Obrazy na stronie

for pasturing and the cultivation of corn; its coasts, especially the Sinus Pagasaeus, afforded the best harbours for shipping; nature seemed hardly to have left a wish ungratified. It was in Thessaly that the tribe of the Hellenes, according to tradition, first applied themselves to agriculture; and thence its several branches spread over the more southern lands. (Wid. Hellas.) Almost all the names of its towns recall some association connected with the primitive history and heroic age of the nation.—Early traditions, preserved by the Greek poets and other writers, ascribe to Thessaly the more ancient names of Pyrrha, ACmonia, and Æolis. (Rhian, ap. Schol, in Apoll. Rhod, 3, 1089–Steph. Byz., s. v. Aluovía –Herod., 7, 176.) Passing over the two former appellations, which belong rather to the age of mythology, the latter may afford us matter for historical reflections, as referring to that remote period when the plains of Thessaly were occupied by the AEolian Pelasgi, to whom Greece was probably indebted for the first dawnings of civilization, and the earliest cultivation of her language. (Strabo, 220.) This people originally came, as Herodotus informs us, from Thesprotia (Herod., 7, 176. —Strab., 444); but how long they remained in possession of the country, and at what precise period it assumed the name of Thessaly, cannot, perhaps, now be determined. In the poems of Homer it never occurs, although the several principalities and kingdoms of which it is composed are there distinctly enumerated and described, together with the different chiess to whom they were subject: thus Hellas and Phthia are assigned to Achilles; the Melian and Pagasean territories to Protesilaus and Eumelus ; Magnesia to Philoctetes and Eurypylus; Estiaotis and Pelasgia to Medon and the sons of Æsculapius, with other petty leaders. It is from Homer, therefore, that we derive the earliest information relative to the history of this fairest portion of Greece. This state of things, however, was not of long continuance; and a new constitution, dating probably from the period of the Trojan expedition, seems to have been adopted by the common consent of the Thessalian states. They agreed to unite themselves into one confederate body, under the direction of one supreme magistrate or chief, distinguished by the title of Tagus (Tayós), and elected by the consent of the whole republic. The details of this federal system are little known; but Strabo assures us that the Thessalian confederacy was the most considerable, as well as the earliest, society of the kind established in Greece. (Strab., 429.) How far its constitution was connected with the celebrated Amphictyonic council, it seems impossible to determine, since we are so little acquainted with the origin and history of that ancient assembly. There can be little doubt, however, that this singular coalition, which embraced matters of a political as well as a religious nature, first rose among the states of Thessaly, as we find that the majority of the nation who had votes in the council were either actually Thessalians, or connected in some way with that part of Greece. This mode of government, however, seems to have succeeded as little in Thessaly as in the other Hellenic republics where it was adopted; and that province, which, from its local ovantages, ought to have ranked among the most powerful and leading states of Greece, we find, if we exceptaperiod of brilliant but momentary splendour, to have been one of the most weak and insignificant. We learn from Herodotus, that when Xerxes meditated the invasion of Greece, he was encouraged in the design by the Aleuade, whom the historian terms kings of Thessaly, but who, probably, like the Pisistratide, had only usurped the regal power, and, upon being deprived of their authority, sought the aid of the Persian monarch to recover their kost dominion. (Herod., 7, 6.) It is evident that the Thessalian nation did not concur in their projects, as we find they applied for assistance in this

emergency to the rest of Greece; but, as it was not deemed expedient to join forces against the common enemy, from the impossibility of making any effectual resistance to the north of Thermopylae, the Thessal. answere left to their own resources, and consequently submitted to the Persian arms (Herod., 7, 172, sq.), which Herodotus insinuates they did the more readily, that they might thus profit by foreign aid in avenging themselves on the Phocians, with whom they had been engaged in frequent but unsuccessful hostilities. (Herod., 8, 27.)—Little notice is taken by the Greek historians of the affairs of Thessaly, from the Persian invasion to the battle of Leuctra, except the fact mentioned by Thucydides of an expedition having been undertaken by the Athenians, under the command of Myronides, with a view of reinstating Orestes, son of Echecratidas, prince of Thessaly, who had been ban. ished from his country. The Athenian general, on that occasion, advanced as far as Pharsalus; but his progress being checked by the superiority of the Thessalian cavalry, he was forced to retire without having accomplished any of the objects of the expedition, (Thucyd., 1, 11.1.)—The Thessalians appear to have

