Obrazy na stronie

ehus for the unnatural deed.—II. A city on the coast of Paphlagonia, near the mouth of the Parthenius. It was founded by Amastris, the niece of Darius Codomannus, and wife of Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea, who gave her name to the new settlement. The earlier town of Sesamus, mentioned by Homer (Il., 2, 853), served for its citadel. It is praised as a beautiful city by both the younger Pliny (Ep., 10, 99) and the later ecclesiastical writers. (Compare Niceta. Paph. Or., in S. Hyacint., 17.) Amastris, like Sinope, was built on a small peninsula, and had, in consequence, a double harbour. (Strabo, 544.) The modern name is Amastra. (Mannert, 6, pt. 3, p. 25.) AMATA, the wife of King Latinus, and mother of Lavinia. She hung herself in despair, on finding that she could not prevent the marriage of her daughter with AEneas. (Virg., AEm., 12, 603.) AMXThus (gen. untis), a city on the southern side of the island of Cyprus, and of great antiquity. Adonis was worshipped here as well as Venus. Scylax affirms that the Amathusians were autochthonous (Peripl., p. 41); and it appears from Hesychius that they had a peculiar dialect (s. v. 'Eróżai, Kv6á06a, Atka). Amathus was celebrated as a favourite residence of Venus. (AEn., 10, 51.—Catull, Ep., 36.) The goddess, as an author, who wrote a history of Amathus, and is quoted by Hesychius (s. v. 'Asopóðtroc), reported, was represented with a beard. Amathus was the see of a Christian bishop under the Byzantine emperors. (Hierocl., p. 706.) Its ruins are to be seen near the little town of Limmeson or Limmesol, somewhat to the north of Cape Gatto. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 377, seqq.) AMRzöNes, a name given by the ancient writers to certain female warriors, and derived, according to the Fo opinion, from a, priv., and plašoc, “a female reast,” because it was believed, that they burned off the right breast in order to handle the bow more conweniently. The men among them were held in an inferior, and, as it were, servile condition, attending to all the employments which occupy the time and care of females in other nations, while the Amazons themselves took charge of all things relating to government and warfare. (Diod. Sic., 2, 45.-Id., 3, 52.) The Greek writers speak of African and Asiatic Amazons. (Diod. Sic., l.c.) The Amazons of Africa were the more ancient, and were also the more remarkable for the number and splendour of their warlike achievements. They dwelt in the western regions of Africa, occupying an island in a lake called Tritonis, and which was near the main ocean. Diodorus describes this island as beautiful and productive, and names it Hesperia. Under the guidance of a warlike queen, whom he calls Myrina, they conquered the people of Atlantis, their neighbours, traversed a large portion of Africa, established friendly relations with Horus, son of Isis, then on the throne of Egypt, subdued Arabia, Syria, various parts of Asia Minor, and penetrated even into Thrace. After this long career of conquest they returned to Africa, and were annihilated by Hercules. At this same time, too, the Lake Tritonis disappeared as such, and became part of the ocean, the intervening land having been swallowed up. (Diod. Sic., 3, 54.)—The Amazons of Asia are described by the same writer (2,45) as having dwelt originally on the banks of the Thermodon in Pontus, and with this statement the ancient poets all agree. Herodotus also (9, 27) places the Amazons on this same river, and he affirms that it was from thence they advanced into Greece and invaded Attica. He likewise speaks of an expedition undertaken by the Greeks against these warlike females, in which the latter were defeated near the Thermodon and led away captive. A part of them, however, escaped to Scythia, and became the mothers of the Sauromatae (4, 110). The same historian adds, that the Scythian term, which answered

to the Greek word 'Audsov, was Oiorpata, or “manslayer.” We have here what are sometimes called the Scythian Amazons, making, in fact, a third class.—Diodorus gives an account of the victories of the Asiatic Amazons, as he had done in the case of the African. He makes them to have conquered a large portion of Asia, extending their victorious arms from the regions beyond the Tanais (or Don) as far as Syria (2, 46). Other accounts tell of their invasion of Attica, in order to recover their queen Antiope, who had been carried off by Theseus (Plut, Vit. Thes, c. 26, seqq.); of their previous wars with Hercules; and still more anciently of their contest with Bacchus. (Pausan., 1, 15–Id., 7, 2–Plut., Quast. Gr., p. 541–Justin, 2, 4.) They are also mentioned by Homer, who speaks of their wars with the kings of Phrygia (Ill., 3, 184), and of their defeat by Bellerophon (Il, 6, 186). They are said also to have been among the allies of the Trojans in the war with the Greeks, and their queen Penthesilea was slain by Achilles. (Hygin, fab., 112.— Dict, Crit., 4, 2, 3.—Tzetz, ad Lycophron, 999.— Diod, Sic, 2, 46.). They make their appearance again, in a later age, in the history of Alexander's expedition into Asia, and their queen Thalestris is said to have paid a visit to the victorious monarch, having come for that purpose from the vicinity of Hyrcania ; but Quintus Curtius, who gives us this information, deals, as usual, in the marvellous, and with his wonted ignorance of geography, places the plains of Themiscyra,

