Obrazy na stronie

space of thirteen months, until Mercury “stole him away" (ščkärlev). Later writers add, of course, many other particulars. Apollodorus makes Ephialtes to have aspired to a union with Juno, and Otus with Diana. (Compare Nonnus, Dionys., 48, 402.—Hygin, fab, 28.) He farther states, that Diana effected their destruction in the island of Naxos. She changed herself, it seems, into a hind, and bounded between the two brothers, who, in their eagerness each to slay the animal, pierced one another with their weapons (#9" tavroic #xövttaav). Diodorus Siculus (5, 51) gives an historical air to the narrative, making the two brothers to have held sway in Naxos, and to have fallen in a quarrel by each other's hand. (Compare Pind., Pyth, 4, 88, ed. Böckh, and the scholiast, ad loc.) Wirgil assigns the Aloidae a place of punishment in Tartarus (AEn.,6,582), and some of the ancient fabulists make them to have been hurled thither by Jupiter, others by Apollo. So in the Odyssey (l.c.) they are spoken of as inhabiting the lower world, though no reason is assigned by the poet for their being there, except what we may infer from the legend itself, that they were cut off in early life, lest, if they had been allowed to attain their full growth, they might have obtained the empire of the skies. (Heyne, ad Apollod., l.c.) Pausanias makes the Aloidae to have founded Ascra in Boeotia, and to have been the first that sacrificed to the Muses on Mount Helicon (9, 29). Müller regards the Aloidae as the mythic leaders of the old Thracian colonies, heroes by land and sea. They appear in Pieria (at Aloium, near Tempe) and at Mount Helicon, and in both quarters have reference to the digging of canals and the draining of mountain-dales. (Orchomenus, p. 387.) Creuzer, on the other hand, sees in the fable of the Aloidae a figurative allusion to a contest, as it were, between the water and the land. Aloeus is “the man of the threshing-floor” (à20c), whose efforts are all useless on account of the infidelity of his spouse (the Earth, “the very wise one,” lot and uijóog). She unites against him with Neptune, and the sea thereupon begets the mighty energies of the tempests (Otus and Ephialtes), which darken the day ('QToc, from ðrúc, “the horned owl,” the bird of night), which brood heavily over the earth, and cause the waves of ocean to leap and dash upon the cultivated regions along the shore ('Españrmo, from £rt, and ā2Aouai, “to leap,” as indicating “the one that attacks” or “leaps upon,” the spirit that oppresses and torments, “the nightmare”). At last the god of day (Apollo) comes forth, and the storm ceases, first along the mountain-tops, and at last even on the shore. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 386.) If we adopt the other version of the fable, that the Aloidae were destroyed by Diana, the storm will then be hushed by the influence and changing of the moon. Aloium, a town of Thessaly, near Tempe. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'A2&tov.) ALópe, I, daughter of Cercyon, king of Eleusis, and mother of Hippothoon by Neptune. She was put to death by her father, and her tomb is spoken of by Pausanias (1,29). Hyginus says that Neptune, not being able to save her life, changed her corpse into a sountain (fab., 187). The son, on having been exposed by orerofits mother, was at first suckled by a mare (itritos), whence his name Hippothoon; and was afterward taken care of and brought up by some shepherds. When he had attained to manhood, he was placed on his grandfather's throne by Theseus, who i. slain Cercyon. (Pausan, 1, 5, et 39–Hygin., l.c.)—II. A town of Thessaly, situate, according to Steph. Byz. (s. v. 'A26Tn), between Larissa Cremaste and Echinus. (Compare Strabo, 432.-Pomp. Mel., 2, 3.) It is probably the same with the Alitrope noticed by Scylax (p.24), and retains its name on the shore of the Melian Gulf, below Makalla.—III. A town of the Locri Ozolae, according to Strabo (427). It is, perhaps, no other than

