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Assyrtipes, islands at the head of the Adriatic, in the Sinus Flanaticus, Gulf of Quarnero; named, as tradition reported, from Absyrtus the brother of Medea, who, according to one account, was killed here. (Hygin, 23–Strabo,315–Mela,2, 7–Pliny,3, 26.) Apollonius Rhodius (4,330) calls them Brygeides, and states (r. 470) that there was in one of the group a temple erected to the Brygian Diana. Probably the name given to these islands was a corruption of some real apellation, which, * unconnected with the fable, still, from similarity of sound, induced the ts to connect it with the name of Medea's brother. #. principal island is Absorus, with a town of the same name. (Ptol. 63.) These four islands are, in modern geography, Cherso, Osero (the ancient Absorus), Ferosina, Chao. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, 1, 137.) Assyrtos, a river falling into the Adriatic Sea, near which Absyrtus was murdered. The more correct form of the name, however, would seem to have been Absyrtis, or, following the Greek, Apsyrtis ("Aunopric). Consult Grotius and Corte, ad Luc. Pharsal. 3, 190. Apsyrtus ("An'groc), a son of Æetes, and brother of Medea. According to the Orphic Argonautica (v. 1027), Absyrtus was despatched by his father with a large force in pursuit of Jason and Medea, when their flight was discovered. Medea, on the point of falling into the hands of the young prince, deceived him by a stratagem, and the Argonauts, having slain him, cast his body into the sea. The corpse, floating about for some time, was at last thrown up on one of the islands, thence called Absyrtides. According to Apollonius Rhodius (4, 207), Absyrtus, having reached the Adriatic before the Argonauts, waited there to give them battle. Mutual fear, however, brought about a treaty, by which the Argonauts were to retain the fleece, but Medea was to be placed in one of the neighbouring islands, until some monarch should decide whether she ought to accompany Jason, or return with her brother. Medea, accordingly, was placed on an island sacred to Diana, and the young prince, by treacherous promises, was induced to meet his sister by night in order to persuade her to return. In the midst of their conference he was attacked and slain by Jason, who lay concealed near the spot, and had concerted this scheme in accordance with the wishes of Medea. The body was interred in the island. Both these accounts differ from the common one, which makes Medea to have taken her brother with her in her flight, and to have torn him in pieces to stop her father's pursuit, scattering the limbs of the young prince on the probable route of her parent. This last account makes the murder of Absyrtus to have taken place near Tomi, on the Euxine, and hence the name given to that city, from the Greek touff, sectio; just as Absyrtus, or Apsyrtus, is said to have been so called from dró and aipo. (Hygin. 23–Apollod. 1, 9, 24.—Cic. N. D. 3, 19.-Orid, Trist. 3, 9, 11.— Heyne, ad Apollod. l. c.) According to the Orphic Poem, Absyrtus was killed on the banks of the Phasis, in Colchis. Ancient writers differ also as to the young prince's name; by some he is styled Absyrtus, by others Metapontius; by Diodorus Siculus (4, 45) AEgialeus. Consult Wesseling, ad loc. Abus, a river of Britain, now the Humber. Camden (Brit., p. 634) derives the ancient name from the old British word Aber, denoting the mouth of a river, or an estuary. The appellation will suit the Humber extremely well, as it is rendered a broad estuary by the waters of the Ouse. AbydéNus, I. a pupil of Berosus, flourished 268 B.C. He wrote in Greek an historical account of the Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Assyrians, some fragments of which have been preserved for us by Eusebius, Cyrill, and Syncellus.—II. A surname of Palaetus, from his having been a native of Abydos.

