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roads. "Opyvia, or fathom, from 8péyo, “to extend,” is the distance from the hands, when the arms are raised and extended, measured along the breast, and equals 6 tróðer; hence it has received from Herodotus the epithets respárnxvt and ééatródno. The measure from which the Romans probably borrowed their decempeda was drawa or káAapioc-10 róðes; six of these constituted the “Autta, which, together with the mostpov=100 rööer, and the káàauoc, was used principally in the measurement of lands. The most ancient itinerary measure of the Greeks was the oráðtov, which appears to have had a very rude origin. It is said to have been the invention of Hercules, whose athletic exertion it exhibited, since it comprehended the distance which he was able to run without taking breath. Isidorus informs us that it took its name from larmut, “to stand,” and assigns as a reason, “quod in fine respirasset simulque stelisset.” It was established as the measure of the length of the ałżóc, or foot-course, at the Olympic games; and from the respect in which these exercises were held, it became an itinerary measure. This distance, the hero who instituted it measured by the length of his foot, which he found equal to one six hundredth part of the course. Censorinus and M. Gossellin have endeavoured to show that there were different stadia emp. among the Greeks, but their remarks have een completely refuted by Wurm. 'Irruków, or the distance a horse could run, “sub uno spiritu,” equals 4 ordóta, and A6Atxo~ has been variously assumed as 6, 7, 8, and even 24 oráðua, but more correctly as 12. Those linear measures which were known to the Greeks by their intercourse with other nations, were MíAuov, or the Roman mile=8 oráðua; IIapacáyymc=30 aráðua, according to Herodotus (2, 6) and Xenophon (Anab., 5, 7), though Strabo makes it, in different places, 40 and 60 oráðua; and 2xoivor, an Egyptian measure, whose value is differently assigned to be 60, 40, and 32 aráðua.

§8. DETERMINATion of the GREsk Foot. There are two methods of investigating the value of the stoic proposed to us: the first consists in its determination by its ratio to the Roman foot; the second, by means of the public edifices of the Greeks which are yet standing. 1. All authors agree that the ratio subsisting be

tween the Roman and Greek foot is 24:25, as might 27/1

also be inferred from the value the Greeks assigned to utotov, which we have mentioned was 8 oráðua= 4800 tróðec=5000 pedes. Now the Roman foot having been determined=.97075 ft., the value of the Greek foot hence deduced is 1.0ll 1812 ft. 2. Mr. Stuart, who examined the temples remaining at Athens, found the average ratio of the Greek to the Roman foot to be 25.04: 24. (Quarterly Review, No. 10, p. 280.) The Greek foot would hence =1.01281.68 ft. The mean of these two values is 1.01.1999 ft. We so however, adopting Wurm's determination, who as examined Mr. Stuart's measurements with great accuracy, and has equalled the Greek foot to 136.65 Par. lin.-1.01146 ft. (See Tab. XIII. and XIV.)

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assumed it=824 Par. grs.=67.3349 grs. The values of the remaining weights are easily calculated, and may be seen in Tables XVIII. and XIX.

§ 12. Grecian coins.

It is a matter of doubt when the Greeks commenced the coinage of metallic ores. The Oxonian marbles render it apparent that Phido, king of the Argives, about 700 B.C. struck some silver pieces, and there yet remain many Macedonian coins purporting to be struck five centuries B.C. Of all the Greek cities, Athens was most celebrated for the fineness of her silver, and the justness of its weight; and Xenophon mentions, that wherever Attic silver was carried, it sold to advantage. Indeed, their money deserves our particular attention, since we have unexceptionable evidence of its standard weight, and since it furnishes us with the knowledge we possess of the moneys of the other Greek cities. Copper was not coined till the 26th year of the Peloponnesian war, when Callias was a second time archon. It was soon after publicly cried down by a proclamation, which declared silver the lawful money of Athens; it, however, was shortly aster again introduced. The common opinion, that the Athenians coined gold, is considered by some to be without sufficient authority. That they had no gold coin at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, appears from the account given by Pliny of the treasure amassed in the Acropolis, which consisted of silver in coin, and gold and silver in bullion. Athenaeus tells us that gold was very sparingly circulated in Greece, until the Phocians despoiled and plundered the temple at Delphi. But the gold-mines in the neighbourhood of Philippi were so improved by Philip of Macedon as to yield 1000 talents yearly, from which were struck the Philippics. When Greece became subject to the Romans, the standard of the conquerors was introduced, and there remain some gold coins which were struck subsequently to this event, of the weight of the aureus; one of these is preserved in the British Museum, which, though a little worn, bears the evidence of elegant workmanship: its impress on one side is the head of Minerva, and on the other an owl and oil-bottle, with the inscription A6H, NH, the last two letters being placed under the oilbottle. The Persian daric seems to have been the gold coin best known at Athens when in her lofty state of independence, and was called oratip, probably because it was originally the standard by which the ôpaxuń was adjusted ; and subsequently the Philippics were standarded by means of the daric or the drachma. The Greeks counted by means of TáAavra, uval, rerpáðpaxua, and Öpaxuai, and their method of standarding excelled the Roman in point of ease and convenience, since their coins were weights also.

