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five titles of the fourth, treat of things; and the remaining titles of the fourth book treat of actions. Besides these three compilations, the Code, the Institutes, and the Digest, Justinian, after the publication of the second edition of his Code, continued to issue new laws or constitutiqns, chiefly in Greek, upon particular occasions, which were collected and published together, after his death, under the name of Neapai Award; etc, or Novae, or Constitutiones Novellae, or Authenticae. The Novella are divided into nine Collationes and 168 Constitutiones, or, as they are now of. ten called, Novels. The Novellae, together with the thirteen Edicts of Justinian, made up the fourth part of his legislation. There are four Latin translations of the Novellae, two of which were made soon after Justinian's death; the third is by Halvander, printed at Nürnberg in 1531; and the fourth was printed at Basle, by Hervagius, in 1561. This last translation is that which is printed in the editions of the Corpus Juris opposite to the Greek text, and is very valuable, notwithstanding it has been stigmatized by some with the name “barbarous;” it is sometimes called Authentica Interpretatio, or Vulgata. The version of Halvander is also printed in some editions of the Corpus Juris. The Novellae made many changes in the law as established by Justinian's prior compilations, and are an evidence that the emperor was seized with a passion for legislating; a circumstance which enables us to form a more correct judgment of his real merits,
and lowers his character as a philosophic jurist. Among
the numerous editions of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the best is that of Gothofredus, Col. Munat., 1756, 2 vols. folio. Pothier's edition of the Digest, reprinted at Paris, in 5 vols. 4to, 1818–1820, is a useful edition : there is a very cheap edition of the Corpus Juris recently published in Germany by Beck, 3 vols. small folio, Leipsig, 1829. 163–5. – Ludewig, Wit. Justin. Mag. et Theod., nec mon Trehon., Halle, 1731–Zimmern, Geschichte des Röm. Privatrechts bis Justinian, Heidelb., 1826. – Hugo, Lehrbuch der Gesch. des Röm. Rechts, Berlin, 1832–History of the Roman or Civil Law, by Ferriere, transl. by J. Beaver, London, 1724. – Hommelii, Palingenesia–Brinkmannus, Institutiones Juris Romani, Schleswig, 1822. — System des PandektenRechts, by Thibaut, 7th ed., Jena, 1828–Das Corpus Juris in's Deutsche ubersetzt rom cinem rereine Rechtsgelehrter und herausgegeben von Otto, Schilling, und Sintenis, Leipzig, 1831. — Les cinquantes livres du Digeste, &c., traduits en Français par feu Henri Heslot, Paris, 1805. —Pandectes de Justinien mises dans un nouvel ordre, &c., par J. R. Pothier, traduates par Bréard Neuville, revues et corrigées par M. Moreau de Montalin, Avocat, Paris, 1810.) Trickla, a mountain sortress and town in Sicily, near the lower coast, east of Selinus, and north of the mouth of the Crimisus. It was also called Triocala and Triocla. This place came into notice during the Servile war in Sicily, as being the residence of the slave-king Tryphon. Facellus places its site near the modern Calata Bellota, but Reichard by Colatrast Castello. (Steph. Byz., s. v.–Ptol.-Sil. Ital., 14, 271.) Tric Asses, a people of Gaul, northeast of the Senones, and through whose territories flows the Sequana, or Seine, in the earlier part of its course. Their chief city was Augusta Bona, now Troyes. (Ptol.—Amm. Marc., 15, 11.—Id., 16, 2.) Tricca, a city of Thessaly, southeast of Gomphi, and near the junction of the Peneus and Lethaeus. It is mentioned as early as the time of Homer, and placed by him under the dominion of the sons of Æsculapius. (Il., 2,729; 4, 202.) Strabo informs us that Tricca possessed a temple of Æsculapius, which was held in great veneration. (Strabo,437.) The modern Tricala appears to correspond to the site of the ancient