Huet (Demonst. Evang..,p. 99) thinks that he was the same with the Abydenus first named, but the opinion ls an erroneous one. Abydos, I. a celebrated city of Upper Egypt, northwest of Diospolis Parva. Strabo (813) describes it as once next to Thebes in size, though reduced in his days to a small place. The same writer mentions the palace of Memnon in this city, built on the plan of the labyrinth, though less intricate. Osiris had here a splendid temple, in which neither vocal nor instrumental music was allowed at the commencement of sacrifices. Plutarch (de Is. et Os. 359, 471, Wytt.) makes this the true burial-place of Osiris, an honour to which so many cities of Egypt aspired; he also informs us that the more distinguished Egyptians frequently selected Abydos for a place of sepulture. (Zoéga, de Obel. 284.—Creuzer's Comment. Herod. 1, 97.) All this proves the high antiquity of this city, and accounts for the consideration in which it was held. Ammianus Marcellinus states (19, 12) that there was a very ancient oracle of the god Besa in this place, to which applications were wont to be made orally and in writing. (Compare Euseb. H. E. 6, 41.) Abydos is now a heap of ruins, as its modern name, Madfuné, implies. The ancient appellation has been made to signify, by the aid of the Coptic, “abode, or habitation, common to many.” (Creuzer, l.c., 1, 100.)—II. An ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, founded by the Thracians, and still inhabited by them after the Trojan war. Homer (Il. 2, 837) represents it as under the sway of prince Asius, a name associated with many of the earliest religious traditions of the ancient world (rid. Asia). At a later period the Milesians sent a strong colony to this place to aid their commerce with the shores of the Propontis and Euxine. . (Strabo,591–Thuc. 8, 62.) Abydos was directly on the Hellespont, in nearly the narrowest part of the strait. This, together with its strong walls and safe harbour, soon made it a place of importance. It is remarkable for its resistance against Philip the Younger, of Macedon, who finally took it, partly by force, partly by stratagem. (Polyb. 16, 31.) In this quarter, too, was laid the scene of the fable of Hero and Leander. Over against Abydos was the European town Sestos; not directly opposite, however, as the latter-was somewhat to the north. The ruins of Abydos are still to be seen on a promontory of low land, called Nagara-Bornou, or Pesquies Point. (Hobhouse's Jour. 2,217, Am. ed.) Wheeler has rectified in this particular the mistake of Sandys (Voyage, 1,74), who supposed the modern castle of Natolia to be on the site of the ancient Abydos. The castles Chanák-Kalessi, or SultanieKalessi, on the Asiatic side, and Cheltt-Bancri, or Kelidir-Bahar, on the European shore, are called by the Turks Bogaz-Hessarleri, and by the Franks the old castles of Natolia and Roumelia. The town of Chanak-Kalessi, properly called Dardanelles, has extended its name to the strait itself (Hobhouse, 215). Over the strait between Abydos and Sestos, Xerxes caused two bridges to be erected when marching against Greece, and it was here that, seated on an eminence, where a throne had been erected for him, he surveyed his fleet, which covered the Hellespont, while the neighbouring plains swarmed with his innumerable troops. (Herod. 7,44.) The intelligent traveller above quoted remarks : “The Thracian side of the strait, immediately opposite to Nagara, is a strip of stony shore, projecting from behind two cliffs; and to this spot, it seems, the European extremities of Xerxes' bridges must have been applied, for the height of the neighbouring cliffs would have prevented the Persian monarch from adjusting them to any other position. There is certainly some ground to believe, that this was the exact point of shore called from that circumstance Apobathra (Strabo, 591), since there is, within any probable distance, no other flat land on the Thra

conspicuous place in the Greek mythology (pid. Herculis Columnae, and Mediterraneum Mare).-II. A city of Palestine, 12 miles east of Gadara (Euseb. p. "A6ea. ‘AuréAov). Ptolemy is supposed to refer to it under the name Abida, an error probably of copyists (Manmert, 6, 1, 323)—III. A city of Coelesyria, now Bellimas, in a mountainous country, about 18 miles northwest of Damascus. Ptolemy gives it the common name "A61%a. Josephus calls it "Abeza, and also 'A6eAuaxša, the latter coming from the Hebrew name Abel Beth Maacha, or Abel Malacha (Reland, Palest. 520). It was the capital of Abilene, a province over which Lysanias was tetrarch (Luke, 3, 1). AbileNE, a district of Coelesyria, the capital of which was Abila. (Vid. preceding article, No. III.) ABNóba, according to Ptolemy (2, 11), a chain of mountains in Germany, which commenced on the banks of the Moenus, now Mayne, and, running between what are now Hesse and Westphalia, terminated in the present Duchy of Paderborn. Out of the northeastern part of this range, springs, according to the same authority, the Amisus, now Ems. Subsequent writers, however, seem to have limited the name Abnoba to that portion of the Black Forest where the Danube commences its course, and in this sense the term is used by Tacitus. A stone altar, with ABNOBA inscribed, was discovered in the Black Forest in 1778; and in 1784, a pedestal of white marble was found in the Duchy of Baden, bearing the words DIANAE ABNOBAE. These remains of antiquity, besides tending to designate more precisely the situation of the ancient Mons Abnoba, settle also the orthography of the name, which some commentators incorrectly write Arnoba. (Compare La Germanie de Tacute, par Panckouke, p. 4, and the Atlas, Planche deurwome.) Abonitichos, a small town and harbour of Paphlagonia, southeast of the promontory Carambis. It was the birthplace of an impostor, who assumed the character of Æsculapius. Lucian (Pseud. 