Obrazy na stronie

The actual monarch was Tryphon, who had him put to death at the end of about two years, and ...! himself to be proclaimed in his stead. (Justin, 36, 1.)— VIII. Surnamed Sidetes (Xtón roc), “the hunter,” son of Demetrius Soter, ascended the throne 139 B.C. He drove from Syria the usurper Tryphon, made war on the Jews, besieged Jerusalem, and compelled it to pay a tribute. He then marched against Phraates, king of Parthia, who menaced his kingdom, gained three victories over him, and obtained possession of Babylon. The following year he was vanquished in turn by the Parthian king, and lost his life in the conflict. He was a prince of many virtues, but he tarnished all by his habits of intemperance.—IX. The eighth of the name, surnamed Grypus (Tputóc) from his aquiline nose, was son of Demetrius Kio. and Cleopatra. He was raised to the throne B.C. 123, to the prejudice of his brothers, by the intrigues of his mother, who hoped to reign in his name. When he was declared king, the throne of Syria was occupied by Alexander Zebinas. He marched against this impostor, defeated, and put him to death. He then marred Tryphena, daughter of Ptolemy Euergetes II., which ensured peaceable relations between Syria and Egypt. After having for some time yielded to the authority of his mother, he resolved at last to reign in his own name, a step which nearly cost him his life. His mother prepared a poisoned draught for her son, but, being suspected by him, was compelled to drink it herself. A bloody war soon after broke out between this prince and Antiochus the Cyzicenian, his brother, in which the latter compelled Grypus to cede to him Celosyria. They thus reigned conjointly for some time. Grypus was at last assassinated by one of his subjects, B.C. 96. (Justin, 39, 1.—Joseph., Ant. Jud)—X. Surnamed Cyzicenus, from his having been brought up in the city of Cyzicus, was the ninth of the name. He was son of Antiochus Sidetes, and succeeded his brother Grypus, after having reigned over Colosyria, which ..". previously compelled his brother to yield to him. He was a dissolute and indolent prince, and possessed of considerable mechanical talent. His nephew Seleucus, son of Grypus, dethroned him, B.C. 95–XI. The tenth of the name, ironically surnamed Pius, because he married Selena, the wife of his father and of his uncle. He was the son of Antiochus IX., and he expelled Seleucus, the son of Grypus, from Syria; but he could not prevent two other sons of Grypus, namely, Philip and Demetrius, from seizing on a part of Syria. He perished soon after by their hands. (Appian.—Joseph., Ant. Jud., 13, 21.)—After his death, the kingdom of Syria was torn to pieces by the factions of the royal family or usurpers, who, under a good or false title, under the *ame of Antiochus or his relations, established themselves for a little time either as sovereigns of Syria, or *mascus, or other dependant provinces. At last An***, surnamed Asiaticus, the son of Antiochus the *Y* restored to his paternal throne by the influence of Lucullus, the Roman general, on the expulsion of Tiganes, king of Armenia, from the Syrian domin*; but four years after, Pompey deposed him, and observed that he who hid himself while a usurper *"Pon his throne, ought not to be a king. From time, B.C. 65, Syria became a Roman province, and the race of Antiochus was extinguished.—There "ore also other individuals of the same name, among whom the most deserving of mention are the following: I. A native of Syracuse, descended from an ancient monarch of the Sicani. He wrote a history of Sicily, which was brought down to the 98th Olympiad, and which Diodorus Siculus cites among the sources whence he derived aid for his compilation. He comto. also who appear.” have been a very curious *ory of Italy, some ". or which are pre

Served o, poww. of Halicarnassus. (Compare

Heyne, de Fontibus Hist. Diod—vol. 1, p. lxxxv., ed. Bip.)—II. A rhetorician and sophist of AEgara, the pupil of Dionysius of Miletus. Dio Cassius (77, p. 878) relates, that, in order to rouse the spirits of the Roman army, who were worn out with fatiguin marches, he assumed the character of a cynic, j rolled about in the snow. This conduct gained for him the favour of Septimius Severus and Caracalla. He asterward went over to Tiridates, king of the Parthians, whence Suidas styles him Airóplossos, or “the deserter.”—III. A native of Ascalon, the last preceptor of the Platonic school in Greece. He was the jo. of Philo, and one of the philosophers whose lectures Warro, Cicero, and Brutus attended, for he taught, at different times, at Athens, Alexandrea, and Rome. He attempted to reconcile the tenets of the different sects, and maintained that the doctrines of the Stoics were to be found in the writings of Plato. Cicero greatly admired his eloquence and the politeness of his manners, and Lucullus took him as his companion into Asia. He resigned the academic chair in the 175th Olympiad. After his time the professors of the Academic philosophy were dispersed by the tumults of war, and the school itself was transferred to Rome. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 199, seqq.—Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 258, seqq.)