the Olpa of Thucydides (3,101).-IV. A town of the Locri Opuntii, above Daphnus. It was here that, according to Thucydides, the Athenians obtained some advantages over the Locrians in a descent they made on this coast during the Peloponnesian war. (Thucyd., 2, 26.) Alopèce, I. an island in the Palus Maeotis, near the mouth of the Tanais. Strabo and Ptolemy call it Alopecia ('AAwmekia), but Pliny (4,26) names it Alopece. —II. An island in the Cimmerian Bosporus, near Panticapaum. Constantine Porphyrogenitus (de adm. imp., c. 42) calls it Atech (Aréx)—III. A borough of Attica, north of Hymettus, and near the Cynosarges, consequently close to Athens. According to Herodotus (5,63), it contained the tomb of Anchimolius, a Spartan chief, who fell in the first expedition undertaken by the Spartans to expel the Pisistratidae. According to Æschines (in Timarch.,p. 119), it was not more than eleven or twelve stadia from the walls of the city. This was the borough or demus of Socrates and Aristides. It was enrolled in the tribe Antiochis. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'AAostékm). Chandler thought that he passed some vestiges belonging to it in his journey from Athens to Hymettus. (Travels, vol. 2, c. 30.) Alopeconnesus, a town on the northern coast of the Thracian Chersonese. It was an AEolian colony, according to Scymnus (p. 705), and it is mentioned as one of the chief towns of the Chersonese by Demosthenes (de Cor., p. 256). It was taken by Philip, king of Macedon, towards the commencement of his wars with the Romans (Liv., 31, 16). According to Athenaeus (2,60), truffles of excellent quality grew near it. The site of the ancient town still retains the name of Alexi. (Mannert, 7, p. 197.) Alos, or Halos, I. a city in Thessaly, situate near the sea, on the river Amphrysus. It was founded by Athamas, whose memory was here held in the highest veneration. (Strab., 432.-Herodot., 7, 197.) This place was called the “Phthiotic” or “Achaean” Alos, to distinguish it from another city of the same name among the Locri-II. A city of the Locri Opuntii. AlpšNUs, a town of the Locri Epicnemidii, south of Thermopylae, whence, as Herodotus (7, 229) informs us, Leonidas and his little band drew their supplies. It is also called Alpeni ("A?rmyot). This is probably the same town which Æschines names Alponus, since he describes it as being close to Thermopylae. (AEsch., de Fals. Leg., p. 46.) Alpes, a chain of mountains, separating Italia from Gallia, Helvetia, and Germania. Their name is derived from their height, Alp being the old Celtic appellation for a losty mountain. (Adelung, Mithridates, vol. 2, p. 42.—Compare remarks under the article Albion, II.) They extend from the Sinus Flanaticus, or Gulf of Carnero, at the top of the Gulf of Venice, and the sources of the river Colapis, or Kulpe, to Vada Sabatia, or Savona, on the Gulf of Genoa. The whole extent, which is in a crescent form, Livy makes only 250 miles, Pliny 700 miles. The true amount is nearly 600 British miles. They have been divided by both ancient and modern geographers into various portions, of which the principal are, 1. The Maritime Alps (Alpes Maritima”), beginning from the environs of Nice (Nicaea), and extending to Mons Wesulus, Monte Viso. 2. The Cottian Alps (Alpes Cottiae), reaching from the last-mentioned point to Mont Cenis. (Wid. Cottius.) 3. The Graian Alps (Alpes Graia), lying between Mont Iseran and the Little St. Bernard inclusively. The name Graia is said to refer to the tradition of Hercules having crossed over them on his return from Spain into Italy and Greece. 4. The Pennine Alps (Alpes Penninae), extending from the Great St. Bernard to the sources of the Rhone and Rhine. The name is derived from the Celtic Penn, “a summit,” and not, as Livy and other ancient writers, together with some modern ones, pretend, from Hannibal ho crossed into Italy by this path, and who, therefore, make the orthography Poeninae, from Poenus. 5. The Rhaetic or Tridentine Alps (Alpes Rhaetica sive Tridentinae), from the St. Gothard, whose numerous peaks bore the name of Adula, to Mont Brenner in the Tyrol. 6. The Noric Alps (Alpes Norica), from the latter point to the head of the river Plavis, or la Piave. 7. The Carnic or Julian Alps (Alpes Carnica sive Juliae), terminating in the Mons Albius on the confines of Illyrio was not till the reign of Augustus that the Alps became well known. That emperor finally subdued the numerous and savage clans which inhabited the Alpine valleys, and cleared the passes of the banditti that infested them. He improved the old roads and constructed new ones; and finally succeeded in establishing a free and easy communication through these mountains. (Strab., 204.) It was then that the whole of this great chain was divided into the seven portions which have just been mentioned. Among the Pennine Alps is Mont Blanc, 14,676 feet high. The Fo passes at the present day are, that over the reat St. Bernard, that over Mont Simplon, and that over Mont St. Gothard. The manner in which Hannibal is said to have effected his passage over these mountains is now generally regarded as a fiction. (Vid. Hannibal, under which article some remarks will also be offered upon the route of the Carthaginian commander in crossing the Alps.) Besides the divisions of the Alps already mentioned, we sometimes