and the river Thermodon which waters them, contiguous to the country of the Hyrcanians. (Q. Curt., 6, 5,

25–Compare Freinshem, ad loc.)—The Amazons are

described as armed with bow and arrows, and as having also battle-axes and crescent shields (“pelta lunate.” —Virg., AEn., 1,490). Some writers, differing from Diodorus, as cited above, make the Amazons to have had no males among them, but to have merely visited, at stated times, the neighbouring communities, for the purpose of a temporary union and the obtaining of offspring. They farther state, that the female children thus born to them were carefully reared, after having the right breast seared with a red-hot iron, but that all the male ones were destroyed immediately after birth. Diodorus, however, informs us, in speaking of the Asiatic Amazons, that they merely mutilated (tropovv) the legs and arms of the male children, in order to render them unfit for war. About the treatment of

the male offspring among the African Amazons he is altogether silent—Thus much for the Amazons, as they have been described or referred to by the ancient writers. Various explanations, as may well be supposed, have been given of this curious legend. Some see in it an old tradition, founded, in a measure, on historical truth, of a community of women, who actually formed themselves into a regular state, after getting rid of, or subjugating their husbands. This is

too improbable to need any serious refutation. R. P.

Knight thinks that “the fable” of the Amazons (for so

he terms it) “arose from some symbolical composition

of an androgynous character, and which sought to ex

press the blending of the two sexes into one shape;

the full, prominent form of the female breast being

given on one side, and the flat form of the male on

the other.” (Inquiry into the Symbol. Lang., &c., §

50–Class. Journ., vol. 23, p. 238.) Creuzer agrees

with Knight in making the legend a religious one, but

he sees in the story of the Amazons evident traces of

some accounts that must have reached the early Greeks,

respecting a female priesthood of a warlike character,

connected with the worship of the great powers of nature, and on whom, as a part of that worship, either a periodical or perpetual continence was enjoined. The change of vestments and of characters, so common in this same class of Asiatic religions, was indicated, according to this same writer, by the removal of one

of the breasts. The Amazons, therefore, according

to this explanation, will be a band of warlike priestesses or Hierodulae, who, in renouncing maternity, and in giving themselves up to martial exercises, sought to imitate the periodical sterility of the great powers of light, the sun and moon, and the combats in which these were from time to time engaged, against the so energies of night and winter. (Creuzer, Symolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 90, seqq.)—That the legend of the Amazons rests on a religious basis, we readily admit, but that any Amazons ever existed, even as warlike priestesses, we do not at all believe. The first source of error respecting them is the etymology commonly assigned to the name. To derive this from the negative a and uáčoc, and to make it indicate the loss of one of the breasts, is, we think, altogether erroneous. If a Greek derivation is to be assigned to the term Amazon, it is far more correct to deduce the word from the intensive a, and usior, and to regard it as denoting, not the absence of one breast, but the presence of many. The name 'Audsov (Amazon) then becomes equivalent to the Greek IIožuusiaroo (Polymastus) and the Latin Multimammia, both of which epithets are applied by the ancient mythologists to the Ephesian Diana, with her numerous breasts, as typifying the great mother and nurse of all created beings. It is durious to connect with this the well-known tradition, that the Amazons founded the city of Ephesus, and at a remote period sacrificed to the goddess there. (Callim., H. in Dian., 238—Dionys. Perieg., 828.) But how does the view which we have just taken of the erroneous nature of the common etymology, in the case of the name Amazon, harmonize with the remains of ancient sculpture! In the most satisfactory manner. No monument of antiquity represents the Amazons with a mutilated bosom, but, wherever their figures are given, they have both breasts fully and plainly developed. Thus, for example, the Amazons on the Phigaleian frieze have both breasts entire, one being generally exposed, while the other is concealed by drapery, but still in the latter the roundness of form is very perceptible. Both breasts appear also in the fine figure of the Amazon belonging to the Lansdowne collection; and so again in the basso-relievo described by Winckelmann in his Monumenti Inediti. The authorities, indeed, on this head are altogether incontrovertible. (Winckelmann, Gesch. der Kunst des Alterthums, vol. 2, p. 131–Id., Mon. Ined., pt. 2, c. 18, p. 184— Müller, Archäologie der Kunst, p. 530.-Elgin and Phigaleian Marbles, vol. 2, p. 179.-Heyne, ad Apollod, 2, 5, 9.) The first Greek writer that made mention of females who removed their right breast was Hippocrates (IIepi dépov, K. T. A., § 43). His remarks, however, were meant to apply merely to the females of the Sauromata, a Scythian tribe; but subsequent writers made them extend to the fabled race of the Amazons.—It appears to us, then, from a careful examination of the subject, that the term Amazon originally indicated, neither a warlike female, nor a race of such females, but was merely an epithet applied to the Ephesian Diana, the great parent and source of nurture, and was intended to express the most striking of her attributes. The victories and conquests of the Amazonian race are nothing more, then, than a figurative allusion to the spread of her worship over a large so of the globe, and the contests with Bacchus,