Antićpe, I, daughter of Nycteus, who was a son of Neptune and king of Thebes, received the addresses of Jupiter, the god having appeared to her under the form of a satyr. Terrified at the threats of her father, on the consequences of her fault becoming apparent, Antiope fled to Sicyon, where she married Epopeus. Nycteus, out of grief, put an end to himself, having previously * his brother Lycus to punish Epopeus and Antiope. Lycus accordingly marched an army against Sicyon, took it, slew Epopeus, and led away Antiope captive. On the way to Thebes, she brought forth twins at Eleuthere. The unhappy babes were exposed on a mountain; but a shepherd having found them, reared them both, calling the one Zethus, the other Amphion. The former devoted himself to the care of cattle, while Amphion passed his time in the cultivation of music, having been presented with a lyre by Mercury. Meanwhile, Lycus had put Antiope in bonds, and she was treated with the utmost cruelty by him and his wife Dirce. But her chains became loosed of themselves, and she fled to the dwelling of her sons in search of shelter and protection. Having recognised her, they resolved to o her wrongs. Accordingly, they attacked and slew Lycus, and tying Dirce by the hair to a wild bull, let the animal drag her until she was dead. (Wid. Dirce, Amphion, Zethus. – Apollod., 3, 5–Keightley's Mythology, p. 299.)—II. A queen of the Amazons. According to one account, Hercules, having taken her prisoner, gave her to Theseus as a reward of his valour. The more common tradition, however, made her to have been taken captive and carried off by Theseus himself, when he made an expedition with his own fleet against the Amazonian race. She is also called Hippolyta. Justin says that Hercules gave Hippolyta to Theseus, and kept Antiope for himself. (Plus., Wit. Thes, 27. —Justin, 2, 4.)

Antipinos, a small island in the Ægean, ranked by Artemidorus among the Cyclades, but excluded from them by Strabo (10, p. 484, ed. Casaub.). . It lay opposite to Paros, and was separated from this latter island, according to Heraclides of Pontus (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Qatapos), by a strait eighteen stadia wide. The same writer affirms (Plin., H. N., 4, 12), that it had been colonized by Sidonians. Its more ancient name was Oliarus. It is now Antiparo. This island is famed for its grotto, which is of great depth, and was believed by the ancient Greeks to communicate, beneath the waters, with some of the neighbouring islands.

ANTIPXTER, I. son of Iolaus, a Macedonian, was first an officer under Philip, and was afterward raised to the rank of a general under Alexander the Great. When the latter invaded Asia, Antipater was appointed governor of Macedonia; and in this station he servo ed his prince with the greatest fidelity. He reduced the Spartans, who had formed a confederacy against the Macedonians; and, having thus secured the tranquillity of Greece, he marched into Asia, with a powerful reinforcement for Alexander. After that monarch's death, the government of Macedonia and of the other European provinces was allotted to Antipater. He was soon involved in a severe contest with the Grecian states; was defeated by the Athenians, who came against him with an army of 30,000 men and a fleet of 200 ships, and was closely besieged in Lamia, a town of Thessaly. But Leosthenes, the Athenian commander, having been mortally wounded under the walls of the city, and Antipater having received assistance from Craterus, his son-in-law, the fortune of the war was completely changed. The Athenians were routed at Cranon, and compelled to submit at discretion. They were allowed to retain their rights and privileges, but were obliged to deliver up the orators Demosthenes and Hyperides, who had instigated the war, and to receive a Macedonian garrison into the Munychia. Antipater was equally successful in reducing the other states of Greece, who were making a noble struggle for their freedom; but he settled their respective governments with much moderation. In conjunction with Craterus, he was the first who attempted to control the growing power of Perdiccas; and after the death of that commander he was invested with all his authority. He exercised this jurisdiction over the other governors with unusual fidelity, integrity, and impartiality, and died in the 80th year of his age, B.C. 319. At his death, he left his son Cassander in a subordinate station; appointed Polysperchon his own immediate successor ; and recommended him to the other generals as the fittest person to preside in their councils. Antipater received a learned education, and was the friend and disciple of Aristotle. He appears to have possessed very emiment abilities, and was peculiarly distinguished for his vigilance and fidelity in every trust. It was a saying of Philip, father of Alexander, “I have slept soundly, for Antipater has been awake.” (Justin, 11, 12, 13, &c.—Diod., 17, 18, &c.)