58) states, that he petitioned the Roman emperor to change the name of his native city to Ionopolis, and that the request of the impostor was actually granted. The modern name Incholi is only a corruption of Ionopolis. (Marcian, Peripl., p. 72-Steph. B.) AborigiNrs, a name given by the Roman writers to the primitive race, who, blending with the Siculi, founded subsequently the nation of the Latins. The name is equivalent to the Greek airóxtovec, as indicating an indigenous race. According to the most credible traditions, they dwelt originally around Mount Velino, and the Lake Fucinus, now Celano, extending as far as Carseoli, and towards Reate. This was Cato's account (Dionys. H. 2, 49); and if Varro, who enumerated the towns they had possessed in those parts (Id. 1, 14), was not imposed on, not only were the sites of these towns distinctly preserved, as well as their names, but also other information, such as writings alone can transmit through centuries. Their capital, Lista, was lost by surprise; and exertions of many years to recover it, by expeditions from Reate, proved fruitless. Withdrawing from that district, they came down the Anio; and even at Tibur, Antemnae, Ficulea, Tellena, and farther on at Crustumerium and Aricia, they found Siculi, whom they subdued or expelled. The Aborigines are depicted by Sallust and Virgil as savages living in hordes, without manners, law, or agriculture, on the produce of the chase, and on wild fruits. This, however, does not ee with the traces of their towns in the Apennines; but the whole account was, perhaps, little else than an ancient speculation on the progress of mankind from rudeness to civilization. The Aborigines are said to have revered Janus and Saturn. The latter taught them husbandry, and induced them to choose settled habitations, as the founders of a better way of life. From this ancient race, as has already been re

marked, blending with a remnant of the Siculi, spran the nation of the Latins; and between Saturn an the time assigned for the Trojan settlement, only three kings of the Aborigines are enumerated, Picus, Faunus, and Latinus. (Niebuhr, Rom. Hist. 1,62, Cambr.) As to the name of this early race, the old and genuine one seems to have been Casci or Cassei (Saufeius in Serp. ad AEn. 1, 10); and the appellation of Aborigines was only given them by the later Roman writers. (Heyne, Eccurs. 4, ad AEn. 7.) Cluver, and others, have maintained the identity of the Aborigines and Pelasgi, a position first assumed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Mannert (9, 436) thinks, that the Pelasgi were a distinct race, who, on their arrival in Italy, united with the people in question, and that both became gradually blended into one race, the Etrurian. Some are in favour of writing Aberrigines, and refer to the authority of Festus, who so styles them as having been wanderers (al, erro), when they took possession of that part of the country where they subsequently dwelt. In this Festus is supported by the author of the Origin of the Romans, but the opinion ls an incorrect one. Abor RAs. Vid. Chaboras. o Abradatas, a king of Susa, who submitted, with his army, to Cyrus, when he learned that his wife Panthea, who had been made prisoner by the latter, was treated by him with great kindness and humanity. He was subsequently sian in fighting for Cyrus. His wife, unable to survive his loss, slew herself upon his corpse. Cyrus erected a monument to their memory. (Xen. Cyrop. 5, 6, &c.) Abri Nc Atü1, a nation of Gaul, situate, according to the common opinion, on the western coast, north of the Liger, or Loire, and whose capital, Ingena, is supposed to coincide with Arranches (D’An. Geogr. Anc.— Cellar. Geogr. Ant. 1, 161, Schw.). If we follow Ptolemy, this people rather seem to have occupied what would now correspond to a part of Eastern Normandy, in the district of Ouche, and stretching from the vicinity of the Rille to the banks of the Seine (Mannert, 2, 167). Abro, I. an Athenian, who wrote on the festivals and sacrifices of the Greeks. His work is lost. (Steph. B. s. v. Bárm.)—II. A grammarian of Rhodes, who taught rhetoric at Rome in the reign of Augustus. He was a pupil of Tryphon. (Suid. s. v.)—III. A grammarian, who wrote a treatise on Theocritus, now lost.—IV. An Athenian, son of the orator Lycurgus. (Plut. Wit. X. Orat.)—V. An Argive of most luxurious and dissolute life, who gave rise to the proverb, 'Abpovoc Bioc (Abronis vita). (Erasm. Chil. p. 487.) AbrocóMAs, a son of Darius, by Phrataguna daughter of Otanes. He accompanied Xerxes in his Grecian expedition, and was slain fighting bravely at Thermopylae. (Herod. 7, 224.) Abrodj Aetus. Vid. Parrhasius. AbroNius, Silo, a Latin poet, of the Augustan age, and the pupil of Porcius Latro. He wrote some fables, now lost. (Senec. Suasor. 2, 23.) According to Vossius (de Poet. Lat. 2), there were two of this name, a father and son. Abrostóla, a town of Galatia, on the frontiers of Phrygia, and, according to the Itinerary, twenty-four miles from Pessinus. It is recognised by Ptolemy (p. 120), who assigns it to Phrygia Magna. Abröta, the wife of Nisus, king of Megaris. As a memorial of her private virtues, Nisus, after her death, ordered the garments which she wore to become models of female attire in his kingdom. Hence, according to Plutarch, the name of the Megarian robe dodopoua. (Quast. Graec. p. 294.) AbrotöNUM, a town of Africa, near the Syrtis Mi nor, and identical with Sabrata. (Wid. Sabrata.) Absinthii. Wid. Apsynthii.