ercules, and Theseus refer in reality to the struggles of this worship with other rival systems of faith, for Bacchus, Hercules, and Theseus are nothing more than mythic types of three different forms of belief. Hence we see why the conflict of the Amazons with Theseus, who was nothing more than the symbol of the establishment of the Ionic worship, became a most appropriate ornament for the frieze of the Parthenon, the temple of the great national goddess Minerva. It

was, in *; a delineation of the downfall of a rival sys

tem of belief—Before we conclude, it may not be amiss to examine more closely into the etymology of the term Amazon. We have thus far regarded the word as of Grecian origin. What if, after all, it be of Oriental birth, and have reference to the far-famed Asi of Oriental, and Scandinavian mythology Salverte sees in them a class of female divinities, the spouses of the Asi, and he traces the first part of the name to the Pehlvi am, denoting “a mother,” or “a female” generally. (Essai sur les Noms, &c., vol. 2, p. 178.) Ritter also detects in the name an allusion to the Asi (Vorhalle, P. 465, seqq.); and, in connexion with this view of the subject, we may state that the name of Asia (the land of the Asi) was first given to a small district near the Cayster, and in the very vicinity of Ephesus, the city which the Amazons had founded. Ephesus, moreover, first bore, it is said, the name of Smyrna, an appellation afterward bestowed on the city of Smyrna, which was founded by an Ephesian colony. This term Smyrna is said to have been originally the name of an Amazonian leader. Would it be too fanciful to deduce it from Asa-Myrina, and thus blend together the name of the African Amazon Myrina with the sacred appellation of the Asif AMAzoNius, a surname of Apollo at Pyrrhicus, in Laconia, from the protection he is said to have afforded to the inhabitants when attacked by the Amazons. (Pausan., 3, 25.) AMBARRI, a people of Gallia Celtica, situate between the AEdui and Allobroges, along either bank of the Arar or Saône. Following D'Anville's authority, we would place them in the present Department de l'Ain. Livy enumerates them among the Gallic tribes that crossed the Alps in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. (Lit., 5, 34.—Caes., B. G., 1, 11, et 14.) AMBAR valia, sacred rites in honour of Ceres, previous to the commencement of reaping, which were called sacra ambarralia, because the victim was carried around the fields (arva ambiebat.— Vid. Arvales). AMBIKN1, a people of Gallia Belgica, whose capital was Samarobriva, afterward called Ambiani or Ambianum, now Amiens. Their territory corresponds to what is now the Department de la Somme. (Caes., B. G., 2, 4.—Id. ib.,7, 75.) Awplatinus Vicus, a village of Germany, where the Emperor Caligula was born. It was situate between Confluentes and Baudobriga, and is supposed by some to be now Capelle, on the Rhine, by others Königstuhl. Mannert, without fixing the modern site, thinks it lay on the Moselle, (Geogr., 2, p. 210.— Sueton., Vit. Calig., S.) AMBIGitus, a king of the Celtae, in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. According to the account given by Livy (5,34), he sent his two nephews, Sigovesus and Bellovesus, in quest of new settlements, with the view of diminishing the overflowing numbers at home. The two chieftains drew lots respecting their course, and Sigovesus obtained the route that led towards the Hercynian forest, Bellovesus the road to Italy. What is here stated, however, appears to be a mere fable, owing its origin to the simultaneous emigrations of two hordes of Gallic warriors. (Compare Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. 1, p. 39.) AMnióRix, a king of one half of the Eburones in Gaul, Cativolcus being king of the other half. He was an inveterate foe to the Romans, and after inflicting several serious losses upon, narrowly escaped the pursuit of, Caesar's men, on being defeated by that commander. (Caes., B. G., 5, 24, et 26.—Id, 6, 30.) AMBīv AR#ti and AMbivariott (for we have, in the Greek Paraphrase of Caesar, b. 7, c. 75, 'Autobapérov, and at c. 90, "Auðiðaphran), a Gallic tribe, ranked among the clients of the AEdui, whence Glareanus and 8. suspect them to be the same with the Ambarri. Almost all the MSS. of Caesar call them 121