The brazen coins were Xažkovo– 660%óc; and Aérrow- Xažkoic. The boožár was so called, because, previously to the introduction of coined money, it was in the form of a small spit. The silver coins referring to the 6602óc are, respó60% ov, spió60Aov, 6tó60% ov, hutos,624ov, and dixazorov ; but those are most celebrated which refer to the dpaxpiń, viz., didpaxuov, rotopaxuov, respáðpaxuov. Rome de l'Isle mentions a Greek coin of silver, =ll 6paxpaí, and Plato and Julius Pollux speak of the revrnkovráðpax

MEASURES, WEIGHTS, AND MONEYS OF THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.

plov, which, were it a coin, must have been very large. Apaxuń quasi épayuñ, is interpreted a handsul of 6 Ö60Aol, which were equal to it in value; it was employed in the computations of the Greeks, as the sestertius was by the Romans, Plutarch affording us many examples. The dpaxpú varied in different countries determining the rāāavrov of corresponding variation; that of Ægina was called raxeia, since it equalled 13 Attic drachms, in contradistinction to the Attic, called Aerrà.

There is mention made of the Boüç, a coin so called from the stamp of an ox with which it was impressed, reputed equal to the didpaxuov, and coined of gold and silver. This was perhaps one of the most ancient Greek coins, being known to Homer, if we credit the testimony of Julius Pollux, and to it that immortal bard is supposed to allude when he sings of Glaucus changing his golden armour, worth 100 Bóes, for the brazen one of Diomede. The rerpádpaxuov, or silver grarip, appears to have been the coin most generally in use among the Greeks. Livy informs us, that between the years 564 and 566 A.U.C. there were brought to Rome by M. Fulvius 118,000, by M. Acilius 113,000, by L. A. Regillus 34,700, and by Scipio Asiaticus 22,400 terpádpaxpa. So many specimens of them remain, that they are to be found at the present day in almost every collection. Letroline having accurately examined 500 of them, and arranged them according to the centuries in which they were struck, deduced the mean weight of the old Attic doaxuff, coined two centuries and more B.C., -82; Par. grs.-67.3349 grs. ; and its purity being .97, its value is 9d. 2.85 far., or 17 cts. 5.93 mills Federal currency. The latter Attic doaxuń was also sound=77; Par. grs.=63.236 grs. ; and its value thereby determined is 9d. 0.487 far., or 16 cts. 5.22 mills. The Xpwootic, or golden orarip, weighed 2, and was valued at 20 dpaxual ; golden pieces were coined of double and half its weight; and though no Attic staters remain at the present day, there have been preserved some darics and Philippics, whose purity is very remarkable, being .979. The ratio of gold and silver varied at different periods. Herodotus estimates it as 13 to 1 ; in the dialogue of Hipparchus, commonly ascribed to Plato, it is 12 to 1; and Lysias, the orator, assumes it as 10 to 1, which last ratio was preserved without alteration.

The Mina (Mvä), according to Plutarch, equalled 75 ôpaxuai, till the time of Solon, who made it contain 100. The Attic talent of silver equalled 60 mine; that of Ægina, which was current at Corinth, was 100; and the Attic talent of gold was 600 minae, according to the proportion of gold and silver just premised. For the values of the different coins, see Tables XX. and XXI.

