae, 1826. , Brevis defensio, &c., Lipsiae, 1827. −, Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Litteratur, &c., des alten Ægypten, 4to, heft. 1, Leipzig, 1826. Sharp, Early History of Egypt, 4to, London, 1836. , History of the Ptolemies, 4to, London, 1838. Sidharubam, seu Grammatica Samscrdamica, cui accedit Dissertatio Historico-Critica in Linguam Samscrdamicam, 4to, Roma, Congr. de Prop. Fid., 1790. Sigonius, Fasti Consulares, 12mo, Oxonii, 1801. Sillig, Dictionary of the Artists of Antiquity, translated by Williams, 8vo, London, 1837. Simon, Die Bewohner des linken Rheinusers, Köln, 8vo, 1833. Sismondi, Fall of the Roman Empire, 8vo, Philad., 1835. Spangenberg, de veteris Latii religionibus domesticis, 4to, Gotting., 1806. Spanheim, Introductio ad Geographiam Sacram, 12mo, Ultrajecti, 1696. —---, Orbis Romanus, 8vo, London, 1703. Spence, Origin of the Laws and Institutions of Modern Europe, 8vo, London, 1826. Spohn, Commentatio de extrema Odyssea parte, 8vo, Lips., 1816. Sprengel, Histoire de la Médecine, 8vo, 9 vols., Paris, 1815

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Walery, Voyage Historique et Litteraire en Italie, 8vo, Brux., 1835. Wan Heusde, Initia philosophiae Platonica, 5 parts 8vo, Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1827–36. , Characterismi principum philosophorum veterum, Socratis, Platonis, Aristotelis, 8vo, Amsterdam, 1839. Viaggi di Petrarca, in Francia, in Germania, ed in Italia, 8vo, 5 vols., Milano, 1820. Wico, Principes de la philosophie de l'Histoire, 2 vols. 12mo, Brux., 1835. Vincent, Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients, &c., 4to, 2 vols., London, 1807. Vol. 1, Voyage of Nearchus. } Vol. 2, Periplus. Wirey, Histoire Naturelle du Genre Humain, 12mo, 3 vols, Bruxelles, 1827. Viol E. Q., Iconografia Greca, 8vo, 7 vols., Milano, 823.

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Wachler, Handbuch der Geschichte der Litteratur, 8vo, 4 vols., Frankfurt, 1822. Wachsmuth, Hellenische Alterthumskunde, 4 vols. 8vo, Halle, 1826–30. ——--—-, Historical Antiquities of the Greeks, translated by Woolrich, 2 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1837. Wagner, Die Tempel und Pyramiden der Urbewohner, auf dem rechten Elbufer, 8vo, Leipzig, 1828. Wahl, Vorder und Mittel Asien, 8vo, Leipzig, 1795. Walch, Historia Critica Linguæ Latina, 12mo, Lips, 1716. Walker, Analysis of Female Beauty, London, 1836, 8vo. Walpole, Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey, &c., 4to, 2 vols., London, 1818. Walsh, Essay on Ancient Coins, &c., 12mo, Lond., 1828. , Narrative of a Journey from Constantinople to England, 12mo, London, 1831 (4th edition). Weber, Illustrations of Northern Antiquities, 4to, Edinburgh, 1814. Weisse, Darstellung der Griechischen Mythologie, 8vo, vol. 1, Leipzig, 1828. Welcker, Der Epische Cyclus, 8vo, Bonn, 1835. ——, AEschylische Trilogie, 8vo, Darmstadt, 1824. —, Nachtrag zu der Schrift über die AEschylische Trilogie, 8vo, Frankfort, 1826. —, Die Griechischen Tragödien, 2 vols. 8vo, Bonn, 1839. , Ueber eine Kretische Kolonie in Theben, 8vo, Bonn, 1824. Wells, Sacred Geography, 4to, Charlestown, 1817. Westminster Review, 17 vols. 8vo, Westminst., 1824–33. Wharton, Works of Virgil, 4 vols. 8vo, London, 1753. Whiter, Etymological Dictionary, 4to, 3 vols., Camb., 1822. Wilkinson, Topography of Thebes, 8vo, London, 1835. —--—-, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyp tians, 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1837. Williams, Life of Alexander the Great, 12mo, New-York, 1837.

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ABAE, I. a city of Phocis, near and to the right of Elatea, towards Opus. The inhabitants had a tradition that they were of Argive descent, and that their city was founded by Abas, son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, grandson of Danaus (Paus. 10, 35). It was most probably of Thracian, or, in other words, Pelasgic origin. Abae was early celebrated for its oracle of Apollo, of greater antiquity than that at Delphi (Steph. B.). #. later days, the Romans also testified respect for the character of the place, by conceding important privileges to the Abaeans, and allowing them to live under their own laws (Paus. l.c.). During the Persian invasion, the army of Xerxes set fire to the temple, and nearly destroyed it; soon after it again gave oracles, though in this dilapidated state, and was consulted for that purpose by an agent of Mardonius (Herod. 8,134). In the Sacred war, a body of Phocians having fled to it for refuge, the Thebans burned what remained of the temple, destroying, at the same time, the suppliants (Diod. S. 16, 58). Hadrian caused another temple to be built, but much inferior in size. This city possessed also a forum and a theatre. Ruins are pointed out by Sir W. Gell (Itin. 266) near the modern village of Erarcho.—II. The Scholiast on Soph. (OEd. T. 890) mentions Aboe as a city in Lycia, where Apollo is said to have had a temple. But this is pronounced to be an error by the best commentators. (Berk. ad Steph. B.)