—II. The Idumaan, was the father of Herod the Great, and was the second son of Antipas, governor of Idumaea. He embraced the party of Hyrcanus against Aristobulus, and took a very active part in the contest between the two brothers respecting the office of high-priest in Judaea. Aristobulus at first, however, succeeded ; but when Pompey had deposed him and restored Hyrcanus to the pontificial dignity, Antipater soon became the chief director of affairs in Judaea, ingratiated himself with the Romans, and used every effort to aggrandize his own family. He gave very effectual aid to Caesar in the Alexandrean war, and the latter, in return, made him a Roman citizen and procurator of Judaea. In this latter capacity he exerted himself to restore the ancient Jewish form of government, but was cut off by a conspiracy, the brother of the high-priest having been bribed to give him a cup of poisoned wine. Josephus makes him to have been distinguished for piety, justice, and love of country. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 14, 3.)—III. A son of Cassander, ascended the throne of Macedonia B.C. 298. He disputed the crown with his brother Philip IV., and caused his mother Thessalonica to be put to death for favouring Philip's side. The two brothers, however, reigned conjointly, notwithstanding this, for three years, when they were dethroned by Demetrius Poliorcetes. Antipater thereupon retired to the court of Lysimachus, his father-inlaw, where he ended his days. (Justin, 26, 1.)—IV.

A native of Tarsus, the disciple and successor of Diogenes the Babylonian, in the Stoic school. He flourished about 80 B.C., and is applauded by both Cicero and Seneca as an able supporter of that sect. His chief opponent was Carneades. (Cic., de Off., 3, 12. —Sen., Ep.,92.)—W. A native of Cyrene, and one of the Cyrenaic sect. He was a disciple of the first Aristippus, and the preceptor of Epitimides.—WI. A philosopher of Tyre, who wrote a work on Duty. He is supposed to have been of the Stoic sect. Cicero (de Orat., 3, 50) speaks of him as an improvisator. Crassus, into whose mouth the Roman orator puts this remark, might have known the poet when he was quaestor in Macedonia, the same year in which Cicero was born (106 B.C.). Pliny relates (7, 51) that he had every year a fever on the day of his birth, and that, without ever experiencing any other complaint, he attained to a very advanced age. Some of his epigrams remain, the greater part of which fall under the class of epitaphs (tritisusta). Boivin (Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., &c., vol. 3) states, that the epigrams of this poet are written in the Doric dialect; the remark, however, is an incorrect one, since some are in Ionic. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 45)— VII. A poet of Thessalonica, who flourished towards the end of the last century preceding the Christian era. We have thirty-six of his epigrams remaining. —VIII. A native of Hierapolis. He was the secretary of Septimius Severus, and Praefect of Bithynia. He was the preceptor also of Caracalla and Geta, and reproached the former with the murder of his brother. ANTiPATRIA, a town of Illyricum, on the borders of Macedonia. It was taken and sacked by L. Apustius, a Roman officer detached by the consul Sulpicius to ravage the territory of Philip, in the breaking out of the war against that prince. (Liv., 31, 27 ) ANtipātris, or CAPHARs Aba, a town of Palestine, situate in Samaria, near the coast, southeast of Apollonias. It was rebuilt by Herod the Great, and called Antipatris, in honour of his father Antipater. (Joseph., B. J., 16, 1, 4.—Id., Ant., 16, 5, and 3, 15.) The city still existed, though in a dilapidated state, in the time of Theophanes (8th century). Its site is at present unknown: the modern Arsuf does not coincide with this place, but rather with Apollonias. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 271, seqq.) ANtiphines, I. a comic poet of Rhodes, Smyrna, or Carystus, was born B.C. 408, of parents in the low condition of slaves. This most prohfic writer (he is said to have composed upward of three hundred dramas), notwithstanding the meanness of his origin, was so popular in Athens, that on his decease a decree was passed to remove his remains from Chios to that city, where they were interred with public honours. (Suidas, s. v.–Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 183.)— II. A statuary of Argos, the pupil of Pericletus, one of those who had studied under Polycletus. He flourished about 400 B.C. Several works of this artist are mentioned by Pausanias (10, 9). He, formed statues of the Dioscuri and other heroes; and he made also a brazen horse, in imitation of the horse said to have been constructed by the Greeks before Troy. The inhabitants of Argos sent it as a present to Delphi. Other imitations performed by this, artist, are enumerated by Heyne. (Ercurs., 3, ad £n 1Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.)—III. A poet of Macedonia, nine of whose epigrams are preserved in the Antholo: gy. He flourished between 100 B.C., and the reign of Augustus. (Consult Jacobs, Catal. Poet. Epig, s. n.) ÄNtiphates, a king of the Lestrygones, descended from Lamus. Ulysses, returning from Troy, came upon his coasts, and sent three men to examine the country. Antiphates devoured one of them, and pursued the others, and sunk the fleet of Ulysses with stones, except the stop in which the hero himself was. (Od., 10, 81, seqq.)