taken no part in the Peloponnesian war, though they

might naturally be inclined to favour the Athenian cause, from their early alliance with that state. Hence it was that Brasidas felt it necessary to use such sé. crecy and despatch in traversing their territory on his march towards Thrace. (Thucyd., 4, 78.) Some troops, which were afterward sent by the Lacedæmo. nians in order to re-enforce their army in that quarter, met with a more determined opposition, and were compelled to retrace their steps. (Thucyd., 5, 13) On another occasion we find the Thessalians in league with the Boeotians, endeavouring to harass and inlet. cept the march of Agesilaus through their country, on his return from Asia Minor. This attempt, however, was rendered abortive by the skilful manoeuvres of the Spartan prince; and the cavalry of Thessaly, notwit. standing its boasted superiority, met with a decord repulse from the Lacedæmonian horse. (Xen, Hol. Gr., 4, 3, 2.)—While Sparta, however, was struggling to make head against the formidable coalition, of which Boeotia had taken the lead, Thessaly was acquiring * degree of importance and weight among the states 0 Greece which it had never possessed in any former period of its history. This was effected, apparently, solely by the energy and ability of Jason, who, from being chief or tyrant of Phera, had risen to the rank of Tagus, or commander of the Thessalian states. By his influence and talents, the confederacy received the accession of several important cities; and an imposing military force, amounting to 8000 cavalry, more than 20,000 heavy-armed infantry, and light troops soft cient to oppose the world, had been raised and to by him for the service of the commonwealth. (No. Hist. Gr., 6, 1,6.) His other resources being equally effective, Thessaly seemed destined, under his do tion, to become the leading power in Greece, Wo may estimate the influence that he had already * quired, from the circumstance of his having been *. ed upon to act as mediator between the Beotians and Spartans after the battle of Leuctra (Xan, Hot Gr., 6, 4, 22.)—This brilliant period of political to ence and power was, however, of short duration. “ Jason not long after lost his life by the hand of ** sassin, during the celebration of some games which * had instituted ; and Thessaly, on his death, relapsed into that state of weakness and insignificance to which it had so lately emerged. (Xen. His Go 4, 32.) The Thessalians, finding themselves to to defend their liberties, continually threatened by * tyrants of Phere, successors of Jason, first song** protection of the Boeotians, who sent to their aid a body of troops commanded by the brave Polo

They next applied for assistance to Philip of Maco

who succeeded in defeating, and finally expelling these oppressors of their country; and, by the important services thus rendered to the Thessalians, secured their lasting attachment to his interests, and finally obtained the presidency of the Amphictyonic council. (Polyb., Erc., 9, 28.) Under his skilful management, the troops of Thessaly became a most important addition to the resources he already possessed; and to this powerful re-enforcement may probably be attributed the success which attended his campaign against the Boeotians and Athenians. On the death of Philip, the states of Thessaly, in order to testify their veneration for his memory, issued a decree, by which they confirmed to his son Alexander the supreme station which he had held in their councils; and also signified their intention of supporting his claims to the title of commander-in-chief of the whole Grecian confederacy. The long absence of that enterprising prince, while engaged in distant conquests, subsequently afforded his enemies an opportunity of detaching the Thessalians from his interests ; and the Lamiac war, which was chiefly sustained by that people against his generals Antipater and Craterus, had nearly proved fatal to the Macedonian influence, not only in Thessaly, but over the whole continent of Greece. By the conduct and ability of Antipater, however, the contest was brought to a successful issue, and Thessaly was preserved to the Macedonian crown (Polyb., 4, 76) until the reign of Philip, son of Demetrius, from whom it was wrested by the Romans after the victory of Cynoscephalae. All Thessaly was then declared free by a decree of the senate and people (Liv., 33, 32), but from that time it may be fairly considered as having passed under the dominion of Rome, though its possession was still disputed by Antiochus (Liv., 36, 9, seqq.), and again by Perseus, the son of Philip. Thessaly was already a Roman province, when the fate of the empire of the world was decided in the plains of Pharsalia.