Assyrtines, islands at the head of the Adriatic, in the Sinus Flanaticus, Gulf of Quarnero; named, as tradition reported, from Absyrtus the brother of Medea, who, according to one account, was killed here. (Hygin, 23.-Strabo,315–Mela,2, 7–Pliny,3, 26.) Apollonius Rhodius (4,330) calls them Brygeides, and states (c. 470) that there was in one of the group a temple erected to the Brygian Diana. Probably the name given to these islands was a corruption of some real apellation, which, though unconnected with the fable, still, from similarity of sound, induced the ts to connect it with the name of Medea's brother. he principal island is Absorus, with a town of the same name. (Ptol. 63.) These four islands are, in modern geography, Cherso, Osero (the ancient Absorus), Ferosina, Chao. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, 1, 137.) Assy Roros, a river falling into the Adriatic Sea, near which Absyrtus was murdered. The more correct form of the name, however, would seem to have been Absyrtis, or, following the Greek, Apsyrtis ("Agapric). Consult Grotius and Corte, ad Luc. Pharsal. 3, 190. Absyrtus ("An'groc), a son of Æetes, and brother of Medea. According to the Orphic Argonautica (v. 1027), Absyrtus was despatched by his . with a large force in pursuit of Jason and Medea, when their flight was discovered. Medea, on the point of falling into the hands of the young prince, deceived him by a stratagem, and the Argonauts, having slain him, cast his body into the sea. The corpse, floating about for some time, was at last thrown up on one of the islands, thence called Absyrtides. According to Apollonius Rhodius (4, 207), Absyrtus, having reached the Adriatic before the Argonauts, waited there to give them battle. Mutual fear, however, brought about a treaty, by which the Argonauts were to retain the fleece, but Medea was to be placed in one of the neighbouring islands, until some monarch should decide whether she ought to accompany Jason, or return with her brother. Medea, accordingly, was placed on an island sacred to Diana, and the young prince, by treacherous promises, was induced to meet his sister by night in order to persuade her to return. In the midst of their conference he was attacked and slain by Jason, who lay concealed near the spot, and had concerted this scheme in accordance with the wishes of Medea. The body was interred in the island. Both these accounts differ from the common one, which makes Medea to have taken her brother with her in her flight, and to have torn him in pieces to stop her father's pursuit, scattering the limbs of the young prince on the probable route of her parent. This last account makes the murder of Absyrtus to have taken place near Tomi, on the Euxine, and hence the name given to that city, from the Greek touff, sectio; just as Absyrtus, or Apsyrtus, is said to have been so called from diró and aipo. (Hygin. 23.—Apollod. 1, 9, 24.—Cic. N. D. 3, 19.-Orid, Trist. 3, 9, 11.Heyne, ad Apollod. l. c.) According to the Orphic Poem. Absyrtus was killed on the banks of the Phasis, in Colchis. Ancient writers differ also as to the young prince's name; by some he is styled Absyrtus, by others Metapontius; by Diodorus Siculus (4, 45) AEgialeus. Consult Wesseling, ad loc. Abus, a river of Britain, now the Humber. Camden (Brit.,p. 634) derives the ancient name from the old British word Aber, denoting the mouth of a river, or an estuary. The appellation will suit the Humber extremely well, as it is rendered a broad estuary by the waters of the Ouse. ABYDENus, I. a pupil of Berosus, flourished 268 B.C. He wrote in Greek an historical account of the Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Assyrians, some fragments of which have been preserved for us by Eusebius, Cyrill, and Syncellus.—II. A surname of Palaetus, from his having been a native of Abydos.