ANTiPhill (oppidum), a town and harbour, according to Ptolemy, on the Sinus Arabicus, in AEgyptus Inferior. Others, however, place it in AEthiopia, to the north of Saba. (Bisch, und Moll., Worterb., &c., 3. v.) Antiphilus, I. a painter, born in Egypt, and mentioned by Quintilian (12, 10) as possessing the greatest readiness in his profession, and compared by many to the most eminent artists, Apelles, Protogenes, and Lysippus. He is twice alluded to in Pliny, with an enumeration of his most remarkable productions (35, 10 and 11). One of his pictures represented a boy blowing the fire, with the effect of the light on the boy's countenance and the surrounding objects strikingly delineated. The subject of another and very famous piece was a satyr, arrayed in a panther's skin. He flourished during the ages of Alexander the Great and Ptolemy I, of Egypt. This makes him a contemporary of Apelles, whom, according to Lucian, he endeavoured to rival. (Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.)—II. An architect, whose age and country are uncertain. In connexion with Pothaus and Megacles, he constructed, at Olympia, for the Carthaginians, a repository for their presents. (Pausan, 6, 19.--Sullig, Dict, Art, s. v.) ANTiPhon, I, a tragic poet, who lived at the court of Dionysius the elder, ..".was eventually put to death by the tyrant. Aristotle cites his Meleager, Andromache, and Jason.—II. A native of Attica, born at Rhamnus about 479 B.C. (Compare Spaan, de Antiphont., Lugd. But, 1765, 4to, and Ruhnken, Dissert. de Antiph.--Orat. Gr., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 795.) He was the son of the orator Sophilus, who was also his preceptor in the rhetorical art. He was a pupil also of Gorgias. According to the ancient writers, he was himself the inventor of rhetoric. Their meaning, however, in making this assertion, is simply as follows: Before his time, the Sicilian school had taught and practised the art of speaking ; but Antiphon was the first who knew how to apply this art to udiciary eloquence, and to matters that were treated fore the assemblies of the people. Thus, Hermogenes (de Form. Or, 2, p. 498) says, that he was the inventor roi rămov trožtruko). Antiphon exercised his art with great success, and gave instructions also in a school of rhetoric which he opened, and in which Thucydides formed himself. If reliance is to be placed on the statement of Photius, Antiphon put up over the entrance of his abode the following inscription: “Here consolation is given to the afflicted.” He composed, for many, speeches to be delivered by accused persons, which the latter got by heart; and also harangues for demagogues. This practice, which he was the first to follow, exposed him to the satire of the poets of the day. He himself only spoke once in Public, and this was for the purpose of defending him*I against a charge of treason. Antiphon, during the Peloponnesian war, frequently commanded bodies of Athenian troops; he equipped, also, at his own exPense, sixty triremes. He had, moreover, the principal share in the revolution which established at Athens the government of the four hundred, of which he was a member. During the short duration of this oligarchy, Antiphon was sent to Sparta for the purpose of negotiating a peace. The ill-success of this embassy overthrew the government at home, and Antiphon was accused of treason and condemned to death. According to another account, given by Photius (Biblioth, 2, p. 486, ed. Bekker), which, however, is wholly incorrect, Antiphon was put to death by onysius of Syracuse, either for having criticised the tragedies of the tyrant, or else for having hazarded an unlucky bonmot in his presence. Some one having asked Antiphon what was the best kind of brass, he replied, that of which the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton were made—The ancient writers cite a

work of Antiphon's on the Rhetorical Art, Téxv) Émropuch, and they remark that it was the oldest work of the kind; which means merely that Antiphon, as has already been remarked, was the first that applied the art in question to the business of the bar. They make mention also of thirty-five, and even sixty, of his discourses, that is, discourses held before the assembly of the people (żóyot &munyàpokot) ; judiciary discourses (dukávukot), &c. We have fifteen harangues of Antiphon remaining, which are all of the class termed by Hermogenes 26 you góvuxot, that is, having reference to criminal proceedings. Twelve of them, however, are rather to be regarded as so many studies, than discourses actually completed and pronounced. Hermogenes passes the following judgment upon Antiphon : “He is clear in his expositions, true in his delineation of sentiment, faithful to nature, and, consequently, persuasive; but he possesses not these qualities to the extent to which they were carried by the orators who came after him. His diction, though often swelling, is nevertheless lo. in general, it wants vivacity and energy.” e remains of Antiphon are given in Reiske's edition of the Greek Orators, in that of Bekker, Berol., 1823, 5 vols. 8vo, and in that of Dobson, Lond., 1828, 16 vols. 8vo. Three of his discourses, 1. Karmyopin papuakeiac, Karā Túc pumrpuiac: 2. Hepi rod 'Hpáčov 96pov : 3. IIepi roë ropewrot, deserve the attention of scholars, as giving an idea of the form of proceeding in Athens in criminal prosecutions. (Schöll, Hist, Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 202, seqq.)