city. From the Byzantine historians we see that the name had already been corrupted in their time to the present form of Tricala. (Procop., AEdif., 4, 3. — Hierocl., p. 643. – Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 357, seqq.) Tricoril, a Gallic tribe in Gallia Narbonensis, in the territory of Massilia and Aqua Sextiae. (Livy, 21, 31.-Plin., 3, 4.—Amm. Marc., 15, 10, seqq.) TRIDENTUM, now Trent (or, as the Italians write the name, Trento), a city of Rhaetia, on the river Athesis or Adige, and a short distance from the northern confines of Venetia. It was built by the Cenomani, who were dispossessed by the Romans. (Justin, 20, 5.— Itin. Ant.— Paul Warnefr., de Gest. Long., 5, 36, &c.) Some authors affirm that the name Tridentum is derived from Neptune's sceptre or trident, to which god they say the city was once consecrated ; this opinion took its rise from an ancient marble being found there, on which was Neptune holding a trident. Others derive the name from three rivers that fall into the Adige near the city; while others, again, ascribe the name to the circumstance of there being three high rocks in the neighbourhood which appear like three teeth (tres dentes). All these etymologies are false; the name is most probably one of Celtic origin. —Trent is famous in modern history for the council of ecclesiastics which sat there for the purpose of regulating the affairs of the church. It was assembled by Paul III. in 1545, and continued by twenty-five sessions till the year 1563, under Julius III. and Pius IV. It had been removed in 1547 to Bologna, in consequence of a false rumour of a pestilence in Trent, but was reassembled at the latter city in 1551. TRIGABöll, a town of Italy, in the territory of Venetia, where the Padusa, or southern arm of the Po, sep|arates itself from the main stream. Its site is near that of the modern Ferrara. (Polyb., 2, 16.) TRINAcRíA, one of the ancient names of Sicily, from its three promontories (rpeir dispat). TRINobANtes, a people of Britain, in modern Essex and Middlesex. (Tac., Ann., 14, 31.—Caes., B. G., 5, 20.) TrióPAs or Triops, a son of Neptune by Canace the daughter of AEolus. He was father of Erisichthon, who is called on that account Triopeius, and his daughter Triopeis. (Orid, Met., 8, 754.—Apollod, 1, 7, 4.—Heyne, not. crit. ad Apollod., l.c.) Triopium, a city of Caria, founded by Triopas, son of Erisichthon, and situate near the promontory of Triopium, at the extremity of Doris. On the promontory, which took its name from the city, was a temple of Apollo, known under the name of the Triopaean temple. The Dorians here celebrated games in honour of Apollo ; here also was held a general assembly of the Dorians in Asia, upon the model of that of Thermopylae. (Wid. Doris.) | Taiphylia, the southern portion of Elis. It took its name, according to Strabo, from the union of three different tribes (speig Øvāaí), the Epei, or original inhabitants, the Minya, who migrated thither, and the Elei. (Strabo, 337). Some authors, however, deduce the appellation from Triphylus, an Arcadian prince. o 4, 77, 8.) Tripólis, I. now Tarabolus, a city of Syria, on the seacoast below Aradus. The Greek name of this place, Tripolis, denoting three cities (Tptic tróżew), is explained by Scylax (p. 42.-Compare Diod. Sic., 16, 41.—Plin., 5, 20.-Strabo, 754). He states that the cities of Tyrus, Sidon, and Aradus sent each a colony to this place, who at first inhabited three separate cities, but in process of time became united into one. Diodorus Siculus, however, gives a somewhat different account. According to him, the three cities above mentioned, which were the parent states of all the other Phoenician cities, wishing to establish some place of general assembly, sent each "...” hither, and founded this city (16,41). It had a good harbour and extensive commerce. (I. Phocas, c. 4.— Wesseling, Itin., p. 149.)—The town was taken and destroyed in 1289 by the sultan of Egypt, but was af. terward rebuilt, though at some distance from the ancient site. (Abulfeda, Tab. Syr., p. 101.) At the present day the sand has so accumulated that the city is separated from the sea by a small triangular plain, half a league in breadth, at the point of which is the village where the vessels land their goods. The commerce of the place consists almost entirely of coarse silks,—II. A region of Africa, on the coast of the Mediterranean, between the two Syrtes. It received this name from its containing three principal cities; Leptis Magna, CEa, and Sabrata. The second of these is the modern city of Tripoli.-III. A city of Pontus, on the coast, at the mouth of the river Tripolis, and northeast of Cerasus, now Triboli. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 384.)