Huet (Demonst. Evang., p. 99) thinks that he was the same with the Abydenus first named, but the opinion ls an erroneous one. Abydos, I. a celebrated city of Upper Egypt, northwest of Diospolis Parva. Strabo (813) describes it as once next to Thebes in size, though reduced in his days to a small place. The same writer mentions the palace of Memnon in this city, built on the plan of the labyrinth, though less intricate. Osiris had here a splendid temple, in which neither vocal nor instrumental music was allowed at the commencement of sacrifices. Plutarch (de Is. et Os. 359, 471, Wytt.) makes this the true burial-place of Osiris, an honour to which so many cities of Egypt aspired; he also informs us that the more distinguished Egyptians frequently selected Abydos for a place of sepulture. (Zoéga, de Obel. 284.—Creuzer's Comment. Herod. 1, 97.) All this proves the high antiquity of this city, and accounts for the consideration in which it was held. Ammianus Marcellinus states (19, 12) that there was a very ancient oracle of the god Besa in this place, to which applications were wont to be made orally and in ...; (Compare Euseb. H. E. 6, 41.) Abydos is now a heap of ruins, as its modern name, Madsuné, implies. The ancient appellation has been made to signify, by the aid of the Coptic, “abode, or habitation, common to many.” (Creuzer, l.c., 1, 100.)—II. An ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, founded by the Thracians, and still inhabited by them after the Trojan war. Homer (Il. 2, 837) represents it as under the sway of prince Asius, a name associated with many of the earliest religious traditions of the ancient world (cid. Asia). At a later period the Milesians sent a strong colony to this place to aid their commerce with the shores of the Propontis and Euxine. (Strabo,591–Thuc. 8, 62.) Abydos was directly on the Hellespont, in nearly the narrowest part of the strait. This, together with its strong walls and safe harbour, soon made it a place of importance. It is remarkable for its resistance against Philip the Younger, of Macedon, who finally took it, partly by force, partly by stratagem. (Polyb. 16, 31.) In this quarter, too, was laid the scene of the fable of Hero and Leander. Over against Abydos was the European town Sestos; not directly opposite, however, as the latter-was somewhat to the north. The ruins of Abydos are still to be seen on a promontory of low land, called Nagara-Bornou, or Pesquies Point. (Hobhouse's Jour. 2,217, Am. ed.) Wheeler has rectified in this particular the mistake of Sandys (Voyage, 1,74), who supposed the modern castle of Natolia to be on the site of the ancient Abydos. The castles Chanāk-Kalessi, or SultanieKalessi, on the Asiatic side, and Chelit-Bancri, or Kelidir-Bahar, on the European shore, are called by the Turks Bogaz-Hessarleri, and by the Franks the old castles of Natolia and Roumelia. The town of Chanāk-Kalessi, properly called Dardanelles, has extended its name to the strait itself (Hobhouse, 215). Over the strait between Abydos and Sestos, Xerxes caused two bridges to be erected when marching against Greece, and it was here that, seated on an eminence, where a throne had been erected for him, he surveyed his fleet, which covered the Hellespont, while the neighbouring plains swarmed with his innumerable troops. (Herod. 7,44.) The intelligent traveller above quoted remarks: “The Thracian side of the strait, immediately opposite to Nagara, is a strip of stony shore, projecting from behind two cliffs; and to this spot, it seems, the European extremities of Xerxes' bridges must have been applied, for the height of the neighbouring cliffs would have prevented the Persian monarch from adjusting them to any other position. There is certainly some ground to believe, that this was the exact point of shore called from that circumstance Apobathra (Strabo, 591), since there is, within any probable distance, no other flat land on the Thraclan side, except at the bottom of deep bays, the choice of which would have doubled the width of the passage. Sestos was not opposite to the Asiatic town, nor was the Hellespont in this place called the Straits of Sestos and Abydos, but the Straits of Abydos. Sestos was so much nearer the Propontis than the other town, that the ports of the two places were 30 stadia, or more than 3 1-2 miles from each other. The bridges were on the Propontic side of Abydos, but on the opposite quarter of Scstos; that is to say, they were on the coasts between the two cities, but nearer to the first than to the last.” (Hobhouse, l. c.) The ancient accounts make the strait in this quarter seven stadia, or 875 paces, broad, but to modern travellers it appears to be nowhere less than a mile across.

ABY L.A. Wid. Abila.

AcAcesium, a town of Arcadia, situate on a hill called Acacesius, and lying near Lycosura, in the southwestern angle of the country. Mercury Acacesius was worshipped here (Paus. 8, 36). Some make the epithet equivalent to umóevög kakoú trapairtos, mullius mali auctor, ranking Mercury among the dei averrunci (Spanh. ad Callum. H. in D. 143.-Heyne, ad Il. 16, 185).