—II. A sophist of Athens. Plutarch and Photius, in speaking of the conversation which Socrates had with this individual, and of which Xenophon (Mem. Socr., 1, 6) has preserved an account, confound him with the orator of the same name. Hermogenes ascribes to him a work on truth (repi 'AAmfletac), of which Suidas cites a fragment (s. v. 'Aéestoc), wherein the sophist speaks of the Deity. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 332.) Antiphos, brother of Ctymenus, and son of Ganyctor the Naupactian. He and Ctymenus slew the poet Hesiod, for a supposed connivance in an outrage perpetrated upon their sister. (Wid. Hesiodus.) ANtipólis, a city of Gaul, on the coast of the Mediterranean, southeast of the river Varus, built and colonized by the Massilians. It is now Antibes. (Strabo, 180.—Id, ibid., p. 184.) *ANtirrhiuM, a promontory of AEtolia, so called from its being opposite to Rhium, another point of Achaia. It was sometimes surnamed Molycricum, from its vicinity to the town of Molycrium (Thucyd, 2, 86), and was also called Rhium AEtolicum (Polyb., 5, 94). Here the Crissaean, or, as Scylax terms it, the Delphic, Gulf properly commenced. (Peripl., p. 14.) Thucydides states that the interval between the two capes was barely seven stadia; the geographer just quoted says ten stadia. The narrowness of the strait rendered this point of great importance for the passage of troops to and from AEtolia and the Peloponnesus. (Polyb., 4, 10 and 19.) On Antirrhium was a temple sacred to Neptune. The Turkish fortress, which now occupies the site of Antirrhium, is known by the name of Roumelia. (Gell's Itiner, p. 293.) Antissa, a city of Lesbos, between the promontory Sigeum and Methymne. Having offended the Romans, it was depopulated by Labeo, and the inhabitants were removed to Methymne. It was afterward rebuilt, and is supposed to have been insulated by an arm of the sea from the rest of the island. Hence the name Antissa, it being opposite to Lesbos, whose more ancient name was Issa. (Plin., 5, 31.-1d., 2, 91.Liv., 45, 31. – Lycophron, v. 219. – Eustath., ad Hom., Il., 2, 129.) ANtisthéNes, an Athenian philosopher, sounder of the Cynic sect, born about 420 B.C., of a Phrygian or Thracian mother. In his youth he was engaged in military exploits, and acquired fame by the valour which he displayed in the battle of Tanagra. His first studies were under the direction of the sophist Gorgias, who instructed him in the art of rhetoric. Soon growing dissatisfied with the futile labours of this school, he sought for more substantial wisdom from Socrates. Captivated by the doctrine and the manner of his new master, he prevailed upon many young men, who had been his fellow-students under Gorgias, to accompany him. So great was his ardour for moral wisdom, that, though he lived at the Piræus, he came daily to Athens to attend upon Socrates. Despising the pursuits of avarice, vanity, and ambition, Socrates sought the reward of virtue in virtue itself, and declined no labour or suffering which virtue required. This noble consistency of mind was the part of the character of Socrates which Antisthenes chiefly admired; and he resolved to make it the object of his diligent imitation. While he was a disciple of Socrates, he discovered his propensity towards severity of manners by the meanness of his dress. He frequently appeared in a threadbare and ragged cloak. Socrates, who had great penetration in discovering the characters of men, remarking that Antisthenes took pains to expose, rather than to conceal, the tattered state of his dress, said to him, “Why so ostentatious ! Through your rags I see your vanity.” While Plato and other disciples of Socrates were, after his death, forming schools in Athens, Antisthenes chose for his school a public place of exercise without the walls of the city, called the Cynosarges, whence some writers derive the name of the sect of which he was the founder. Others suppose that his followers were called Cynics from the habits of the school, which, to the more refined Athenians, appeared those of dogs rather than of men. Here he inculcated, both by precept and o: a rigorous discipline. In order to accommodate his own manners to his doctrine, he wore no other garment than a coarse cloak, suffered his beard to