—IV. A city of Lydia, on the western bank of the Maeander, northwest of Hierapolis, and near the confluence of the Maeander and Cludrus. Ptolemy and Stephanus ascribe it to Caria, Pliny and Hierocles to Lydia. Mannert considers it to have been a Phrygian city. (Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 137.) TriptoLEMUs, son of Celeus, king of Eleusis, and the same with Demophoön. (Vid. Ceres, page 330, col. 1.) The vanity of the people of Attica made them pretend that corn was first known and agriculture first practised in their country. Ceres, according to them, taught Triptolemus agriculture, and rendered him serviceable to mankind by instructing him how to sow corn and make bread. She also, it was fabled, gave him her chariot, which was drawn by two dragons, and in this celestial vehicle he travelled over the whole earth, and distributed corn to all the inhabitants of the world. At his return to Eleusis, Triptolemus restored Ceres her chariot, and is said to have established festivals and mysteries in honour of that deity. He reigned for some time, and after death received divine honours.-There seems to be an allusion in the name Triptolemus (derived probably from Tpeic and Tožičw) to an improvement introduced in early agriculture by treble ploughing. (Hygin., fab., 147. — Pausan., 2, 14; 8, 4.—Justin, 2, 6–Apollod., 1, 5. —Callim., H. in Cer., 22.-Orid, Met., 5,646.) TRiQUEtra, a name given to Sicily by the Latins, from its triangular form. TRIsMEgistus, a celebrated Egyptian priest and philosopher, of whom some mention has been already made in a previous article. (Wid. Mercurius Trismegistus.) It remains but to give here a brief sketch of his works, or, rather, of the productions that have come down to us in his name.—1. The most celebrated of these is entitled “Poemander,” IIouávöpmc (from Trotuńv, “pastor”), and treating “of the nature of all things, and of the creation of the world.” It is in the form of a dialogue. This work is also sometimes cited under the following title, “Of the Divine Power and Wisdom.”—2. A second work is entitled 'Ackāfirwoc, “AEsculapius.” It is a dialogue between Hermes (Mercurius) Trismegistus and his disciple, and treats of God, man, and the universe. It bears also the name of Aóyos TéAetos, but it exists only in the shape of a Latin translation, which some critics ascribe to Apuleius.—3. The third work has the sollowing title: 'Iarpouatmuartkū # trepi karakatoew: vocoövtov IIpoyvoaruká čk Tig uaffnuarukić Šttorffpinc, irpor 'Auuova Aiyúrtuov, “Iatromathematica, or the Art of presaging the Issue of Maladies by means of Mathematics (i.e., by the planets or astrology), a work addressed to Ammon the Egyptian.” As Julius Firmicus, a great admirer of Egyptian astrology, and who speaks of Hermes, makes no mentipn of this work, the probability is that it did not exist in the year 340 o the period when Firmicus wrote, 4. i
A treatise “De Revolutionibus Nativitatum,” which exists merely in a Latin translation. It is in two books, and treats of the mode of drawing horoscopes. Some phrases in this work would seem to indicate that it is translated rather from the Arabic than the Greek.-5. The Aphorisms of Hermes or Mercurius, also in a Latin version. The work consists of astrological sentences or propositions, translated from the Arabian about the time of Manfred, king of Sicily. It is sometimes cited under the title of Centioquium. –6. Kvpavičec, “Cyranides,” a work, the title of which has given rise to much speculation. Some authors derive the term from the Arabic, and make it equivalent to the French expression melanges, while others pretend that it is Greek, and that it is used in astrology to denote the power of the stars (from xéptoc). Be this as it may, the Cyranides of Trismegistus treat of the magic powers and medical virtues of precious stones, of plants, and of animals. The Greek text of this work exists in manuscript in some of the European libraries, but it is only known, thus far, to the public through the medium of a Latin translation.— Besides these astrological works, there are others connected with chemistry, or, more correctly speaking, alchemy, of which the following are the titles: 1. A chemical treatise on the secret of producing the philosopher's stone. This work is cited among adepts under the pompous appellation of “the Seven Seals of Hermes Trismegistus.”—7. “The Emerald Tablet.” Under this title the receipt of Hermes for making gold is known. According to the adepts, Sara, the wife of Abraham, found this emerald tablet in the tomb of Hermes, on Mount Hebron.—The two works of which we have just spoken exist only in Latin. A third, entitled ovatkai Badat, “ Chemical Tinctures,” exists, it is said, in manuscript in some libraries. – We have also a treatise of Hermes on “Precious Stones.”—Stobaeus has also preserved fragments of the five following works of Trismegistus: 1. IIpóc vićv, or IIpos Tár, or IIpê 'Aaxxotriov, “To his son,” or “To Tat,” or “To AEsculapius.”—2. IIpêr 'Auuotiv repi Tào 627 Oikovouino, “On the Economy of the Universe, a work addressed to Ammon.”