meet with others, such as the Lepontine Alps (Alpes Lepontias), between the sources of the Rhine and the Lacus Verbanus (Lago Maggiore); the Alpes Summa: (Cas., B. G., 3, 1, and 4, 10), running off from the Pennine Alps, and reaching as far as the Lake Verbanus, &c. Alphrsiboea, daughter of Phygeus, or Phegeus, king of Psophis in Arcadia, married Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus, who had fled to her father's court after the murder of his mother. She received, as a bridal present, the fatal collar and robe which had been given to Eriphyle, to induce her to betray her husband Amhiaraus. The ground, however, becoming barren on is account, Alcmaeon left Arcadia and his newlymarried wife, in obedience to an oracle, and came, first to Calydon unto king CEneus, then to the Thesprotii, and finally to the Achelous. Here he was purified by the river-god from the stain of his mother's blood, and married Callirrhoë, the daughter of the stream. Callirrhoe had two sons by him, and begged of him, as a present, the collar and robe, which were then in the hands of Alphesiboea. He endeavoured to obtain them, under the pretence that he wished to consecrate them at Delphi; but the deception being discovered, he was slain by the two brothers of Alphesiboea, who had lain in wait for him. Alphesiboea, showing too much sorrow for the loss of her former husband, was conveyed by her brothers to Tegea, and given into the hands of Agapenor. The more usual name by which Alphesiboea is known among the ancient fabulists, is Arsinoë. (Apollod., 3, 7.—Heyne, ad loc.) Alphéus and Alphéus ('AAgetóc and 'AAgeóc, the short penult marking the earlier, the long one the later and more usual, pronunciation), I. a river of Peloponnesus, flowing through Arcadia and Elis. It rose in the Laconian border of Arcadia, about five stadia from A sea, and mingled its waters, at its source, with those of the Eurotas. The united streams continued their course for the space of twenty stadia, when they disappeared in a chasm. The Alpheus was seen to rise again at a place called Pēga (rmyai) or “the sources,” in the territory of Megalopolis, and the Eurotas in that of Belmina, in Laconia. Flowing onward from this quarter, the Alpheus passes through the intervening part of Arcadia, enters Elis, passes through the plain of Olympia, and discharges its waters, now swelled by uumerous tributary streams, into the Sicilian Sea.

The modern name of the river is the Rouphia.-There are few streams so celebrated in antiquity as the Alpheus. Its proximity to the scene of the Olympic contests connects its name continually with the mention of those memorable games, on the part of the ancient poets, and gives it, in particular, a conspicuous place in the verses of Pindar. There is also a pleasing legend connected with the stream. According to the poets, the god of the Alpheus became enamoured of and pursued the nymph Arethusa, who was only saved from him by the intervention of Diana, and changed for that purpose into a fountain. This fountain she placed in the island of Ortygia, near the coast of Sicily, and forming in a later age one of the quarters of the city of Syracuse. The ardent river-god, however, did not even then desist, but worked a passage for his stream amid the intervening ocean, and, rising up again in the Ortygian island, commingled its waters with those of the fountain of Arethusa. #. according to popular belief, if anything were thrown upon the Alpheus in Elis, it was sure to reappear, after a certain lapse of time, upon the bosom of the Ortygian fountain. (Pausan., 5, 7–Id., 8, 54.—Strab., 269, et 343.− Pind., Nem., 1, 1, seqq.—Moschus, Id., 8–Virg., AEn., 3, 692, seqq.—Id., Georg., 3, 180.—Nonnus, in Creuz, Melet., 1, p. 78.) According to another version, however, of the same legend, it was Diana herself, and not the nymph Arethusa, whom the river-god of the Alpheus pursued, and, when this pursuit had ended in the island of Ortygia, the fountain of Arethusa arose there. (Schol. ad Pind., Nem., 1, 3– vol. 2, p. 428, ed. Böckh.) The account last given will afford us a clew to the true meaning of the entire fable. The goddess Diana had, it seems, a common altar at Olympia with the god of the Alpheus. (Herodotus, in Schol. ad Pind, Olymp., 5, 10–Pausan., 5, 14.) To the same Diana water was held sacred. (Böckh, ad Pind, Nem., 1.-Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 182.) This part of the worship of Diana having passed from the Peloponnesus into Sicily, the worship of the Alpheus accompanied it; or, in other words, a common altar for the two divinities was erected by the Syracusans in Ortygia, similar in its attendant rites and ceremonies to the altar at Olympia. For in the island of Ortygia all water was held sacred, (Schol. ad Pind., Nem., 1, 1–2, p. 428, ed. Bockh), and Diana, besides, was worshipped at the sountain of Arethusa, under the titles of Torauia and 'A29etúa. From this commingling of rites arose, therefore, the poetic legend, that the Alpheus had passed through the ocean to Ortygia, and blended its waters with those of Arethusa, or, in other words, its rites with those of Diana. (Böckh, ad Pind., Nem., l.c.)—II. An engraver on gems, who executed many works in connexion with Arethon, one of his contemporaries. A head of Caligula, engraved by him when a young man, is still extant. (Bracci, pt. 1, tab. 16.) Alphius Avitus, a Roman poet, who wrote an account of illustrious men, in two volumes. Terentianus Maurus has cited some verses of the work, having reference to the story of Camillus and the schoolmaster of Falisci. (Compare Burmann, Anthol. Lat., vol. 1, p. 452.) Alpinus (Cornelius), a wretched poet, ridiculed by Horace (Serm., 1, 10, 36, seqq). In describing Memnon slain by Achilles, he kills him, as it were, according to Horace, by the miserable character of his own description. So also the same poet is represented by the Venusian bard as giving the Rhine a head of mud. Who this Alpinus actually was cannot be exactly ascertained, and no wonder, since it would have been strange if any particulars of so contemptible a poet had escaped oblivion. Cruquius, without any authority, discovers in Alpinus the poet Cornelius Gallus, the friend of Virgil. Nor is Bentley's supposition of any great value. According to this latter critic, Horace

alludes, under the name of Alpinus, to Furius Bibaculus; and Bentley thinks that the appellation was given him by Horace, either on account of his being a native of Gaul, or because he described in verse the Gallic war, or else, and what Bentley considers most probable, in allusion to a foolish line of his composition, “Jupiter jubernas cana nave conspuit Alpes.” (Bentl., ad Horat., l, 10, 36.) Alpis, a river falling into the Danube. Mannert (Geogr., vol. 3, p. 510) supposes this to have been the same with the AEnus, or Inn. It is mentioned by HeIodotus (4, 29). Alsium, a maritime town of Etruria, southeast from Cere, now Palo. (Sul. Ital.., 8, 475.) Althara, daughter of Thestius and Eurythemis, married CEneus, king of Calydon, by whom she had many children, among whom was Meleager, considered by some to be the son of Mars. Seven days after the burth of Meleager, the Destinies came unto Althaea, and announced, that the life of Meleager depended upon a brand then burning on the hearth, and that he would die when it was consumed. The mother saved the brand from the flames, and kept it very carefully; but when Meleager killed his two uncles, Althaea's brothers, Althea, to revenge their death, threw the piece of wood into the fire, and, as soon as it was burned, Meleager expired. She was afterward so deeply grieved for the loss of her son, that she made away with her own existence. (Apollod., 1, 8, 1–Ovud, Met., 8, 445, sesq.) Another version of the story is also given (Apollod, l.c.), which appears to have been derived from Homer (ll, 9, 551.-Compare with this Anton. Lib. c. 2, and Heyne, ad Apollod., l.c.) AlthEMENEs (AA0muévno, more correct than Althemenes, 'A2.3atuévno, the common form. Heyne, ad Apollod, 3, 2, 1, not crit.), son of Catreus, king of Crete. Hearing that either he or his brothers were to be their father's murderer, he fled to Rhodes, where he made a settlement, to avoid becoming a parricide, and built, on Mount Atabyrus, the famous temple of Jupiter Atabyrius. After the death of all his other sons, Calteus went after his son Althemenes: when he land*d in Rhodes, the inhabitants attacked him, supposing him to be an enemy, and he was killed by the hand of is own son. When Althemenes knew that he had killed his father, he entreated the gods to remove him; and the earth immediately opened, and swallowed him up. (Apollod, 3, 2.) According to Diodorus Sicuus, however, he shunned the society of men after the * and died eventually of grief. (Diod. Suc., n ..) . Altinux, a flourishing city near Aquileia. According to Cluverius, the precise site of the ancient Altihum seems uncertain. D'Anville, however, asserts (And Geogr. de l'Ital, p. 84) that its place is yet *ed by the name of Altino, on the right bank of the river Šilis (Sile), and near its mouth. According * Strabo (214), the situation of Altinum bore much *mblance to that of Ravenna. The earliest men* of it is in Velleius Paterculus (2,76). At a la* Period of the Roman empire it must have become * Place