-With the exception, perhaps, of Boeotia, this seems to have been the most fertile and productive part of Greece, in wine, oil, and corn, but more especially the latter, of which it exported a considerable quantity to off. countries. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 6, 1, 4.—Theophr., Hist. Plant., 8, 7, et 10.) Hence, as might be expected, the Thessalians were the wealthiest people of Greece; nor were they exempt from those vices which riches and luxury generally bring in their train. (Athen., 12, 5, p. 624.—Theopomp., ap. eund, 6, 17, p. 260.—Plat., Crit., p. 50.)—Like the Lacedaemonians, they employed slaves, who were named Penestao ; these probably were a remnant of the first tribes that inhabited the country, and that had been reduced to a state of servitude by their invaders. The Penesta formed no inconsiderable part of the population, and not unfrequently endeavoured to free themselves from the state of oppression under which they groaned. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 6, 1, 4.—Aristot., de Repub., 2, 9.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 343, seqq.) Thess ALI&tis, a part of Thessaly lying below the Peneus, and to the west of Magnesia and Phthiotis. (Wid. Thessalia, near the beginning of the article.) Thessalonica, I. a city of Macedonia, at the northeastern extremity of the Sinus Thermaicus. It was at first an inconsiderable place, under the name of Therme, by which it was known in the times of Herodotus, Thucydides, AEschines (Fals. Legat., 29), and Scylax. The latter speaks also of the Thermaean Gulf. Therme was occupied by the Athenians prior to the Peloponnesian war, but was restored by them to Perdiccas shortly after. (Thucyd., 1, 51–Id., 2, 29.) We are informed by Strabo that Cassander changed the name of Therme to Thessalonica, in honour of his wife, who was daughter of Philip. (Epit, 7, p. 330.—Scymn., Ch., v. 625.—Zonar, 12, 26.) Stephanus of Byzantium asserts that the former name

of Thessalonica was Halia, and quotes a passage from a work written by Lucillus of Tarrha on this place, to account for the reason which induced Philip to call his daughter Thessalonica. Cassander is said to have collected together the inhabitants of several neighbouring towns for the aggrandizement of the new city, which thus became one of the most important and flourishing ports of northern Greece. It surrendered to the Romans after the battle of Pydna (Liv., 44, 10), and was made the capital of the second region of Macedonia. (Id., 45,29.) Situated on the great Egnatian Way, 227 miles from Dyrrhachium, and possessed of an excellent harbour, well placed for commercial intercourse with the Hellespont and Asia Minor, it could not fail of becoming a very populous and flourishing city. The Christian will dwell with peculiar interest on the circumstances that connect the name of St. Paul with the history of this place. It will be seen, from the epistles which he addressed to his converts here, how successful his exertions had been, notwithstanding the opposition and enmity he had to encounter from his misguided countrymen.—Pliny (4, 10) decribes Thessalonica as a free city; and Lucian as the largest of the Macedonian towns. (Asin., 46.Compare Ptol., p. 84.—Hierocl., p. 638.) Later historians name it as the residence of the prefect, and the capital of Illyricum. (Theodoret, Hist. Eccles., 5, 17.—Socrat., Hist. Eccles., c. 11.) For an account of the dreadful massacre that once took place here, consult the article Theodosius II.-The modern name of the place is Saloniki. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 236, seqq.—Compare Clarke's Travels, vol. 7, p. 443, seqq.)—II. A daughter of Philip, married to Cassander, and from whom the city of Thessalonica is said to have received its name. (Wid. preceding article.)

The stor, a son of Idmon and Laothoë, father to Calchas. From him Calchas is often called Thestorides. (Ovid, Met., 12, 19.-Stat., Ach., 1,497.)