–3. Kópm kāquov, “The Virgin of the World.” Isis is thus named. The work is a dialogue between Isis and her son Horus, on the Origin of the World.—4. 'Aopoćirm, “Venus,” a work on Generation.—5. IIepi Eluapuévnc., a hexameter poem “on Destiny.”—The latest edition of the Poemander is that of 1630, Col. Agripp., 6 vols. fol.—The Esculapius is found united to most editions of the Poemander.— The Iatromathematica are found in the astronomical collection of Camerarius, and were also published separately by Hoeschel, Argent., 1597, 8vo.—The treatise de Revolutionibus Nativitatum was edited by Wolf, Basil, 1559, fol.-The Aphorisms were printed at Venice, 1493, fol., with the Tetrabiblon of Ptolemy, and at Ulm, in 1651 and 1674, in 12mo.--The Cyramides were edited by Rivinus (Bachmann), Lips, 1638, 8vo, and Francof., 1681, 12mo. —The Chemical Treatise was printed at Leipsic, 1610, in 8vo. It is found, also, in the 4th volume of the Theatrum Chimicum, Argent., 1613, 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 118.) Tritza, a city of Achaia, southwest of Ægium, and near the confines of Elis. It was said to have been founded by Callidas, who came from Cumae in
Italy, or, according to other accounts, by Menahppus,
son of Mars and Tritoa. It was made dependant on Patrae by order of Augustus. Its remains are generally supposed to correspond with those observed by modern travellers at Goumenitza. These ruins, which are very extensive, are sometimes called St. Andrea, from a church dedicated to that apostle in the immediate vicinity. (Gell, Itin. of the Morea, p. 135Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 75.)
TRIrogenia, a surname of Pallas. (Wid. Minerva, page 849, col. 2.) Triton, I. a sea-deity, the son, according to Hesiod, of Neptune and Amphitrite. (Theog., 930.) Later poets made him his father's trumpeter. He was also multiplied, and we read of Tritons in the plural number. Like the Nereides, the Tritons were degraded to the fish-form. Pausanias tells us, that the women of Tanagra, in Boeotia, going into the sea to purify themselves for the orgies of Bacchus, were, while there, assailed by Triton; but, on praying to their god, he vanquished their persecutor. Others, he adds, said that Triton used to carry off the cattle which were driven down to the sea, and to seize all small vessels, till the Tanagrians placing bowls of wine on the shore, he drank of them, and, becoming intoxicated, threw himself down on the shore to sleep, where, as he lay, a Tanagrian cut off his head with an axe. He relates these legends to account for the statue of Triton at Tanagria being headless. He then subjoins: “I have seen another Triton among the curiosities of the Romans, but it is not so large as this of the Tanagrians. The form of the Tritons is this: the hair of their head resembles the parsley that grows in marshes, both in colour and in the perfect likeness of one hair to another: the rest of their body is rough, with small scales, and is of about the same hardness as the skin of a fish : they have fish-gills under their ears; their nostrils are those of a man, but their teeth are broader, and like those of a wild beast: their eyes seem to me azure, and their hands, fingers, and nails are of the form of the shells of shellfish; they have, instead of feet, fins under their breasts and belly, like those of the porpoise.” (Pausan., 9, 20, 21.-Keight'ey's Mythology, p. 245, seq.)—II. A river of Africa, , ising in Mount Usaleton, and, after forming in its course the two lakes of Tritonis and Libya, discharging its waters into the Syrtis Minor, near Tacape. It is now the Gabs. TritóNis or Triton, a lake and river of Africa, inland from the Syrtis Minor. Minerva is said to have been called Tritonia because she first revealed herself in the vicinity of this lake. (But consult remarks under the article Minerva, page 849, col. 2.) Near the Tritonis Palus was the Libya Palus. Modern travellers speak of a long and narrow lake in this quarter, divided in two by a ford; D'Anville considers these to be the Tritonis and Libya Palus. The modern name of the former is Faraun, and of the latter, El-Loudeath. (Herod., 4, 178.-Pausan., 9, 33.− Virg., AEn., 2, 171. — Mela, 1, 7.)—II. An appellation given to Minerva by the poets. (Virg., AEn., 2, 226.-Ovid, Met., 3, 127.)