Acacius, I. a disciple of Eusebius, }*. of Caesarea, whom he succeeded in 338 or 340. e was surnamed Movo990%uoc (Luscus), and wrote a Life of Eusebius, not extant; 17 volumes of Commentaries on Ecclesiastes; and 6 volumes of Miscellanies. Acacius was the leader of the sect called Acacians, who denied the Son to be of the same substance as the Father. (Socr. Hist. 2, 4.—Epiph. Haer. 72–Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 5, 19.—Care's Lit. Hist. 1, 206.)—II. A patriarch of Constantinople in 471, who established the superiority of his see over the eastern bishops. He was a favourite with the Emperor Zeno, who protected him against the pope. Two letters of his are extant, to Petrus Trullo, and Pope Simplicius. (Theodor. 5, 23.--Care, 1,417.)—III. A bishop of Beroea, assisted at the Council of Constantinople in 381. (Theodor. 5, 32.)—IV. A bishop of Mytilene, in Armenia Minor, present at the Council of Ephesus in 431, and has left in the Councils (vol. 3) a Homily against Nestorius (Nicephor. 16, 17.-Care 1, 417).-W. A bishop of Amida, distinguished for piety and charity in having sold church-plate, &c., to redeem 7000 Persian prisoners on the Tigris, in Mesopotamia. His death is commemorated in the Latin church on April 9th. (Socr. 7, 21.—Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 5, 19.—Crabbe, Hist. Dict. s. v.)

Academia, a public garden or grove in the suburbs of Athens, about 6 stadia from the city, named from Academus or Hecademus, who left it to the citizens for gymnastics (Paus. 1, 29). It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus (Suid.); adorned with statues, temples, and sepulchres of illustrious men; planted with olive and plane trees; and watered by the Cephissus. The olive-trees, according to Athenian fables, were reared from layers taken from the sacred olive in the Erechtheum (Schol. (Ed. Col. 730.-Paus. 1, 30), and af. forded the oil given as a prize to victors at the Panathenaean festival (Schol. l. c.—Suid. v. Moptal) The Academy suffered severely during the siege of Athens by Sylla; many trees being cut down to supply timber for machines of war (Appian, B. M. 30). Few retreats could be more favourable to philosophy and the Muses. Within this enclosure Plato possessed, as

art of his humble patrimony, a small garden, in which }. opened a school for the reception of those inclined to attend his instructions (Diog. L. Wit. Plat.). Hence arose the Academic sect, and hence the term Academy has descended, though shorn of many early honours, even to our own times. . The appellation Academia is frequently used in philosophical writings, especially in Cicero, as indicative of the Academic sect. In this

sense, Diogenes Laertius makes a threefold division of the Academy, into the Old, the Middle, and the Neuc. At the head of the Old he puts Plato, at the head of the Middle Academy, Arcesilaus, and of the New, Lacydes. Sextus Empiricus enumerates five divisions of the followers of Plato. He makes Plato founder of the 1st Academy; Arcesilaus of the 2d ; Carneades of the 3d ; Philo and Charmides of the 4th; Antiochus of the 5th. Cicero recognises only two Academies, the Old and New, and makes the latter commence as above with Arcesilaus. In enumerating those of the Old Academy, he begins, not with Plato, but Democritus, and gives them in the following order: Democritus, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Parmenides, Xenophanes, Socrates, Plato, Speusippus, Xenocrates, Polemo, Crates, and Crantor. In the New, or Younger, he mentions Arcesilaus, Lacydes, Evander, Hegesinus, Carneades, Clitomachus, and Philo. (Acad. Quaest. 4, 5.) If we follow the distinction laid down by Diogenes, and alluded to above, the Old Academy will consist of those followers of Plato who taught the doctrine of their master without mixture or corruption; the Middle will embrace those who, by certain innovations in the manner of philosophizing, in some measure receded from the Platonic system without entirely deserting it; while the New will begin with those who relinquished the more obnoxious tenets of Arcesilaus, and restored, in some measure, the declining reputation of the Platonic school.