Thetis, one of the sea-deities, daughter of Nereus and Doris. To reward the virtue of Peleus (vid. Peleus), the king of the gods resolved to give him a goddess in marriage. The spouse selected for him was Thetis, who had been wooed by Jupiter himself and his brother Neptune; but Themis having declared that the child of Thetis would be greater than his sire, the gods withdrew. (Pind., Isthm., 8, 58, seqq.) According to another account, she was courted by Jupiter alone till he was informed by Prometheus that her son would dethrone him. (Apollod., 3, 13, 1–Schol. ad Il., 1,519.) Others, again, maintain that Thetis, who was reared by Juno, would not listen to the suit of Jupiter, and that the god, in his anger, condemned her to espouse a mortal (Apollod., l.c.), or that Juno herself selected Peleus for her spouse. (Il., 24, 59.—Apoll. Rhod., 4, 793, seq.) Chiron, being made aware of the will of the gods, advised Peleus to aspire to the hand of the nymph of the sea, and instructed him how to win her. Peleus therefore lay in wait, and held her fast, though she changed herself into every variety of form, becoming fire, water, a serpent, and a lion. The wedding was solemnized on Mount Pelion: all the gods, except Discord (vid. Discordia), were invited, and they all, with this single exception, honoured it with their presence (Il., 24, 62), and bestowed armour on the bridegroom. (Il., 17, 195. —Ib., 18, 84.) Chiron gave him an ashen spear, and Neptune the immortal Harpy-born steeds Balius and Xanthus. The muses sang, the Nereides danced, to celebrate the wedding, and Ganymedes poured out nectar for the guests. (Eurip., Iph. in Aul., 1036, seqq.—Catullus, Nuptia, Pel, et Thet.) The offspring of this union was the celebrated Achilles. When the goddess wished to make this her child immortal, the indiscreet curiosity of Peleus frustrated her design, and, leaving her babe, she abandoned for ever the o of her



husband, and returned to her sister Nereides. Achilles, where a full account is given.) THIRMidA, a town in the interior of Numidia, where Hiempsal was slain by the soldiers of Jugurtha. (Sall., Jug., c. 12, 41.) The site is unknown. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 372.) Thisbe, I. a beautiful female of Babylon, between whom and a youth named Pyramus, a native of the same place, a strong attachment subsisted. Their parents, however, being averse to their union, they adopted the expedient of receiving each other's addresses through the chink of a wall which separated their dwellings. In the sequel, they arranged a meeting at the tomb of Ninus, under a white mulberry-tree. Thisbe, enveloped in a veil, arrived first at the appointed place; but, terrified at the appearance of a lioness, she fled precipitately, and in her flight dropped her veil, which, lying in the animal's path, was rent by it, and smeared with the blood that stained the jaws of the lioness from the recent destruction of some cattle. Pyramus, coming soon after to the appointed place, beheld the torn and bloody veil, and, concluding that Thisbe had been destroyed by some savage beast, slew himself in despair. Thisbe, returning after a short interval to the spot where she had encountered the lioness, beheld the bleeding form of Pyramus, and threw herself upon the fatal sword, still warm, as it was, with the blood of her lover. According to the poets, the mulberry that overhung the fatal scene changed the hue of its fruit from snow-white to a blood-red colour. (Ovid, Met., 4, 55, seqq.)—II. A town of Baeotia, northwest of Ascra, and near the confines of Phocis. It was famed for its abounding in wild pigeons. (Hom., Il., 2, 502.-Strabo, 41.1.) Xenophon writes the name in the plural, Thisbae. (Hist. Gr., 6, 4, 3.) The modern Kakosia marks its site. Sir W. Gell remarks, that the place is remarkable for the immense number of rock-pigeons still found here. This circumstance, he observes, is the more striking, as neither the birds, nor rocks so full of perforations, in which they build their nests, are found in any other part of the country. . (Itin., p. 115.) Thoas, I. a king of the Tauric Chersonese when Orestes and Pylades, in concert with Iphigenia, carried off from that country the statue of the Tauric Diana. (Wid, Orestes and Iphigenia.)—II. King of Lemnos, and father of Hypsipyle. (Vid. Hypsipyle.) Thorax, I, a mountain near Magnesia ad Maeandrum, in Lydia, on which the poet Daphidas was crucified for having written some satirical lines against Attalus, king of Pergamus. Hence the proverb, ovAdrrow row 90paka, “Take care of Thoraz.” (Strab., 647.-Cic., de Fat., c. 3.-Erasmus, Chil, 2, cent. 4, m. 52. *... a mountain of Laconia, north of Sparta, and forming part of the range called Menelaium. It is now Thornika. On this mountain was a temple of Apollo, with a statue of the god, to which a quantity of gold was presented by Croesus (Herod., 1,69); but the Lacedæmonians made use of it afterward to adorn the more revered image of the Amyclean Apollo. (Pausan, 3, 10. Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, . 219. p #. an Egyptian deity, corresponding in some degree to the Grecian Hermes and the Latin Mercurius. (Wid, remarks under the article Mercurius.) Thrices, the inhabitants of Thrace. (Wid. Thracia. *. I. a name of frequent occurrence in the earliest history of Greek civilization, and designating, in all probability, not the country called Thracia in a later age, but the district subsequently known by the appellation of Pieria.-By far the most remarkable circumstance in the accounts that have come down to us respecting the earliest minstrels of Greece is, that several of them are called Thracians. It is utterly