ABAcAENUM, a city of the Siculi, in Sicily, situated on a steep hill southwest of Messana. Its ruins are supposed to be in the vicinity of Tripi. Being an ally of Carthage, Dionysius of Syracuse wrested from it part of the adjacent territory, and founded in its vicinity the colony of Tyndaris (Diod, S, 14, 78, 90). Ptolemy calls this city 'A64katva, all other writers 'Atakaivov. According to Bochart, the Punic appellation was Abacin, from Abac, “extollere,” in reserence to its lofty situation. (Cluver. Sic. Ant. 2, 386.)

ABALUs. Vid. Basilia.

ABAN tes, an ancient people of Greece, whose origin is not ascertained; probably they came from Thrace, and having settled in Phocis, built the city Abae. From this quarter a part of them seem to have removed to Euboea, and hence its name Abantias, or Abantis (Strabo,444). Others of them left Euboea, and settled for a time in Chios (Paus. 7, 4); a third band, returning with some of the Locri from the Trojan war, were driven to the coast of Epirus, settled in part of Thesprotia, inhabited the city Thronium, and gave the name Abantis to the adjacent territory (Paus. 5, 22). The Thracian origin of the Abantes is contested by Mannert (8,246), though supported, in some degree, by Aristotle, as cited by Strabo. They had a custom of cutting off the hair of the head before, and suffering it to grow long behind (Il. 2, 542). Plutarch (Wit. Thes. 5) states, that they did this to prevent the enemy, * they always boldly fronted, from seizing

A BA

them by the fore part of their heads The truth is, they wore the hair long behind as a badge of valour, and so the scholiast on Homer means by ävópeiac 2dpaw. The custom of wearing long hair characterized many, if not all of the warlike nations of antiquity; it prevailed among the Scythians, who were wont also to cut off the hair of their captives as indicative of slavery (Hesych. —Bayeri Mem. Scyth. in comment. Acad. Petr. 1732, p. 388); and also among the Thracians, Spartane, Gauls (Galli comati), and the early Romans (intons, Romani). As to the origin of this custom among tho Spartans, Herodotus (1,82) seems to be in error, in dating it from the battle of Thyrea, since Xenophon (Lac. Pol. 11, 3) expressly refers it to the time of Lycurgus (Plut. Wit. Lys. 1). The practice of scalping, which, according to Herodotus (4, 64), existed amon the ancient Scythians (Casaub. ad Athen. 524), an is still used by the North American Indians, appears to owe its origin to this peculiar regard for the hair of the head. The greatest trophy for the victor to gain, or the vanquished to lose, would be a portion of what each had regarded as the truest badge of valour, and the skin of the head would be taken with it to keep the hair together. On the other hand, shaving the head was a peaceful and religious custom, directly opposed to that just mentioned. It was an indispensable rite among the priests of Egypt (Herod, 2, 36); and even the deities in the hieroglyphics have their heads without hair. Hence, too, may be explained what is said of the Argippaei, or Bald-headed Scythians (Herod. 4, 23). No one offered violence to them; they were accounted sacred, and had no warlike weapons. Were they not one of those sacerdotal colonies which, migrating at a remote period from India, spread themselves over Scythia, and a large portion of the farther regions of the West AbANTIAs, and ABANti Koes, I. a patronymic given to the descendants of Abas, king of Argos, such as Acrisius, Danaë, Perseus, Atalanta, &c. (Ovid, Met. 4, 607).-II. One of the ancient names of Euboea: Vid. Abantes; Pliny (4, 12) and Priscian (Perieg. 544) both use this term; Strabo (444) calls it Abantis. ABANtidas, a tyrant of Sicyon, in the third century B.C. He seized upon the sovereign power, after having slain Clinias, who was then n, charge of the administration. Clinias was the father of the celebrated Aratus, and the latter, at this time only seven years of age, narrowly escaped sharing the fate of his parent. (Plut. Wit. Arat. 2.) ABANtis, Vid. Abantias II. ABARIs, I. a Scythian, or Hyperborean, mentioned by several ancient writers. Iamblichus states that Abaris was a disciple of Pythagoras, and performed many wonders with an arrow received from Apollo (Wit. Pythag., p. 28, ed. Kuster). Herodotus informs us (4, 36), that he was carried on this arrow over the

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