Nore.—The method of calculating the value of the old Attic drachm is as follows: Its weight being 67.3349 mint-pound grs, or 67.3631 Troughton's grs., and its purity being .97, it contains 65.3148 mt. pd. grs., or 65.3422 Tr. grs. of pure silver. Now 371.25 int. * grs. of pure silver being coined into 100 ets., and 5328 Tr. grs. of pure silver being coined into 792d. (see Pres. Adams's Report), the value of the old Attic drachm is hence determined in the Federal and Sterling currencies. In a similar manner, the values of the less Attic drachm and of the denarius have been calculated

TABLE I. I. ROMAN MEASURES OF LENGTH. 1. Measures below the foot. (Unit; Pes=l 14 inch.) Feet. Inches. Sextula..... ---------------------------------------- r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .16 1} | Siciliquus------------------------------------------------------------ .24 3 2 Semiuncia------------------------------------------------------ .48 4}. 3 |} | Digitus--------------------------------------------------- .73 6 4 2 13 |Uncia----------------------------------------------- .97 18 12 6 4. 3 | Palmus---------------------------------------- 2.91 72 48 24 16 | 12 4 Pes----------------- -------------------- 1 1.65 s 491 0.9 9. TABLE II. I. ROMAN MEASURES OF LENGTH. 2. Measures above the foot. (Unit: Milliare=}} mile.) Miles. Yds. Feet. Pes------------------------------- - - - - - - - ---------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .97 * Palmipes--------------------------------------------------------- 1.21 l? '#' Cubitus---------------------------------------- ------------ 1.46 2}| 2 13| Pes Sestertius-----................ • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.43 5 4 3}| 2 **------------------------------------ - - - - - - 1 1.85 10 || 8 || 3 || 4 || 2 |Decemped.................................. 3 0.71 120 96 80 48 24 12 || Actus........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38 2.49 l;000 4000 |3333}|2000 || 1000 || 500 || 413 |Milliare............. ------------ 1617 2.75 7500 5000 |5000 |3000 |1500 || 750 || 32; H Leugo..................... 1 666 2.62 10 Milliaria---------------------- 9 330 0.5 100 do. ---------------------- 91 1631 2. 1000 do. ---------------------- 919 476 2. TABLE III. II. ROMAN MEASURES OF EXTENT. 1. Measures below the Jugerum. (Unit: Jugerum=2} roods.) Roods. Perches. Sq. Ft. Pes quadratus----------------------- ------------------------------------ .94 100 || Decempeda quadrata............ ---------------------------------- 94.24 400 4 | Sextula-------------- --------------------- --------------- - 1 104.69 480 4} 1} | Actus simplex----...----- -------------------------- 1 180.08 600 6 1} 14 | Siciliquus----------------- ------------------ 2 20.91 2400 24 6 5 4 | Uncia----------- --------------------- 8 83.65 3600 36 9 7} 6 1 + | Clima------------------------- 12 125.48 loooo || 100 T 25 | 20F|TIST| 4 |2|Versus................... 34 IG7.06 14400 || 144 || 36 || 30 || 24 6|| 4 |1}}|Actus quadratus...... 1 9, 229.67 so loss To Too Tis T. s. To Ticornus (As). 2 19 1st 09 1418

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ROMAN MEASURES OF EXTENT AND CAPACITY.