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inconceivable that, in the later historic times, when the Thracians were contemned as a barbarian race, a notion should have sprung up that the first civilization of Greece was due to them; consequently we cannot doubt that this was a tradition handed down from a very early period. Now if we are to understand it to mean that Eumolpus, Orpheus, Musæus, and Thamyris were the fellow-countrymen of those Edonians, Odrysians, and Odomantians who, in the historical ages, occupied the Thracian territory, and who spoke a barbarian language, that is, one unintelli. gible to the Greeks, we must despair of being able to comprehend these accounts of the ancient Thracian minstrels, and of assigning them a place in the history of Grecian civilization; since it is manifest that at this early period, when there was scarcely any intercourse between different nations, or knowledge of foreign tongues, poets who sang in an unintelligible language could not have had more influence on the mental development of the people than the twittering of birds. Nothing but the dumb language of mimicry and dancing, and musical strains independent of alticulate speech, can at such a period pass from nation to nation, as, for example, the Phrygian music passed over to Greece; whereas the Thracian minstrels are constantly represented as the fathers of poetry, which, of course, is necessarily combined with language. When we come to trace more precisely the country of these Thracian bards, we find that the traditions refer to Pieria, the district to the east of the Olympus range, to the north of Thessaly, and the south of Emsthia or Macedonia. In Pieria, likewise, was Libe thra, where the Muses are said to have sung the la: ment over the tomb of Orpheus: the ancient poets, moreover, always make Pieria, not Thrace, the native place of the Muses, which last Homer clearly distin. guishes from Pieria. (Il., 14, 226.) It was not until the Pierians were pressed in their own territory by the early Macedonian princes, that some of them cror ed the Strymon into Thrace proper, where Herodo tus mentions the castles of the Pierians in the expo dition of Xerxes (7, 112). It is, however, quite cor ceivable that, in early times, either on account of it." close vicinity or because all the north was compo hended under one name, the Pierians might, in solo ern Greece, have been called Thracians. These Ph erians, from the intellectual relations which they main" tained with the Greeks, appear to have been a Grecon race ; which supposition is also confirmed by the Greek names of their places, rivers, fountains, * although it is probable that, situated on the limits" the Greek nation, they may have borrowed largely from neighbouring tribes. (Müller's Dorians, voll. p. 472, 488, 501.) A branch of the Phrygian nation. so devoted to an enthusiastic worship, once d" close to Pieria, at the soot of Mount Bermius, who King Midas was said to have taken the drunken So nus in his rose-gardens. In the whole of this regio a wild and enthusiastic worship of Bacchus was disfused among both men and women. It may be * conceived, that the excitement which the mind thus * ceived contributed to prepare it for poetic enthusiasm. These same Thracians or Pierians lived, up to the tim” of the Doric and AEolic migrations, in certain distrio of Boeotia and Phocis. That they had dwelt abo. the Boeotian mountain of Helicon, in the district 9 Thespia, and Acra, was evident to the ancient ho rians, as well from the traditions of the cities as " the agreement of many names of places in the co" near Olympus (Libetirion, Pimpleis, Helicon, &c.). At the foot of Pamassus, too, in Phocis, was "" have been situate the city of Daulis, the seat of Thracian king Tereus, who is known by his conto ion with the Athenian king Pandion, and by the fable of the metamorphosis of his wife Procne no 3. nightingale.—From what has been said, it appear”." ficiently clear that these Pierians or Thracians, dwelling about Helicon and Parnassus, in the vicinity of Attica, are chiefly signified when a Thracian origin is ascribed to the mythic bards of Attica. (Muller, Hist. Gr. Lit., p. 26, seqq.)