Ambluarett. The ancient geographical writers are silent respecting them. Ambivariri, a tribe of Gallia Belgica, a short distance beyond the Mosa or Meuse. (Caes., B. G., 4,9.) Ambracia, a celebrated city of Epirus, the capital of the country, and the royal residence of Pyrrhus and his descendants. It was situate on the banks of the Aracthus or Arethon, a short distance from the waters of the Ambracian Gulf. The founders of the lace were said to have been a colony of Corinthians, i. by Tolgus or Torgus, 650 B.C., who was either the brother or the son of Cypselus, chief of Corinth. (Strabo. 325.—Scymn., Ch., v. 452.) It early acquired some maritime celebrity, by reason of its advantageous position, and was a powerful and independent city towards the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, in which it espoused the cause of Corinth and Sparta. At a later period we find its independence threatened by Philip, who seems to have entertained the project of annexing it to the dominions of his brother-in-law, Alexander, king of the Molossians. (Demosth., Phil., 3, 85.) Whether it actually fell into the possession of that monarch is uncertain, but there can be no doubt of its having been in the occupation of Philip, since Diodorus Siculus (17, 3) asserts, that the Ambraciots, on the accession of Alexander the Great to the throne, ejected the Macedonian arrison stationed in their city. Ambracia, however, j not long enjoy the freedom which it thus regained, for, having fallen into the hands of Pyrrhus, we are told that it was selected by that prince as his usual place of residence. (Strabo, 325–Liv., 38, 9.) Ovid (Ibis, v. 306) seems to imply that he was interred there. Many years after, being under the dominion of the AEtolians, who were at that time involved in hostilities with the Romans, this city sustained a siege against the latter, almost unequalled in the annals of ancient warfare for the gallantry and perseverance displayed in defence of the place. (Polyb., frag., 22, 13.) Ambracia, at last, opened its gates to the foe, on a truce being concluded, and was stripped by the Roman consul, M. Fulvius Nobilior, of all the statues and pictures with which it had been so richly adorned by Pyrrhus. From this time Ambracia began to sink into a state of insignificance, and Augustus, by transferring its inhabitants to Nicopolis, completed its desolation. (Strabo, 325.-Pausan., 5, 23.) In regard to the topography of this ancient city, most travellers and antiquaries are of opinion, that it must have stood near the town of Arta, which now gives its name to the gulf. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 145, seqq.) Ambracius SINUs, a gulf of the Ionian Sea, between Epirus and Acarnania. Scylax (Peripl., p. 13) calls it the Bay of Anactorium, and observes, that the distance from its mouth to the farthest extremity was one hundred and twenty stadia, while the entrance was scarcely four stadia broad. Strabo (325) makes the whole circuit three hundred stadia. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 153.) AmbróNes, a Gallic horde, who invaded the Roman territories along with the Teutones and Cimbri, and were defeated with great slaughter by Marius. The name is thought to mean, “dwellers on the Rhone” (Amb-rones). So Ambidravii, “dwellers on the Draave;” Sigambri, “dwellers on the Sieg,” &c. (Compare Pfister, Gesch. der Teutschen, vol. 1, p. 35.) Ambrosia, the celestial food on which the gods were supposed to subsist, and to which, along with nectar, they were believed to owe their immortality. The name is derived from subporos, “immortal.” {Compare Heyne, Excurs. 9, ad Il., 1.-Id., Obs. ad Hom., Il., 1, 190). There is a striking resemblance between the Grecian and Hindoo mythology in this