of considerable note, since Martial compares *ppearance of its shore, lined with villas, to that of Baio. (Ep., 4, 25.) It was also celebrated for its wool (Martial, Ep., 14, 153.) Altis, the sacred grove of Olympia, on the banks ** Alpheus, in the centre of which stood the temple of Jupiter. It was composed of olive and planelites, and was surrounded by an enclosure. Besides **mple just mentioned, the grove contained those * Juno and Lucina, the theatre, and the prytaneum. **ont of it, or, if we follow Strabo, within its pre**, was the stadium, together with the race-ground * hippodromus. The whole grove was filled with *numents and statues, erected in honour of gods, * and conquerors. Pausaniasmentions more than

two hundred and thirty statues; of Jupiter alone he describes twenty-three, and these were, for the most }. works of the first artists. (Pausan., 5, 13.) liny (34, 17) estimates the whole number of these statues, in his time, at three thousand. The Altis contained also numerous treasuries, belonging to different Grecian cities, similar to those at Delphi. These were situated on a basement of Porine stone, to the north of the temple of Juno. (Wid. Olympia.) ALUNtium, a town of Sicily, on the northern coast, not sar from Calacta. Now Alontio. Cicero (in Verr., 4, 29) calls the place Haluntium. Aly Attes, a king of Lydia, father of Croesus, succeeded Sadyattes. He drove the Cimmerians from Asia, and made war against Cyaxares, king of the Medes, the grandson of Deioces. He died after a reign of 57 years, and after having brought to a close a war against the Milesians. An immense barrow or mound was raised upon his grave, composed of stones and earth. This is still visible within about five miles of Sardis or Sart. For some curious remarks on the resemblance between this tomb, as described by Herodotus, and that said to have been erected in memory of Porsenna (Varro, ap. Plin., 36, 13), and which affords a new argument in favour of the Lydian origin of Etrurian civilization, consult the Excursus of Creuzer, ad. Herod., 1, 93 (ed. Bahr, vol. 1, p. 924).-It is also related that an eclipse of the sun terminated a battle between this monarch and Cyaxares, and that this eclipse had been predicted by Thales. (Herod, 1, 74–Bähr, ad loc.) Modern investigations make it to have been a total one. (Oltmann, Act. Soc. Berolin. Mathemat., 1812.) It is worthy of notice, too, that this same eclipse is mentioned in the Persian poem Schahnameh, as having taken place under king Keikawus, who is thought to have been the Cyaxares of the Greek writers. (Von Hammer, Wiener Jahrbüch., 9, p. 13.). For remarks on the chronology of this reign, consult Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 1, 2d ed., p. 296 et 298, and also Larcher, Histoire d'Herodote, vol. 7, p. 537. (Table Chronol.) Alypius, I. a philosopher of Alexandrea in Egypt, contemporary with Jamblichus. He was remarkably small of size, but possessed, according to Eunapius, a very subtle turn of mind, and was very skilful in dialectics. Alypius wrote nothing; all his instruction was given orally. Jamblichus composed a life of this philosopher. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 1, p. 657.)—II. A native of Alexandrea, who wrote a work on music, entitled, Elaayayi, uovatkā, or “Introduction to Music.” He divides the whole musical art into seven portions: 1. Sounds. 2. Intervals. 3. Systems. 4. Kinds. 5. Tones. 6. Changes. 7. Compositions. He treats, however, of only one of these, the fifth; whence Meibomius concludes, that only a fragment of his work has reached us. There is some difference of opinion as to the period when Alypius flourished. Cassiodorus (De Musica, sub fin.) believes, that he was anterior to Ptolemy, and even to Euclid. De la Borde (Essai sur la Musique, vol. 3, p. 133) places him in the latter half of the fourth century after Christ. Of all the ancient writers on music that have come down to us, he is the only one through whom we are made acquainted with the notes employed by the Greeks; so that, without him, our knowledge of the ancient music would be greatly circumscribed. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 8, p. 270.)—III. A native of Antioch, an architect and engineer, who lived in the reign of Julian the apostate, to whom he dedicated a geographical description of the ancient world. This production is considered by some to be the same with the short abridgment, first published by Godefroy (Gothofredus), in Greek and Latin, at Geneva, 1628, in 4to. There is, however, no good reason whatever to suppose this work to have been written by Alypius. The Greek text published by