—III. An epithet sometimes given to the sacred olive at Athens. (Stat., Sylp., 2, 7, 28.) Trivia, a surname given to Diana, because she presided over places where three roads met. (Wid. Diana, and Hecate.) Trivicum, a place situate among the mountains that separate Samnium from Apulia. The little town of Trivico, which appears on a height above the course of the ancient Appian Way, indicates the site of this place. (Horat., Sat., 1, 5, 79.) TRIUMviróRUM INstila, an island in the small river Rhentis, one of the tributaries of the Po, where the triumvirs Antony, Lepidus, and Augustus, met to divide the Roman empire after the battle of Mutina. (Dio Ciss., 46, 55.) TRośdes, the inhabitants of Troas. TroAs, a district on the AEgean coast of Mysia, in Asia Minor, extending as far south as the promontory of Lectum, now Cape Baba, of which Troy was the capital. The kingdom of Priam, if we form our ideas of it from the poems of Homer, must have been of very limited extent. Strabo, indeed, through partiali| tv for his favourite poet, seeks to enlarge the limits of
Priam's kingdom, and makes it to have comprised the country on the coast of the Propontis as far as the river Æsepus, near Cyzicus. Homer, however, names many expressly as allies of the Trojans whom Strabo would wish to consider as the subjects of Priam. The northern part of Troas was termed Dardania, from Dardanus, a city founded by Dardanus, one of the ancestors of Priam The Trojans were very probably of Thracian origin. (Vid. Troja.) TRocM1, a people of Galatia, on the side of Cappadocia, and between the Halys and the last-mentioned country. (Polyb., 31, 13.—Liv., 38, 16. — Plin., 5, 32.) TroezèNE, a city of Argolis, situate on the Sinus Saronicus, near the southeastern extremity of that country, and northeast of Hermione. The Troezemians prided themselves upon the great antiquity of their city, which had borne the several names of Orea, Althepia, and Posidonia, before it received that of Troezene from Traezen, the son of Pelops, one of the earliest sovereigns of the country. He was succeeded by Pittheus, whose daughter, marrying AEgeus, became the mother of Theseus. This hero was born at Truezene, where he long resided. Many of his adventures, as well as those of Phaedra and Hippolytus, are referred to this city by the tragic poets. The Troozenians could also boast of having colonized Myndus and Halicarnassus in Caria, and likewise the borough of Sphettus and Anaphlystus in Attica. (Herod., 7, 99. —Pausan., 2, 30.) On the arrival of the Heraclidae and Dorians, Troezene was occupied by their forces, and became a republic independent of Argos, to which it had been subject at the time of the Trojan expedition. (Pausan., l. c.—Herod., 8, 43.) In the Persian war, the Troezenians received most of the Athenian families who were forced to abandon their city. (Herod., 8, 41.) They sent five ships to Artemisium and Salamis, and 1000 heavy-armed soldiers to Plataea (Herod., 8, 1. – Id., 9, 28); they are also named among the confederates who fought at Mycale. (Herod., 9, 102.)—The harbour of Troezene obtained the name of Pogon from its shape, being bounded by a curved strip of land which resembled a beard (Tóyov). The ruins of this ancient city are to be seen near the village of Damala, in a plain situate at the foot of a lofty range of mountains, which runs from the Saronic Gulf to that of Hermione. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 262, seqq.) “This place,” observes Sir Win. Gell, in speaking of Troezene, “now represented by a mean village of only forty-five habitations, was anciently of considerable extent, the longest side of the city having been at least one mile in length. It was probably, like most of the Grecian cities, of a form approaching to a triangle, having a wall on the plain, from the extremities of which other fortifications ran up the mountain to the Acropolis, on a craggy and detached summit, now very prettily spotted with wild olives.” (Compare Leake's Morea, vol. 2, p. 442, seqq.) Trogili.A., three small islands near Samos, named Psilon, Argennon, and Sandalion. (Plin., 5, 31.) Strabo names only one, which he calls Trogilium, probably the same alluded to in the Acts of the Apostles (20, 15). Trogilium PromoNtorium, a bold promontory of Ionia, nearly opposite to Cape Posidium, in the island of Samos, and separated from it by a strait not more than seven stadia wide. (Strab., 636.) The Trogilian promontory is mentioned in the Acts, in the account of St. Paul's voyage from Troas to Miletus, by Mytilene, Chios, and Samos. From the latter island they crossed over to Trogilium, and after remaining there, it appears, one night, they reached Miletus the following day. (Acts, 20, 15.) The modern name of this promontory is Cape Santa Maria. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 378.)