diately to mind the Ambrosia of Olympus. (Compare Hom., Od., 1, 359, where ambrosia and nectar appear to be used as synonymous terms.-Heyne, Ezcurs. 9, ad Îl., 1, and consult the remarks of Buttmann in his Lérilogus, s. v. 'Auspóatoc, &c.) Ambrosius, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, and one of the latest and most distinguished of what are denominated the Fathers of the Christian Church. He was born at Arelate (Arles), then the metropolis of Gallia Narbonensis, according to some authorities A.D. 333, according to others, 340. His father was the emperor's lieutenant in that district, and, after his death, Ambrose, who was the youngest of three children, returned with the widow and family to Rome. Here, under the instructions of his mother and his sister Marcellina, who had vowed virginity, he received a highly religious education, and that bias in favour of Catholic orthodoxy by which he was subsequently so much distinguished. Having studied law, he pleaded causes in the court of the praetorian prefect, and was in due time appointed proconsul of Liguria. He thereupon took up his residence at Milan, where a circumstance occurred which produced a sudden change in his fortunes, and transformed him from a civil governor into a bishop. Auxentius, bishop of Milan, the Arian leader in the west, died, and left that see vacant, when a warm contest for the succession ensued between the Arians and Catholics. In the midst of a tumultuous dispute, Ambrose appeared in the midst of the assembly, and exhorted them to conduct the election peaceably. At the conclusion of his address, a child in the crowd exclaimed, “Ambrose is bishop !” and, whether accidentally or by management, the result throws a curious light upon the nature of the times; for the superstitious multitude, regarding the exclamation as a providential and miraculous suggestion, by general acclamation declared Ambrose to be elected. After various attempts to decline the episcopal office, Ambrose at length entered upon the discharge of its duties, and rendered himself conspicuous by his decided and unremitting opposition to the tenets of Arianism. To his zealous endeavours also was owing the failure of the * made by the remains of a pagan party to re-establish the worship of paganism. #. strength and ability of Ambrose were such, that, although opposed to him on ecclesiastical points; Valentinian and his mother respected his talents, and in moments of political exigency required his assistance. The most conspicuous act on the part of Ambrose was his treatment of Theodosius for the massacre at Thessalonica. The emperor was consign to a retirement of eight months, and not absolved even then until he had signed an edict, which ordained that an interval of thirty days should pass before any sentence of death, or even of confiscation, should be executed. After having paid the funeral honours to Theodosius, who died soon after obtaining peaceable possession of the entire Roman empire, the bishop departed from this world with a composure worthy of his firm character, in the year 397. It is evident, that Ambrose was one of those men of great energy of mind and temperament, who, in the adoption of a theory or a party, hold no middle course, but act with determination towards the fulfilment of their purposes. Regarded within their own circles, there is generally something in such characters to admire; and, beyond that, as certainly much to condemn. It must be con; ceded, however, that men resembling Ambrose effected much to advance the Roman Catholic Church to the power to which it afterward attained, and, by necess sequence, to the abuse of it which produced the Ref. ormation. The writings of this father are numerous, and the great object of almost all of them was to maintain the faith and discipline of the Catholi: Church, while some of them are written to recomino