—II. A Villa of Cicero near Puteoli (Pliny,31, 2). As to the quantity of the penult in Academia, Forcellini (Ler. Tot. Lat.) makes it common. Bailey cites Dr. Parr in favour of its being always long in the best writers. Maltby (in Morell's Thes.) gives 'Akaðmuia, and 'Akaðīueta. Hermann (ad Aristoph. Nuh. 1001) makes the penult of 'Akaðmuta short by nature, but lengthened by the force of the accent, as the term was in common and frequent use. (Compare the remarks of the same scholar, in his work de Metris, p. 36, Glasg.) AcadéMus, an ancient hero, whom some identify with Cadmus. According to others (Plut. Thes. 32), he was an Athenian, who disclosed to Castor and Pollux the place where Theseus had secreted their sister Helen, after having carried her off from Sparta; and is said to have been highly honoured, on this account, by the Lacedaemonians. From him the garden of the Academia, presented to the people of Athens, is thought to have been named (vid. Academia). AcALANDRus, or AcALYNDRUs, a river of Magna Graecia, falling into the Bay of Tarentum. Pliny (3, 2) places it to the north of Heraclea, but incorrectly, since, according to Strabo (283), it flowed in the vicinity of Thurii. The modern name, according to D'Anville, is the Salandrella; but, according to Mannert (9, 2, 231), the Roccanello. AcAMANtis, I. a name given to the island of Cyprus, from the promontory Acamas. (Steph. B.)—II. An Athenian tribe. AcKMAs, I. a promontory of Cyprus, to the northwest of Paphos. It is surmounted by two sugarloaf summits, and the remarkable appearance which it thus presents to navigators as they approach the island on this side, caused them, according to Pliny (5, 31), to give the name of Acamantis to the whole island.—II. A son of Theseus and Phaedra. He was deputed to accompany Diomede, when the latter was sent to Troy to demand Helen. During his stay at Troy he became the father of Munitus by Laodicea, one of the daughters of Priam. He afterward went to the Trojan war, and was one of the warriors enclosed in the wooden horse. On his return to Athens, he gave name to the tribe Acamantis. (Paus. 10, 26.—Quint. Sm. 12Hygin. 108.) AcAMPsis, a river of Colchis, running into the Euxine; the Greeks called it Acampsis from its impetuous course, which forbade approach to the shore, a, non,

kärbir, inflectio. This name more particularly applied to its mouth ; the true appellation in the interior was Boas. (Arrian, Per. M. Eur. 119, Blanc.) AcANrhus, I. a city near Mt. Athos, founded by a colony of Andrians, on a small neck of land connecting the promontory of Athos with the continent. Strabo (Epit. l. 7, 330) places it on the Singiticus Sinus, as does Ptolemy (p. 82), but Herodotus distinctly fixes it on the Strymonicus Sinus (6, 44; 7, 22), as well as Scymnus (r. 646) and Mela (2, 3), and their opinions must prevail against the two authors above mentioned. Mannert (7,451) supposes the city to have been placed on the Singiticus Sinus, the harbour on the Sinus Strymonicus. On the other hand, Gail (Geogr. d'Hérod. 2, 280–Atlas, Ind. 2–Anal. des Cartes, p. 21) makes two places of this name to have existed, one on the Strymonicus, the other on the Singiticus Sinus. Probably Erissos is the site of ancient Acanthus. Ptolemy speaks of a harbour named Panormus, probably its haven (p. 82—Cramer's Anc. Greece, 1, 262—Walpole's Collect. 1, 225.) The Persian fleet despatched under Mardonius, suffered severely in doubling the promontory of Athos; and Xerxes, to hard against a similar accident, caused a canal to be 5. through the neck of land on which Acanthus was situated; through this his fleet was conducted. (Herod. 7, 22.) From the language of Juvenal (10, 173), and the general sarcasm of Pliny (5, 1, “portentosa Graecia mendacia”), many regard this account of the canal as a fable, invented by the Greeks to magnify the expedition of Xerxes, and thus increase their own renown. But vestiges of the canal were visible in the time of AElian (H. A. 13, 20); modern travellers also discover traces of it (Choiseul-Gouffer, Woy. Pittoresque 2, 2, 148.—Walpole, l. c.).-II. A city of Egypt, the southernmost in the Memphitic Nome. Ptolemy gives it a plural form, probably from the thorny thickets in its vicinity, àxavtat: Strabo (809) adopts the singular form, as does also Diodorus Siculus (1,97). Ptolemy places this city 15 minutes distant from Memphis ; D'Anville and Mannert agree in identifying it with Dashur. AcARNANIA, a country of Greece Proper, along the western coast, having Ætolia on the east. The natural boundary on the AEtolian side was the Achelous, but it was not definitely regarded as the dividing limit until the period of the Roman dominion. (Strab. 