Troglodytz, an appellation denoting a people who dwelt in caves (Tpoyam, a cave, and Övva», to enter). The ancients found Troglodytes in various parts of the world, but the name remained peculiarly appropriated to the inhabitants of the western coast of the Sinus Arabicus in ACthiopia; and from them the entire coast took, with the Greeks, the name of Troglodytice (Tpoyżodvtukù). It commenced to the south of Berenice, and reached to the southernmost extremity of the gulf. (Plin., 6, 29.-Id., 2, 70.—Id., 6, 19.) TRogus Pompeius, a Latin historian, who flourished in the time of Augustus. He was descended from a Gallic family, to which Pompey the Great had extend. ed the rights of Roman citizenship, and from him, in all probability, the name Pompeius was derived, the family name having been Trogus. The father of the historian was secretary to Julius Caesar. (Justin, 43, 5, 11.) Trogus Pompeius wrote an historical work in forty-four books, compiled from some of the best of the ancient historical writers. An abridgment of this work was made by Justin, and has come down to us; but the original work itself is lost. (Consult remarks under the article Justinus I.) Troja, I. a celebrated city, the capital of Troas, which appears from Homer to have stood in the immediate vicinity of the sources of the Scamander, on a rising ground between that river and the Simois. The Trojans or Teucri appear to have been of Thracian origin, and their first monarch is said to have been Teucer. In the reign of this king Troy was not as yet built. Dardanus, probably a Pelasgic chies, came from the island of Samothrace to the Teucrian territory, received from Teucer his daughter Baticia in marriage, together with the cession of part of his kingdom, founded the city of Dardanus, and called the adjacent region Dardania. Dardanus had two sons, Ilus and Erichthonius. Ilus died without issue, and was succeeded by Erichthonius, who married Asyoche, daughter of the Simois, and became by her the father of Tros. This last, on succeeding to the throne, called the country Troas or Troja, and had three sons, Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes. Ilus, having come off victorious in certain games at the court of a neighbouring monarch of Phrygia, received from the latter, among other rewards, a dappled heifer, and permission to found a city wherever the heifer should lie down. The animal, having come to a place called the “hill of Ate” ('Atmo. A690c), lay down thereon, and here, accordingly, Ilus founded his city, which he called Ilium, and which afterward obtained also the name of Troy. (Apollod., 3, 12, 1, seqq.) This place, the citadel of which was called Pergamus, became now the capital of all Troas, and, during the reign of Laomedon, the successor of Ilus, was surrounded with walls, which the poets sabled were the work of Apollo and Neptune. (Wid. Laomedon.) During the reign of this last-mentioned monarch, Troy was taken by Hercules, assisted by Telamon, son of AEacus, but was restored by the victor to Priam, the son of its conquered king. (Wid. Laomedon, and Priamus.) Priam reigned here in peace and prosperity for many years, having a number of adjacent tribes under his sway, until his son Paris, attracted to Laconia by the same of Helen's beauty, abused the hospitality of Menclaims by carrying off his queen in his absence. All the chiefs of Greece, thereupon combined their forces, under the command of Agamemnon, to avenge this outrage, sailed with a great armament to Troy, and, after a siege of ten years, took and razed it to the ground (B.C. 1184).