—II. A large tract of country between the Strymon and the Euxine from west to east, and between the chain of Mount Haemus and the shores of the Ægean and Propontis from north to south. Such, at least, are the limits assigned to it b Herodotus and Thucydides, though great changes o place in ages posterior to these historians. That the Thracians, however, were at one period much more widely disseminated than the confines here assigned them would lead us to infer, is evident from the facts recorded in the earliest annals of Grecian history relative to their migrations to the southern provinces of that country. We have the authority of Thucydides for their establishment in Phocis (2,49). Strabo (p. 401, 410) certifies their occupation of Boeotia. And numerous writers attest their settlement in Eleusis of Attica, under Eumolpus, whose early wars with Erechtheus are related by Thucydides (2, 15), Pausanias 1. 38), and others. But these, in all probability, are the Thracians alluded to under No. I. Nor were their colonies confined to the European continent alone; for, allured by the richness and beauty of the Asiatic soil and clime, they crossed in numerous bodies the narrow strait which parted them from Asia Minor, and occupied the shores of Bithynia, and the fertile plains of Mysia and Phrygia. (Herod., 7, 73.— Strabo, 303.) On the other hand, a great revolution seems to have been subsequently effected in Thrace by a vast migration of the Teucri and Mysi, who, as Herodotus asserts, conquered the whole of Thrace, and penetrated as far as the Adriatic to the west, and to the river Peneus towards the south, before the Trojan war—Whence and at what period the name of Thracians was first applied to the numerous hordes which inhabited this portion of the European continent, is left open to conjecture. Bochart and others have supposed that it was derived from Tiraz, the son of Japheth; certain it is, we find the name already existing in the time of Homer, who represents the Thracians as joining the forces of Priam in the siege of Troy, under the conduct of Rhesus, their chief (Il., 10, 435), said to be the son of the river Strymon. (Eurip., Rhes. Arg.) — Herodotus affirms that the Thracians were, next to the Indians, the most numerous and powerful people in the world; and that, if all the tribes had been united under one monarch or under the same government, they would have been invincible; but from their subdivision into petty clans, distinct from each other, they were rendered insignificant. (Herod., 5, 3.) They are said by the same historian to have been first subjugated by Sesostris (2, 103), and, after the lapse of many centuries, they were reduced under the subjection of the Persian monarchy, by Megabazus, general of Darius. (Herod., 5, 2.) But, on the failure of the several expeditions undertaken by that sovereign and his son Xerxes against the Greeks, the Thracians apparently recovered their independence, and a new empire was formed in that extensive country, under the dominion of Sitalces, king of the Odrysac, one of the most numerous and warlike of their tribes. Thucydides, who has entered into considerable detail on this subject, observes, that of all the empires situated between the Ionian Gulf and the Euxine, this was the most considerable both in revenue and opulence : its military force was, however, very inferior to that of Scythia, both in strength and numbers. The empire of Sitalces extended along the coast, from Abdera to the mouths of the Danube, a distance of four days' and nights' sail; and in the interior, from the sources of the Strymon to Byzantium, a journey of thirteen days. The sounder of this empire appears to have been Teres (Herod., 7, 137.—

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Thucyd., 2,29), whose son Sitalces, at the instigation of the Athenians, with whom he was allied, undertook an expedition into Macedonia. Having raised a powerful army of Thracians and Paeonians, the sovereign of the Odrysae penetrated into the territory of Perdiccas, who, unable to oppose in the field so formidable an antagonist, confined his resistance to the defence of the fortified towns; and by this mode of warfare he at length wearied out the Thracian prince, who was persuaded by his nephew Seuthes to abandon the expedition and return to his dominions. In return for this service, Seuthes, we are told, received in marriage Stratonice, the sister of Perdiccas. (Thucyd., 2,97, seqq.). Sitalces, some years after, having been defeated and slain in a battle with the Triballi, another considerable Thracian clan, was succeeded by Seuthes, who carried the power of the Odrysian empire to its highest pitch. (Thucyd., 4, 101.-Id., 2, 97.) The splendour of this monarchy was, however, of short duration, as on the death of Seuthes it began gradually to decline; and we learn from Xenophon that, on the arrival of the ten thousand in Thrace, the power of Medocus, or Amadocus, the reigning prince of the Odrysae, was very inconsiderable. (Anab., 7. 2, 17. –Id, ibid., 3, 7.)