grow, and carried a wallet and staff like a wandering beggar. Undoubtedly this was o more than an expression of opposition to the gradually increasing luxury of the age; his wish and object being to bring men back to their original simplicity in life and manners. Thus he set himself directly against the tendency and civilization of his age, as is clear from many of his sayings, which are tinctured at once with bitterness and wit. And although this was scarcely more than a negative resistance, yet, as he obstinately placed himself in opposition to the circumstances in which he lived, and to the advancing progress of science, his position must naturally have reacted upon the feelings of his contemporaries towards himself. We consequently find that his school met with little encouragement, and this so annoyed him that he drove away the few scholars he had. Diogenes of Sinope, who resembled him in character, is said to have been the only one that remained with him to his death. The doctrine of Antisthenes was mainly confined to morals; but, even in this portion of philosophy, it is exceedingly meager and deficient, scarcely furnishing anything beyond a general defence of the olden simplicity and moral energy, against the luxurious indulgence and effeminacy of later times. Instead, however, of being duly tempered by the Socratic moderation, Antisthenes appears to have been carried to excess in his virtuous zeal against the luxury of the age ; unless we suppose, what may perhaps be true, that in many of the accounts which have come down to us respecting him, his doctrine is painted in somewhat exaggerated colours. With regard to his religious tenets, it may be observed that Antisthenes, in accordance with the Socratic doctrine, maintained that, in the universe, all is regulated by a divine intel\igence, from design, so as to benefit the good man, . is the friend of God. For the sage shall possess

all things. This doctrine of God, therefore, was con nected with his ethical opinions, by indicating the physical conditions of a happy life. It led him, however, to deviate from Socrates, and to declare that, in opposition to the vulgar polytheism, there is but one natural God, but many popular deities; that God cannot be known or recognised in any form or figure, since he is like to nothing on earth. Hence undoubtedly arose his allegorical explanation of mythology, and his doubts.respecting the demoniac intimations of Socrates. Towards the close of his life, the gloomy cast of his mind and the moroseness of his temper increased to such a degree, as to render him troublesome to his friends, and an object of ridicule to his enemies. Antisthenes wrote many books, of which none are extant except two declamations under the names of Ajax and Ulysses. These were published in the collection of ancient orators by Aldus, in 1513; by H. Stephens, in 1575; and by Canter, as an appendix to his edition of Aristides, printed at Basle in 1566– For some remarks on the Cynic sect, rid, the article Diogenes. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 299, seqq.—Ritter's Hist. Anc. Phil., vol. 2, p. 108, seqq., Oxford trans.) ANtistius LABEo, a distinguished lawyer in the reign of Augustus, who, in the spirit of liberty, frequently spoke and acted with great freedom against the emperor. According to most commentators, Horace (Serm., 1, 3, 82), in order to pay his court to the monarch, salutes Labeo with the appellation of mad (Labeone insanior, &c.). But it has been well observed, in opposition to this, that, whatever respect the poet had for his emperor, we never find that he treats the patrons of liberty with outrage. Nor can we well imagine that he would dare thus cruelly to brand a man of Labeo's abilities, riches, power, and employments in the state, and to whom Augustus himself had offered the consulship. Bentley, Wieland, Wetzel, and other critics are of opinion, therefore, that this individual cannot be the one to whom Horace alludes, but that he refers to some other personage of the day, whose history has not come down to us. Bentley even goes so far as to suggest Labieno for Labeone in the text of Horace, and cites Seneca in support of his conjecture (Praef., ad lib., 5, Controv.), according to whom, Labienus was a public speaker of the day, so noted for the freedom of his tongue as to have received the name of Rabienus in derision. Heindorff, however, thinks that Horace may here actually refer to Antistius Labeo, not for the reason given by some of the commentators, but in allusion to his earlier years, and to a violent and impetuous temperament which he may have at that time possessed (ad Horat., l. c.). ANrit Aurus, a chain of mountains, running from Armenia through Cappadocia to the west and southwest. It connects itself with the chain of Mount Taurus, between Cataonia and Lycaonia. (Vid. Taurus and Parvadres.— Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 5) . ANTIUM, a city of Italy, on the coast of Latium, about 32 miles below Ostia. According to Xenagoras, a Greek writer quoted by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1, 73), the foundation of Antium is to be ascribed to Anthias, a son of Circe. Solinus (c. 8) attributes it to Ascanius. But, whatever may have been its origin, there can be no doubt that Antium was, at an early period, a maritime place of considerable note, since we find it comprised in the first treaty made by Rome with Carthage (Polyb., 3, 22); and Strabo remarks (232) that complaints were made to the Romans by Alexander and Demetrius, of the piracies exercised by the Antiates, in conjunction with the Tyrrhenians, on their subjects; intimating that it was done with the connivance of Rome. Antium appears also to have been the most considerable city of the Volsci. i* was to this place, according to Plutarch, that Coriolanus retired after he had been banished from his cour try, and was here enabled to form his plans of vengeance in conjunction with the Volscian chief Tullus Aufidius. It was here, too, that, after his failure, he met his death from the hands of his discontented allies. Antium was taken for the first time by the consul T. Quintius Capitolinus, A.U.C. 286, and the year following it received a Roman colony. This circumstance, however, did not prevent the Antiates from revolting frequently, and joining in the Volscian and Latin wars (Lip, 6, 6–Dion. Hal., 10, 21), till they were finally conquered in a battle near the river Astura, with many Latin confederates. In consequence of this defeat, Antium fell into the hands of the victors, when most of its ships were destroyed, and the rest removed to Rome by Camillus. The beaks of the former were reserved to ornament the elevated seat in the Forum of that city, from which orators addressed the people, and which, from that circumstance, was thenceforth designated by the term rostra. (Lit., 8, 14.—Flor., 1, 11.—Plin., 34, 5.) Antium now received a fresh supply of colonists, to whom the rights of Roman citizens were granted. From that period it seems to have enjoyed a state of quiet till the civil wars of Marius and Sylla, when it was nearly destroyed by the former. But it rose again from its ruins during the empire, and attained to a high degree of prosperity and splendour; since Strabo reports, that in his time it was the favourite resort of the emperors and their court (Strab., 232), and we know it was here that Augustus received from the senate the title of Father of his Country. (Suet, Aug., 50.) Antium became successively the residence of Tiberius and Caligula; it was also the birthplace of Nero (Suet., Ner., 6), who, having recolonized it, built a port there, and bestowed upon it various other marks of his favour. Hadrian is also said to have been particularly fond of this town. (Philostrat., Wit. Apoll. Tyan., 8, 8.) There were two temples of celebrity at Antium; one sacred to Fortune, the other to AEsculapius. (Horat., Od., 1, 35, 1–Martial, Ep., 5, 1–Val. Max., 1, 8.) The famous Apollo Belvidere, the fighting gladiator, as it is termed, and many other statues discovered at Antium, attest also its former magnificence. The site of the ancient city is sufficiently marked by the name of Porto d'Anzo attached to its ruins. But the city must have reached as far as the modern town of Nettuno, which derives its name probably from some ancient temple dedicated to Neptune. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 86, seqq.) Antonia Lex, I. was enacted by Marc Antony, when consul, A.U.C. 708. It abrogated the lex Atia, and renewed the lex Cornelia, by taking away from the People the privilege of choosing priests, and restoring it to the college of priests, to which it originally be: longed. (Cic, Phil., 1,9.)—II. Another by the same, A.U.C. 703. It ordained that a new decuria of judg. ** should be added to the two former, and that they should be chosen from the centurions—III. Another oy the same. It allowed an appeal to the people, to hose who were condemned de majestate, or of perfidious measures against the state. Cicero calls this the destruction of all laws—IV. Another by the same, during his triumvirate. It made it a capital offence to Propose, ever after, the election of a dictator, and for : o to accept of the office. (Appian, de Bell. it., 3.) Antonia, I. the name of two celebrated Roman ilies, the one patrician, the other plebeian. They both o to be descendants of Hercules.—II. A $oughter of Marc Antony, by Octavia. She married Domitius AEnobarbus, and was mother of Nero and two daughters. (Tacit., Ann., 4, 44.)—III. A daughor of Claudius and AElia Petina. She was of the only of the Tuberos', and was repudiated for her levity. Nero wished after this to marry her, but, on *refusal, caused her to be put to death. (Suet., Wit.