1. Legend of the Trojan War.
Jupiter, seeing the earth overstocked with inhabitants, consulted with Themis how to remedy the evil. The best course seemed to be a war between Hellas
came to the banquet of the gods at the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, and flung down a golden apple, inscribed “The Apple for the Fair One” (To kaž; rà uñāov). Juno, Minerva, and Venus, claiming it, Jupiter directed Mercury to conduct them to Mount Ida, for the question to be determined by Paris, the son of Priam. The prize was awarded to Venus, who had promised the judge the beautiful Helen in marriage. Venus then directed him to build a ship, and desired her son Æneas to be the companion of his adventure. The soothsaying Helenus and Cassandra announced in vain the woes that were to follow; the vessel put to sea, and Paris arrived at Lacedæmon, where he shared the hospitality of Menelaús, the husband of Helen. The Trojan, at the banquet, bestowed gifts on his fair hostess, and shortly after Menelaus sailed to Crete, directing his wife to entertain the guests while they stayed. But Venus caused Helen and Paris to become mutually enamoured; and the guilty pair, filling the ship with the property of Menelaus, embark and depart, accompanied by the son of Anchises. Menelaus, returning to his home, consulted with his brother Agamemnon about an expedition against Troy. He then repaired to Nestor at Pylos, and, going through Hellas, they assembled chiefs for the war. The general place of rendezvous was Aulis in Baeotia. From this port the combined Grecian fleet proceeded to Troy; but, reaching Teuthrania, in Mysia, on the coast of Asia, and taking it for the Trojan territory, they landed and ravaged the country. Telephus, the monarch of the land, came to oppose them, and killed Thersander, the son of Polynices, but was himself severely wounded by Achilles. As they were sailing thence, their fleet was dispersed by a storm. Telephus, after this, having, by direction of an oracle, come to Argos in search of a cure for his wound, is healed by Achilles, and undertakes to conduct the Greeks to Troy. The fleet again assembled at Aulis, where the affair of Iphigenia occurred. (Vid. Iphigenia.) The wind, after the anger of Diana had been appeased, no longer proving adverse, the fleet made sail, and reached the isle of Tenedos, where Philoctetes received a wound from a water-snake, and the smell from this proving very offensive, they carried him to the isle of Lemnos and left him there. (Wid. Philoctetes.) When the Achaean host appeared off the coast of Troy, the Trojans came down to oppose their landing, and Protesilaus fell by the hand of Hector; but Achilles, having slain Cycnus, the son of Neptune, put the enemy to flight. An assault on the city having failed, the Greeks turned to ravaging the surrounding country, and took several towns. Then followed a war of ten long years, the principal events of which have been given elsewhere. (Wid. Achilles, Chryses, Briseis, Agamemnon, Penthesilea, Memnon, &c.) In the last year of the war, Ulysses took Helenus by strategem, and, having learned from him how Troy might be captured, Diomede was sent to Lemnos to fetch Philoctetes, who, being cured by Machaon, killed Paris. Minerva then directed Epeus to construct a huge horse of wood; and, the horse being completed, the braves: warriors conceal themselves in it, and the rest set fire to their tents and sail away to Tenedos. The Tro: jans, thinking their toils and dangers all over to: down a part of their walls, and, drawing the hors” the city, indulge in festivity. There was a do” what to do with the horse; some were for throwing * from the rock, others for burning it, others for of secrating it to Minerva. The last opinion preo. and the banquets were spread. Two vast to now appeared, and destroyed Laocoon and his *i dismayed by which prodigy, AEneas forthwith *. to Mount Ida. Sinon, then, who had got in” a city by means of a forged tale, raised torch” .. signal to those at Tenedos. They return, the w
and Troy ; and Discord thereupon, by his direction,
no descend from the horse, and the city "".
Such is the narrative of the Trojan war as it appeared in the Iliad of Homer, in the Little Iliad, and in the Destruction of Troy, by the bard Arctinus. It was a subject, however, of all others open to variation and addition, as may be seen, in particular, from the Eneid of Virgil, and also in the other form of the story, which made AEneas and Antenor to have betrayed Troy to the Greeks. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 485, seqq.)
2. How far the story of the Trojan War is credible.
The poems of Homer have made the story of the Trojan war familiar to most readers long before they are tempted to inquire into its historical basis. It is, consequently, difficult to cnter upon the present inquiry without some prepossessions unfavourable to an impartial judgment. Here, however, we must not be deterred from stating our view of the subject, by the certainty that it will appear to some paradoxical, while others will think that it savours of excessive credulity. The reality of the siege of Troy has sometimes been questioned, we conceive, without sufficient ground, and against some strong evidence. According to the rules of sound criticism, very cogent arguments ought to be required to induce us to reject as a mere fiction a tradition so ancient, so universally received, so definite, and so interwoven with the whole mass of the national recollections as that of the Trojan war. Even if unfounded, it must still have had some adequate occasion and motive; and it is difficult to imagine what this could have been, unless it arose out of the Greek colonies in Asia; and in this case, its universal reception in Greece itself is not easily explained. The leaders of the earliest among these colonies, which were planted in the neighbourhood of Troy, claimed Agamemnon