450.) Acarnania was for the most part a productive country, with good harbours (Scylar 13). The inhabitants, however, were but little inclined to commercial intercourse with their neighbours; they were almost constantly engaged in war against the AEtolians, and consequently remained far behind the rest of the Greeks in culture. Hence, too, we find scarcely any city of importance within their territories; for Anactorium and Leucas were founded by Corinthian colonies, and formed no part of the nation, though they engrossed nearly all its traffic. Not only Leucadia, indeed, but also Cephalenia, Ithaca, and other adjacent islands, were commonly regarded as a geographical portion of Acarnania, though, politically considered, they did not belong to it, being inhabited by a different race. (Mannert, 8, 3.3.) The Acarnanians and Ætolians were descended from the same parent-stock of the Leleges or Curetes, though almost constantly at variance. The most important event for the Acarnanians was the arrival among them of Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus, who came with a band of Argive settlers a short time previous to the Trojan war, and united the inhabitants of the land and his own followers into one nation. His new territories were called Acarnania, and the people Acarnanians. The origin of the name Acarmania, however, is uncertain. It was apparently not used in the age of Homer, who is silent about it, though he mentions by name the AEtolians, Curetes, the inhabitants of the Echinades, and the Teleboans

or Taphians. According to some, it was derived from Acarnas, son of Alcmaeon (Strabo, 462.—Apollod. 3, 7, 7.—Thuc. 2, 102.-Paus. 8, 24). But the remark just made relative to the silence of Homer about the Acarnanes seems to oppose this. More likely the appellation was grounded on a custom, common to the united race, of wearing the hair of the head cut rery short, akapār, a intens, and keipo, in imitation of the Curetes, who cut their hair close in front, and allowed it to grow long behind (rid. Abantes). The AEtolians and Acarnanians were in almost constant hostility against each other, a circumstance adverse to the idea of a common origin. It is curious, however, that the AEtolians appear to have had no other object in view, in warring on their neighbours, than to compel them to form with them one common league; which they would scarcely have done towards persons of a different race. (Mannert,8, 46.) This constant and mutual warfare so weakened the two countries eventually, that they both fell an easy prey to the Macedonians, and afterward to the Romans. The latter people, however, amused the Acarnanians in the outset with a show of independence, declaring the country to be free, but soon annexed it to the province of Epirus. The dominion of the Romans was far from beneficial to Acarnania; the country soon became a mere wilderness; and as a remarkable proof, no Roman road was ever made through Acarnania or Ætolia, but the public route lay along the coast, from Nicopolis on the Ambracian Gulf to the mouth of the Achelous. (Mannert,8, 60.). The present state of Acarnania (now Carnia) is described by Hobhouse (Journ. 174, Am. ed) as a wilderness of forests and unpeopled plains. The people of Acarnania were in general of less refined habits than the rest of the §. and from Lucian's words (Dial. Meretr. 8,227, Bip.), roupiakor 'Akapwdvtos, their morals were generally supposed to be depraved. Independently, however, of the injustice of thus stigmatizing a people on slight grounds, considerable doubt attaches to the correctness of the received reading, and the explanation commonly assigned to it. , Guyetus conjectures 'Arapustic, and Erasmus, explaining the adage, favours this correction. (Compare Bayle, Dict. Hist. 1, 40.) The Acarnanians, according to Censorinus (D. N. 19), made the year consist of but six months, in which respect they resembled the Carians; Plutarch (Num. 19) states the same fact. (Compare Fabricii Menol. p. 7.) Aca RNAs and AM photérus, sons of Alcmaeon and Callirhoe. Alcmaeon having been slain by the brothers of Alphesiboea, his former wise, Callirhoe obtained from Jupiter, by her prayers, that her two sons, then in the cradle, might grow up to manhood, and avenge their father. On reaching man's estate, they slew Pronous and Agenor, brothers of Alphesiboea, and, soon after, Phegeus her father. Acarnas, according to some, gave name to Acarnania; but rid. Acarnania. (Paus. 8, 24.) AcAstus, son of Pelias, king of Iolcos in Thessaly. Peleus, while in exile at his court, was falsely accused by Astydamia, or, as Horace calls her, Hippolyte, the wife of Acastus, of improper conduct. The monarch, believing the charge, led Peleus out, under the pretence of a hunt, to a lonely part of Mount Pelion, and there, having deprived him of every means of defence, left him exposed to the wild beasts. Chiron came to his aid, having received for this purpose a sword from Vulcan, which he gave to Peleus as a means of defence. According to another account, his deliverer was Mercury. Peleus returned to Iolcos, and slew the monarch and his wife. There is some doubt, however, whether Acastus suffered with his queen on this occasion. He is thought by some to have been merely driven into exile. (Ov. Met. 8, 306–Heroid, 13, 25.—Apollod. 1, 9, &c.—Schol. ad Apoll. Rh. 1, 224.) AccA LAURENTIA, I. more properly LARENTIA

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