respect. The Amrita, or water of life, recalls imme

celibacy as the summit of Christian perfection. Ho

best work is “De Officiis,” intended to explain the duties of Christian ministers. The most accurate edition of his works is that of the Benedictines, Paris, 2 vols. fol., 1682–90. (Gorton's Biogr. Dict, vol. 1, . 67.) p Ambryssus, a city of Phocis, said to have been founded by the hero Ambryssus, situate between two chains of mountains, west of Lebedaea, and northwest of Anticyra. It was destroyed by the Amphictyons, but rebuilt and fortified by the Thebans before the battle of Cheronaea. (Pausan., 10, 3, and 36.) Its ruins were first discovered by Chandler, near the village of Dystomo. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 159.) AMRUBAIAE, female minstrels, of Syrian origin, who exercised their vocation at Rome, and were also of dissolute lives. (Acron, ad Horat., Serm., 1, 2, 1.Nork, Etymol. Handwórterbuch, vol. 1, p. 45, seq.) The name is supposed to be derived from the Syriac abub or anbub, “a flute.” AMBüli, a surname of Castor and Pollux, in Sparta, and also of Jupiter and Minerva. They were so named, it is said, from dubožň, delay, because it was thought that they could delay the approach of death. Some, on the other hand, consider the term in question to be of Latin origin, and derived from ambulare. o: the remarks of Vollmer, Worterb. der Mythol, s, r.) AMELEs, a river of the lower world, according to Plato, whose waters no vessel could contain: röv 'Authora torquêv, úðop dyyetov obóēv aréyew. (De Rep., 10, vol. 7, p. 229, ed Bekk.) AMENinus, a river of Sicily, near Catania. It is o the Judicello. (Strabo, 360.-Ovid, Met., 15, .) AMERIA, one of the most considerable and ancient cities of Umbria. It lay south of Tuder, and in the vicinity of the Tiber. According to Cato, who is quoted by Pliny (3, 14), Ameria could boast of an origin greatly anterior to that of Rome, having been sounded, it is said, 964 years before the war with Perseus, or 1045 years before the Christian era. Cicero, in his defence of the celebrated Roscius, who was a native of Ameria, has frequent occasion to speak of this town. From him we learn its municipal rank, and from Frontinus, that it became a colony under Augustus. (Compare Strabo, 228.-Festus, s. v. Ameria.) The small episcopal town of Amelia now represents this ancient city. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 273.) AMEstritus, a town of Sicily, near the Halesus. The Romans besieged it for seven months when in the hands of the Carthaginians, but without success. It was taken, however, after a third siege, and razed to the ground, the surviving inhabitants being sold as slaves. Steph. Byz. calls the place Amestratus; Diodorus Siculus, Mystratum; and Polybius, Myttistratum. (Diod. Sic. 23, ecl. 9.—Polyb., 1, 24.) It is now Mistretta, in the Val. de Demona. Anesrais, queen of Persia, and wife to Xerxes. Having discovered an intrigue between her husband *Artaynta, and imputing all the blame solely to the mother of the latter, she requested her from the king * * royal festival; and, when she had her in her Poet, cut off her breasts, nose, ears, lips, and tongue, **ent her home in this shocking condition. She also, on another occasion, sacrificed fourteen Persian children of noble birth, “to propitiate,” says Herodotus, o deity who is said to dwell beneath the ash! (Herodot., 9, 110, seqq.—Id, 7, 114.) o: a city of Mesopotamia, taken and destroyinh |Sapor, king of Persia. It was repeopled by the o abitants of Nisibis, after Jovian's treaty with the so And by a new colony which was sent to it. o "alled also Constantia, from the Emperor Con. *us. Its ancient walls, constructed with black