as their ancestor; but if this had suggested the story of his victories in Asia, their scene would probably have been fixed in the very region occupied by his descendants, not in an adjacent land. On the other hand, the course taken by this first (AEolian) migration falls in naturally with a previous tradition of a conquest achieved by Greeks in this part of Asia. We therefore conceive it necessary to admit the reality of the Trojan war as a general fact, but beyond this we scarcely venture to proceed a single step. Its cause and its issue, the manner in which it was conducted, and the parties engaged in it, are all involved in an obscurity which we cannot pretend to penetrate. We find it impossible to adopt the poetical story of Helen, partly on account of its inherent improbability, and partly because we are convinced that Helen is a merely mythological person. (Vid. Helena.) The common account of the origin of the war has indeed been defended, on the ground that it is perfectly consistent with the manners of the age; just as if a popular tale, whether true or false, could be at variance with them. The feature in the narrative which appears in the highest degree improbable, setting the character of the persons out of the question, is the intercourse implied in it between Troy and Sparta. As to the heroine, it would be sufficient to raise a strong suspicion of her fabulous nature to observe that she is classed by Herodotus with Io, and Europa, and Medea, all of them persons who, on distinct grounds, must clearly be referred to the domain of mythology. This suspicion is confirmed by all the particulars of her legend; by her birth; by her relation to the Divine Twins, whose worship seems to have been one of the most ancient forms of religion in Peloponnesus, and especially in Laconia ; and by the divine honours paid to her at Sparta and elsewhere. (Herod., 6, 6i.— Pausan, 3, 19, 10.—Id., 2, 22, 6–Id., 2, 32, 7.Plut., Wit. Thes., c. 20, seq.) But a still stronger reason for doubting the reality of the motive assigned by Homer for the Trojan war is, that the same incident recurs in another circle of fictions, and that, in the abduction of Helen, Paris only repeats an exploit also at
tributed to Theseus. This adventure of the Attic hero seems to have been known to Homer; for he introduces AEthra, the mother of Theseus, whom tho Dioscuri were said to have carried off from Attica when they invaded it to recover their sister, in Helen's company at Troy. Theseus, when he came to bear her away, is said to have found her dancing in the temple of the goddess, whose image Iphigenia was believed to have brought home subsequently from Scythia; a feature of the legend which perhaps marks the branch of the Lacedæmonian worship to which she belonged. According to another tradition, Helen was carried off by Idas and Lynceus, the Messenian pair of heroes who answer to the Spartan twins; variations which seem to show that her abduction was a theme for poetry originally independent of the Trojan war, but which might easily and naturally be associated with that event. (Thirlwall's History of Greece, vol. 1, p. 151, seqq.)
3. Connexion between the Trojan War and the Argonautic Expedition.
If we reject the traditional occasion of the Trojan war, we are driven to conjecture in order to explain the real connexion of the events; yet not so as to be wholly without traces to direct us. It has been elsewhere observed (vid. Argonauta, p. 188, col. 2), that the Argonautic expedition was sometimes represented as connected with the first conflict between Greece and Troy. This was according to the legend which numbered Hercules among the Argonauts, and supposed him, on the voyage, to have rendered a service to the Trojan king Laomedon, who afterward defrauded him of his recompense. The main fact, however, that . Troy was taken and sacked by Hercules, is recognised by Homer ; and thus we see it already provoking the enmity, or tempting the cupidity of the Greeks in the generation before the celebrated war; and it may easily be conceived, that if its power and opulence revived after this blow, it might again excite the same feelings. The expedition of Hercules may indeed suggest a doubt whether it was not an earlier and simpler form of the same tradition, which grew, at length, into the argument of the Iliad; for there is a striking resemblance between the two wars, not only in the events, but in the principal actors. As the prominent figures in the second siege are Agamemnon and Achilles, who represent the royal house of Mycenae and that of the AEacidae, so, in the first, the Argive Hercules is accompanied by the AEacid Telamon; and even the quarrel and reconciliation of the allied chiefs are features common to both traditions. Nor perhaps should it be overlooked, that, according to a legend which was early celebrated in the epic poetry of Greece, the Greek fleet sailed twice from Aulis to the coast of Asia. In the first voyage it reached the mouth of the Caicus, where the army landed, and gained a victory over Telephus, king of Mysia; but, on leaving the Mysian coast, the fleet was dispersed by a storm, and compelled to reassemble at Aulis. There seems to be no reason for treating this either as a fictitious episode, or as a fact really belonging to the history of the Trojan war. It may have been originally a distinct legend, grounded, like that of Hercules, on a series of attacks made by the Greeks on the coast of Asia, whether merely for the sake of plunder, or with a view to permanent settlements. (Thirlwall's History of Greece, vol. 1, p. 153, seq.)
4. Historical View, and Consequences, of the Trojan War.
As to the expedition which ended in the fall of
Ilium, while the leading facts are so uncertain, it must
clearly be lo. to form any distinct conception of
its details. It seems scarcely necessary to observe,
that no more reliance can be placed on the enumera