—When Philip, the son of Amyntas, ascended the throne of Macedon, the Thracians were governed by Cotys, a weak prince, whose territories became an easy prey to his artful and enterprising neighbour. The whole of that part of Thrace situate between the Strymon and the Nestus was thus added to Macedonia, whence some geographical writers term it Macedonia Adjecta. Cotys having been assassinated not long after, was succeeded by his son Chersobleptes, whose possessions were limited to the Thracian Chersonese; and even of this he was eventually stripped by the Athenians (Diod. Sic., 16, 34– Demosth. in Aristocr., p. 678), while Philip seized on all the maritime towns between the Nestus and that peninsula. On Alexander's accession to the throne, the Triballi were by far the most numerous and powerful people of Thrace; and, as they bordered on the Palonians and extended to the Danube, they were formidable neighbours on this the most accessible frontier of Macedonia. Alexander commenced his reign by an invasion of their territory; and, having defeated them in a general engagement, pursued them across the Danube, whither they had retreated, and compelled them to sue for peace. After his death, Thrace fell to the portion of Lysimachus, one of his generals, by whom it was erected into a monarchy. On his decease, however, it revolted to Macedonia, and remained under the dominion of its sovereigns until the conquest of that country by the Romans. The divisions of Thrace under the Roman sway were as follows: 1. Thracia, a name applied, in a limited sense, to the country around the Hebrus in the earlier part of its course : the capital was Philippopolis.-2. Hamimontus or AEmimontus, including the country along the Hebrus in the eastern part of its course, and extending northward to Haemus ; it stretched off also to the northeast until it struck the coast: the capital was Hadrianopolis.-3. Europa, the coast along the Propon tis and Hellespont, including the Thracian, Chersonese: the capital was Perinthus—4. Rhodopa, the southern coast from the Sinus Melas to the mouth of the Nestus.—5. Masia Secunda, north of Haemus.-6. Scythia, below the Danube, near its mouth. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 284.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 7, p. 69.) Thrasías, Paetus, a Roman senator in the reign of Nero, distinguished for his integrity and patriotism. He was a native of Patavium, educated in stoical tenets, and a great admirer of Cato of Utica, whose life he wrote. His contempt of the base adulation of the senate, and his open and manly animadversions on the enormities of the emperor, were the * of his being condemned to death. He died A.D. 66, in the 13th year of Nero's reign. Tacitus says that Nero endeavoured to cxtirpate virtue itself by the destruction of Paetus and Soranus. (Jun., 5, 36.—Martial, 1, 19.--Tac., Ann., 15, 16.) Thrasybulus, an Athenian general, one of the commanders in the naval battle of Arginusae. He subsequently headed the party from Phyla which overthrew the government of the thirty tyrants. Thrasybulus was afterward sent with an Athenian fleet to the coast of Asia, where he gained some considerable advantages. Having, after this, proceeded to the collection of tribute from the towns, and having, in the course of this, come to the city of Aspendus, the inhabitants of this place were so exasperated by some irregularity of his soldiers, that they attacked his camp at night, and he was killed in his tent. Thrasybulus was a man of tried honesty and patriotism, and had shown uncommon ability in some very trying situations. The only cloud that rests upon his memory is an appearance of having concurred with Theramenes in the accusation of their six colleagues at Arginusae, if not actively, at least by withholding the testimony that might have saved them: but the evidence which we have is not sufficient to warrant us in decidedly fixing so dark a stain on a character otherwise so pure. (Corn. Nep., Vit. Thrasyb.—Diod. Sic., 13,98. —Id., 13, 101.—Id., 14, 33; 94, 99.) Thr Asyllus, one of the Athenian commanders at the battle of Arginusae, condemned to death with his colleagues for omitting to collect and bury the dead after the action. (Vid. Arginusae.) ThrasyMENUs Lacus. Vid. Trasymenus Lacus. THRIAM bus, one of the surnames of Bacchus. THRINAkia, an island mentioned in the Odyssey, on which the flocks and herds of the Sun-god fed, under the care of his daughters Phaëthusa and Lampetia, and to which Ulysses came immediately after escaping Sylla and Charybdis. On reaching this sacred island, his companions, in defiance of the warning of Ulysses, slaughtered some of the oxen while he slept. The hero, on awaking, was filled with horror and despair at what they had done ; and the displeasure of the gods was manifested by prodigies; for the hides crept along the ground, and the flesh lowed on the spits. They fed for six days on the sacred cattle; on the seventh the storm which had driven them to Thrinakia fell, and they left the island; but, as soon as they had lost sight of land, a terrible west wind, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and pitchy darkness, came on. Jupiter struck the ship with a thunderbolt: it went to pieces, and all the sacrilegious crew were drowned.—The resemblance between Thrinakia and Trinacria, a name of Sicily, has induced both ancients and moderns to acquiesce in the opinion of the two islands being identical. Against this opinion it has been observed, that Thrinakia was a desert isle (vija or #pmum.