Ner., 35.)—IV. A daughter of Marc Antony, and the wife of Drusus, who was the son of Livia and brother of Tiberius. She became mother of three children, Germanicus, Caligula's father; Claudius the emperor; and Livia Drusilla. Her husband died very early, and she never would marry again, but spent her time in the education of her children. Caligula conferred on her the same honours that Tiberius had bestowed upon Livia, but is thought to have cut her of subsequently by poison. (Suet., Cal., 15 et 23.)—W. (Turris) a fortress of Jerusalem, sounded by Hyrcanus, and enlarged and strengthened by Herod, who called it Antonia, in honour of Marc Antony. It stood alone on a high and precipitous rock, at the northwest angle of the temple. The whole face of the rock was fronted with smooth stone for ornament, and to make the ascent so slippery as to be impracticable. Round the top of the rock there was first a low wall, rather more than five feet high. The fortress itself was 70 feet in height; the rock on which it stood, 90 feet. It had every luxury and convenience of a sumptuous palace, or even of a city; spacious halls, courts, and baths. It appeared like a vast square tower, with four other towers at the cormer : three of them between 80 and 90 feet high : that at the corner next to the temple, above 120. This famous structure was taken by Titus, and its fall was the prelude to the capture of the city and temple. (Joseph., Bell. Jud., 5, 15.-Milman's History of the Jews, vol. 3, p. 21.) ANtoninus, I. Pius (or Titus Aurelius Fulvius Bolonius ANtoninus), was born at Lanuvium in Italy, A.D. 86, of a highly respectable family. He was first made proconsul of Asia, then governor of Italy, and in A.D. 120, consul; in all which employments he displayed the same virtue and moderation that afterward distinguished him on the imperial throne. When Hadrian, after the death of Verus, determined upon the adoption of Antoninus, he found some difficulty in persuading him to accept of so great a charge as the administration of the Roman empire. This reluctance being overcome, his adoption was declared in a council of senators; and in a few months afterward he succeeded by the death of his benefactor, who had caused him, in his turn, to adopt the son of Verus, then seven years of age, and Marcus Annius, afterward Aurelius, a kinsman to Hadrian, at that time of the age of seventeen. The tranquillity enjoyed by the Roman empire under the sway of Antoninus affords few topics for history; and, in respect to the emperor himself, his whole reign was one display of moderation, talents, and virtues. The few disturbances which arose in different parts of the empire were easily subdued by his lieutenants; and in Britain, the boundaries of the Roman province were extended by building a new wall to the north of that of Hadrian, from the mouth of the Esk to that of the Tweed. On the whole, the reign of Antoninus was uncommonly pacific ; and he was left at leisure fully to protect the Roman people and advance their welfare. Under his reign the race of informers was altogether abolished, and, in consequence, condemnation and confiscation were proportionably rare. Though distinguished for economy in the distribution of the public revenues, he was conscious, at the same time, of the necessity of adequately promoting public works of magnificence and utility; and it is thought that Nismes, whence his family originally came, was indebted to him for the amphitheatre and aqueduct, the remains of which so amply testify their original grandeur. His new decrees were all distinguished for their morality and equity; and if his rescript in favour of the Christians, addressed to the people of Asia Minor, be authentic (and there is much argument in its favour), no better proof of his philosophy and justice, on the great point of religious toleration, can well be afforded. The high reputation acquired by Antoninus for virtue and * gave

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