stones, have caused it to be termed by the Turks Kara-Amid, (“black Amid”), although it is more.commonly denominated Diar-Bekir, from the name of its district. (Ammian. Marcell.. 18, 22–Procop., de Bell. Pers., 1, 8.-Salmas., Exercit. Plin., p. 488.) AMILCAR. Wid. Hamilcar. AMINE1, a people of Campania, mentioned by Macrobius (Sat., 2, 16), as having occupied the spot, where was afterward the Falernus Ager. The Aminean wine is thought to have derived its name from them. (Consult, however, the remarks of Heyne, ad Virg., Georg., 2, 97, War. Lect.) The more correct opinion appears to be, that the Aminean wine was so called, because made from a grape transplanted into Italy from Aminaeum, a place in Thessaly. Macrobius, however, asserts, that the Falernian wine was more, anciently called Aminean. (Compare Heyne, ad Virg., Georg., 2, 97.) Amisinus sinus, a gulf of the Euxine, east of the mouth of the Halys, on the coast of Pontus, so called from the town of Amisus. AMIsia, now the Ems, a river of Germany, falling into the German Ocean. Strabo (201) calls it Amasia (Audaia), and Pliny (4, 14) Amasis. AMisus, a city of Pontus, on the coast of the Euxine, northwest from the mouth of the Iris. It was founded by a colony of Milesians, was the largest city in Pontus next to Sinope, and was made by Pharnaces the metropolis of his kingdom. It is now called Samsoun. (Strabo, 547—Polyb., Exc. de legat., 55.— Mannert, 6, pt. 2, p. 448, seqq.) AMIterNuM, a city in the territory of the Sabines, the birthplace of Sallust the historian. It was situate a short distance below the southern boundary of the Praetutii, and its ruins are to be seen near S. Vittorino, a few miles to the north of Aquila. From Livy (10, 39) we learn, that this town, having fallen into the hands of the Samnites, was recovered by the consul Sp. Carvilius (A.U.C. 459). Under the Romans it became successively a prafectura and a colony, as we are informed by Frontinus and several inscriptions. (Romanelli, vol. 3, p. 330.) In Ptolemy's time, Amiternum seems to have been included among the cities of the Westini. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 319.) AMMIKNUs. Wid. Marcellinus. AMMochostus, a promontory of Cyprus, whence by corruption comes the modern name Famagosta, or, more properly, Amgoste: now the principal place in the island. (Ptol.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol.2, p. 381.) AMMon, or HAMMon, a name given to Jupiter, as worshipped in Libya. When Bacchus was conquering Africa, he is said to have come with his army to a spot called, from the vast quantity of sand lying around, by the name of Hammödes (Auguáðnc, i.e., sandy, from &uuoc, “sand,” and elóog, “aspect” or “appearance”). ere his forces were in great danger of perishing from want of water, when a ram on a sudden appeared, and guided them to a verdant spot, or oasis, in the midst of the desert. When they reached this place, the ram disappeared, and they found an abundant supply of water. Bacchus, therefore, out of gratitude, erected on the spot a temple to Jupiter, giving him, at the same time, the surname of Ammon or Hammon, from the Greek áuploc or àuuor, “sand,” in allusion to the circumstances connected with his appearance; and the statue of the deity had the head and horns of a ram. (Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 20.) According to another version of the fable, Bacchus, in his extremity, prayed to Jupiter for aid, and the god, o: under the form of a ram, indicated the place of the fountain with his foot, the water, before unseen, immediately bubbling up through the sand.—The spot to which the fable points is the Oasis of Ammon (vid. Oasis), and the fountain is the famous Fons Solis, or fountain of the Sun, which, according to Herodotus § 181), was 2

tepid at dawn, cool as the day advanced, very cool at noon, diminishing in coolness as the day declined, warm at sunset, and boiling hot at midnight. Here also was the celebrated oracle of Ammon, which Alexander the Great visited, in order to obtain an answer respecting the divinity of his origin. An account of the expedition is given by Plutarch (Wit. Alez., c. 26), and, as may well be expected, the answer of the oracle was altogether acceptable to the royal visitant, though the credit previously attached to its answers was seriously impaired by the gross flattery which it had on this occasion displayed. The temple of Ammon, like that of Delphi, was famed for its treasures, the varied offerings of the pious; and these, in the time of the Persian invasion of Egypt, excited so far the cupidity of Cambyses as to induce him to send a large body of forces across the desert to seize upon the place. The expedition, however, proved a signal failure; no accounts of it were ever received, and it is probable, therefore, that the Persian troops were purposely mis×led on their route by the Egyptian guides, and that all perished in the desert. (Wid. Cambyses.)—Herodotus (2,54, seqq.) gives us two accounts respecting the origin of the temple of Ammon. One, which he heard from the priests of Jupiter in Thebes, stated, that two priestesses had been carried off by some Phoenicians from Thebes, and that one of them had been conveyed to Libya and there sold as a slave, and the other to Greece. These two females, according to them, had founded oracles in each of these countries. According to the other story, which he heard from the priestesses at Dodona, two black pigeons had flown from Thebes in Egypt; one of these had passed into Libya, the other had come to Dodona in Greece, and both had spoken with a human voice, and directed the establishment of oracles in each of these places.—Thus much for the ordinary narrative. Ammon, says Plutarch (de Is. et Os., p.354), is the Egyptian name for Jupiter. This god was particularly worshipped at Thebes, called in the sacred books Hammonno, “the possession of Hammon,” and in the Septuagint version (Ezek., c. 20) the city of Ammon. Jablonski derives the word Ammon from Am-oein, “shining.” According, however, to Champollion the younger, the term in question (Amon or Amen) denoted, in the Egyptian language, “secret,” “concealed,” or “he who reveals his secret powers.” It is sometimes also, as the same writer informs us, united with the word Kneph, another appellation of the Supreme Being, and from this results the compound Amenebis (Amen-Neb) which is found on a Greek inscription in the greater Oasis. (Letronne, Rech, sur l'Egyp., p. 237, seqq.) The Greek etymology of the name Ammon, from iustog or pâuuoc, “sand,” is fanciful and visionary, and only affords another proof of the constant habit in which that nation indulged, of referring so many things to themselves, with which they had not, in truth, the slightest connexion. From all that has been said by the ancient writers, it would appear very clearly, that the allusion in the legend of Ammon is an astronomical one. This is very apparent from the story told by Herodotus (2, 42), and which he received from the priests of Thebes. According to this narrative, Hercules was very desirous of seeing Jupiter, whereas the god was unwilling to be seen ; until, at last, Jupiter, yielding to his importunity, contrived the following artifice. Having separated the head from the body of a ram, and flayed the whole carcass, he put on the skin with the wool, and in that form showed himself to Hercules. Now, if Hercules denote the sun, and arics the first sign of the zodiac, the whole may be an allegory illustrative of the opening of the year.—As regards the establishment of the oracle of Ammon, it may be observed, that the account respecting the two doves or pigeons, which is given by Herodotus, and has already been alluded to, came, as that historian informs us, from the priestess