—Od., 12, 351), that is, an uninhabited isle; and that, during the whole time that Ulysses and his men were in it, they did not meet with any one, and could procure no food but birds and fish; that it is called “the excellent isle of the God” (Odyss., 12, 261), whose peculiar property it therefore must have been; that, according to the analogy of the Odyssey, it must have been a small island, for such were AEaca, Ogygia, and all we meet; not one of which circumstances agrees with Sicily. It seems, therefore, the more probable supposition, that Whe poet regarded Thrinakia as an islet, about the same size as those of Circe and Calypso, belonging to the Sun-god, and tenanted only by his flocks and herds, and his two daughters their keepers. He must also have conceived it to lie much more to the west than Sicily, for it could not have been more than the third day after leaving Æaea that Ulysses arrived at it. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 273, seq.) ThroNium, I, a town of the Locri Epicnemidii, in


Greece, noticed by Homer as being near the river Boagrius. (Ill., 2, 533.) It was thirty stadia from Scarphea, and at some distance from the coast, as appears from Strabo (426). Thronium was taken by the Athenians during the Peloponnesian war (Thucyd, 2, 26), and several years after it fell into the hands of Onomarchus, the Phocian general, who enslaved the inhabitants. (Diod. Sic., 12, 44.—Aesch., de Fals. Legat., p. 46–Liv., 32, 36–Polyb., 17, 9, 3.) Dr. Clarke conjectured that Thronium was situated at Bodonitza, a small town on the chain of Mount (Eta; but Sir W. Gell is of opinion that this point is too far distant from the sea, and that it accords rather with an ancient ruin above Longachi (Itin., p. 235); and this is in unison also with the statement of Meletias the Greek geographer, who cites an inscription discovered there, in which the name of Thronium occurs (vol. 2, p. 323.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 114).-II. A town of Illyricum, at some distance from the coast above Oricum, and near another place called Amantia. Both these places are said to have been sounded here by the Abantes, in conjunction with the Locrians, they having been driven hither by adverse winds on their return from Troy. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 65.) Thucydides, I. a celebrated Greek historian, bom in Attica, in the village of Halinusia, and in the tribe of Leontium, B.C. 471. His father's name was Olotus, or, as some write the name, Orolus, and on the mother's side he was descended from Cimon, son of Milli. ades. Of the boyhood and education of the historian we have little information. The first remarkable cit. cumstance of his early youth is one which the biogrk phers of Thucydides never fail to relate. It is stated, on the authority of Lucian (de conscrib. Hist, c. 15), Suidas, and Photius, that Thucydides, when a youth of fifteen, stood with his father near Herodotus when the latter was reciting his history at the Olympic fest: val; and was so much interested with the work, and affected at the applause with which it was received, that he shed tears. On observing which, Herodotus exclaimed to his father, 'Ogyg: h oak roi riot cov Tpöc uqthuara, “Your son burns with ardout for learning.” This recitation is proved by Dodwello have taken place at the 81st Olympiad, B.C. 456. Now, if what is said by Pamphila, a female author of the age of Nero, be true, the age of Thucydides at the perod of this recitation was fifteen. The groundson which the whole account rests have been carefully examined by Poppo, Dahlmann, Göller, and other German critics, and the story has been pronounced fabulous. (Com. pare remarks under the article Herodotus)—Marcelnus informs us that the preceptor of Thucydides in oratory and rhetoric in general, was Antipho, on whom the historian has passed a short but significant enco: mium in a part of his work (8,68). In philosophy, and the art of thinking and reasoning, he was instruck ed by Anaxagoras. Of the manner in which he spen! his early manhood we have no certain information. That he served the usual time in the reproot of militia, we cannot doubt. How he spent the period from his militia-service to that of his appointment to command the fleet in Thrace we have no way of * certaining. An ancient anonymous biographer of the historian says that he had participated in the Atheir an colony sent to Thurium. But if he had by inheri” ance any considerable property in Thrace, which is highly probable, no reason can be imagined why ho should have taken part in this colony. If, however, that statement be correct, Dodwell seems to have proved the circumstance must have taken place in his twenty-seventh year. Why he went, or how long he stayed, we are not informed. If he went at all ho probably did not remain very long; and there is no doubt that he had returned to his country long be: fore the commencement of the Peloponnesian *

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