TABLE IV. II. ROMAN MEASURES OF EXTENT. 2. Uncial Subdivisions of the Jugerum. "----------------------------------------------.................. Roods. ro- o *T*............................ 16 167.31 * T is loodin'............................ -------- ------ 24 250.96 4 2 1} | Triens--------------------....... ------------------- 33 6236 5 || 2 || 1 || 4 |Quincunx......... ----------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 146.02 6 3 2 1} | 1 || | Semis....... ---------------------------- 1 9 229.67 7 3} | 2 | 13 | 13 | | | | Septunx----------------------...... 1 18 41.07 8 4. 23 2 1} | 1 || || 1 || Bes----------. ---------------- 1 26 124.73 9 4% 3 2} | 1: 1} | 1; 14 Dodrans..... - - - - - - - - - - - 1 34 208.3S io || 5 || 3 || 2 || 2 || 1 || || || || || Dextans........... 2 3 19.78 1 l 5. To so; 2} | 13 || 1 || 1 || 1 #| 1 || Decunx...... 2 11 1034 12 || 6 || 4 || 3 || 2 || 2 || 1: To T1, T1, TT, Jeoksu, a 19 isso TABLE W. II. ROMAN MEASURES OF EXTENT, 3. Measures above the Jugerum. Acres. Roods. Perches. Sq, Ft. Jugerum---------------------------------------------------- 2 19 187 *H*..... 1 0 39 102 *To co-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o: 124 2 17 110 soo's 400 4 | Saltus------------------------------------ 498 I 29 167 TABLE VI. III. ROMAN MEASURES OF CAPACITY, 1. For Liquids. (Unit; Amphora-5s, gallons.) Cub. inch. Gall. qts. pts. Ligula”----------------------------------------------------------- 0.69 0.02 4 Cyathus--------------------------------- ------------------- 2.74 0.08 6 1}| Acetabulum--------------------------------------...- 4. 12 0.12 12 3. 2 | Quartarius----------------------------.......... 8.23 0.24 24 6 4 2 | Hemina-------- -** - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -------- 16.47 0.48 48 12 8 4. —t *rius-----------------........... ** 0.95 28S 72 48 24 12 6 Congius---------.............. 197.59 2 1.70 1152 iToss || 192 || 96 || 4s 24 & Urn. ------------------- . 970.38 2 3 0.82 2304 576 || 384 || 192 96 || 48 s To Amphora-.......... 1580.75 || 5 2 164 460so iii.520 16so asso 1920 || 360 ico 40 20 Culeus........ 31615.01 || 114 0 080 TABLE VII.-III. ROMAN MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 2. For things dry. (Unit : Modius=7 “. . pt.). Ligula------------------------------------------- -" cub. st. cub. §§ bush. pecks. Qts & 4 |Cyathus-------------------- ----------------- 2.74 0.08 6 14|Acetabulum---------------------------- - 4.12 |, 0.12 12 3 - 2 | Quartarius....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- 8.23 0.24 To TG 4 2 | Hemina------------- ------- 16.47 0.48 48 || 12 || 8 || 4 || 2 | Sextarius.------------ 32.93 0.95 Tasa T96 || 6a || 32 so 8 Semimodius-----. 263.46 3 1.61 768 192 || 128 64 || 32 | 16 || 2 |Monics.... 526.92 7 1.21 10..... 3 85.17 | 2 1 4 0.13 100..... 30 851.69 || 23 3 0 1.33 1000 - - - - - 304 1684.89 || 237 2 6 1.26 TABLE VIII.-IV. ROMAN WEIGHTS. 1. (Unit : Libra–10 oz., 10 dwt.s., 9.5 grs. Troy Weight.) Troy weight. Avoirdupoise W. T.T. o. o. ii.T.T.T. Siliqua---------------------------------------------------------- 2.9 0.1 ! 3 owls......................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8.8 0.32 6 –, Scrupulum--------------------- -------------------- 17.5 0.64 12 4 * Semioula...........--------------- --------- 1 11.1 1.28 24 8 4 21 Sextula-------------------------------- 2 22.1 2.56 36|| 12 6 3| 1 || Siciliquus.-------.----------------- 4 9.2 3.85 48 16 8 4 2 1}| Duella---------------------- 5 20.3 * 72 24 12 6 3 14|Semiuncia-------------- 8 18.4 7.69 loss as Toil 12 STAT3 || | Uncia............. 17 12.8 15.39 rol 376 ass 144|| 72 s as Tag T24 to Liss......... 10 10 9.5 11 8.67 172800|57600|28800. 14400|7200 |4800 3600 zoolooloo Cent. pod. 87 7 19 17.1 |72 2 2.85 TABLE IX. —IV. ROMAN WEIGHTS. 2. Subdivisions of the Libra. Troy weight. Avoirdupoise Wt. ri-o-For-o|Uncia ------------------------------------------------------------- 17 12.8 15.39 * Sextans------------------------------------------------------ 1 15 1.6 || 1 14.7s. 3 * | Quadrans---------------------------------------------- 2 12 14.4 || 2 14.17 4 2 1} | Triens------------------------------------------- 3 10 3.2 || 3 13.56 5 2} | 13 | 13 | Quincunx.---------------------------------- 4 7 16.0 || 4 12.95 6 3 2 1} | 14 Semis.---------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 5 4.8 5 12.33 * 3} | 23 13 | 13 l; Septunx------------------------- 6 2 17.6 6 o 8 4 || 23 2 1} | 13 || 14 - Bes----------------------- 7 0 6.4 7 11.11 9 4} | 3 2} |. 1; 1% 13 || 1 || Dodrans............. . 7 17 19.1 || 8 10.50 10 5 34 24 2 13 | 13 13 || 1 # Destone....- - - - - S 15 7.9 9 o 11 5+ 33 - 23 2} | 1; 13 || 1 || 13 | 11, Decunx.... 9 12 20.7 10 9.28 12 || 6 || 4 || 3 23 2 13 || 14 || 1 || 1 || 1 || ||Libra 10 10 9.5 | 11 8.67

* By a comparison of the Congius w liquid measure of the apothecaries,

ith the Libra, the Ligula will be sound to correspond very nearly with three drachms (3 ul)

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