es of Dodona; whereas the priests of Thebes ascribed the origin of the oracles at 5. and in the Oasis of Ammon to the two Egyptian females connected with the service of the temple at Thebes, and who had been carried away and sold into slavery by certain Phoenicians. ... Herodotus, with no little plausibility, seeks to reconcile these two statements, by conjecturing that the Dodoneans gave the name of doves or pigeons to the females carried off, because they used a foreign tongue, and their speech resembled the chattering of birds; and the remark of the same Dodoneans, that the pigeons were of a black colour, he explains by the circumstance of these females being, like the other Egyptians, of a dark complexion. ; is very evident that we have here some allusion to Egyptian colonies, and to the influence which prophetic females would exercise in such colonies recently established. The only difficulty, however, is how to connect the Pelasgic shrine of Dodona with anything of an Egyptian character. (Consult the remarks of Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 4, p. 151, and of Heeren, Ideen, vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 486.)— Browne, an English traveller, discovered in 1792 the site of the temple of Ammon, in a fertile spot called the Oasis of Siwah, situated in the midst of deserts, five degrees nearly west of Cairo. In 1798, Horneman discovered the Fons Solis. In 1816 Belzoni visited the spot, and found the fountain situated in the midst of a beautiful grove of palms. He visited the fountain

at noon, evening, midnight, and morning. He had un

fortunately no thermometer with him. But, judging from his feelings at those several periods, it might be 100° at midnight, 80° in the morning early, and at noon about 40°. The truth appears to be, that no change takes place in the temperature of the water, but in that of the surrounding atmosphere; for the well is deeply shaded, and about 60 feet deep. The account of Herodotus, who was never on the spot, is evidently incorrect. He must have misunderstood his informer. (Compare Rennell's Geogr. of Herod., p. 593, seqq.) AMMonii, a people of Africa, occupying what is now the Oasis of Siwah. According to Herodotus (2,42), the Ammonians were a colony of Egyptians and AEthiopians, speaking a language composed of words taken from both those nations.—The arable territory of the Oasis of Siwah is about six miles long and four broad. The chief plantation consists of date-trees; there are also pomegranates, fig-trees, olives, apricots, and bananas. A considerable quantity of a reddish-grained rice is cultivated here, being a different variety from that which is grown in the Egyptian Delta. It also produces wheat for the consumption of the inhabitants. Abundance of water, both fresh and salt, is found. The fresh-water springs are mostly warm, and are accused of giving rise to dangerous fevers when used by strangers. The population of Siwah is capable of furnishing about 1500 armed men. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 173, Am. ed.) For remarks on the celebrated Fons Solis, consult preceding article towards its close. AMMonius, I, the preceptor of Plutarch. He taught philosophy and mathematics at Delphi, and lived during the first century of the Christian era, in the reign of Nero, to whom he acted as interpreter when that monarch visited the temple at Delphi. Plutarch makes frequent mention of him in his writings, and particularly in his treatise on the inscription of the Delphic temple.—II. Saccas, or Saccophorus (so called because in early life he had been a sack-bearer), a celebrated philosopher, who flourished about the beginning of the third century. He was born at Alexandrea, of Christian parents, and was early instructed in the catechetical schools established in that city. Here, under the Christian preceptors, Athenagoras, Pantoenus, and Clemens Alexandrinus, he acquired a strong propensity towards philosophical studies, and became exceedingly desirous of reconciling the different opinions

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