Godefroy appears rather to have been forged after the Latin version, which is very old and very badly done. We perceive, from the letters of Julian that have come down to us, that Alypius was also a poet; and that he had commanded, moreover, in Britain, where his mildness and firmness combined had gained him great praise. It was Alypius whom Julian charged with the execution of his order for rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem; a work that was broken off, in so remarkable a manner, by globes of fire bursting forth from the ground, and wounding and putting to flight the workmen. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 1, p. 657.-Consult Salcerte, des Sciences Occultes, vol. 2, p. 224.) ALY pus, a statuary of Sicyon, pupil of Naucydes, the Argive. He cast in brass the statues of certain Lacedæmonians who fought with Lysander in the battle of Ægos Potamos. (Pausan., 10, 9.) Alyzia ('Azuota), a town of Acarnania, about fif. teen stadia from the sea, and, as Cicero informs us in one of his letters (ad Fam., 16, 2), one hundred and twenty stadia from Leucas. It appears to have been a place of some note, as it is noticed by several writers. The earliest of these are Scylax (Peripl., p. 13) and Thucydides (7, 31). A naval action was fought in its vicinity, between the Athenians under Timotheus, and the Lacedaemonians, not long before the battle of Leuctra. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 4, 65.), Belonging to Alyzia was a port consecrated to Hercules, with a grove, where was at one time a celebrated group, the work of Lysippus, representing the labours of Her. cules; but a Roman general caused it to be removed to Rome, as more worthy to possess such a chefd'oeuvre. (Strabo, 459.) This port appears to answer to the modern Porto Candili. (Cramer's Anct. Greece, vol. 2, p. 18, seqq.) AMAGEtobria. Wid. Magetobria. AMALTHAEA, I. the name of the goat that suckled Jupiter. The monarch of Olympus, as a reward for this act of kindness, translated her to the skies, along with her two young ones, whom she had put aside in order to accommodate the infant deity, and he made them stars in the northern hemisphere, on the arm of Auriga. The whole legend appears to be of a mixed character, and from a simple origin, adapted to the rude ideas of an early race, to have gradually assumed an astronomical character. Thus, according to the legend, the infant Jove was nurtured by the milk of the goat, while the wild-bees deposited their honey on his lips. We have here the milk and the honey that play so conspicuous a part in Oriental imagery, as typifying the highest degree of human felicity and abundance, and, therefore, well worthy to be the food of an infant deity appearing in human form. From the milk and honey, moreover, of early fable, come the ambrosia and nectar of a later age, since nectar was regarded as a quintessence of honey, and ambrosia as an extract from the urest milk. (Böttiger, Amalthaea, vol. 1, p. 22.) he early legend goes on to state, that the infant Jove, when playing with his four-footed foster parent, accidentally broke off one of her horns. This was made at first to serve as a drinking cup, and thus recalls the custom of a primitive age, when the horns of animals were generally employed for this purpose; the horncup appearing as well in the earliest symposia and the Bacchanalian orgies of the Greeks, as in the legends of the Scandinavian Edda and in the halls of Odin. With the progress of ideas, a new feature was added to the fable. The horn of Amalthaea is no longer a mere cup. This use has ended, and Jupiter now ordains, that it shall be ever full to overflowing with whatever its possessor shall wish. (Apostolius, Cent, 2, 86, p. 30.—Compare Fischer, ad Palaphat., 46, p. 179.) Hence arose the beautiful fiction of the horn of plenty, the Cornu Copia, one of the happiest and most prolific allegories of the plastic art. Jove was said, in this later version of the fable, to have broken off the horn, filled it with all the richest fruits, and flow

ers, and teeming productions of earth, and to have given it to a nymph, Adrastea, who had charge, with others, of his earlier years.—A change had also been made in another part of the primitive legend. The goat Amalthaa, though so kind to the infant deity, and though all white and beautiful of form, was said, nevertheless, to have had a look so fearful and terror-inspiring, that the Titans, unable to endure it, entreated the earth to hide the animal from view. (Eratosthenes, Cataster., 13, p. 10, seqq., ed. Schaub-Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 13.) We have here a clew to the origin of the whole fable. The ancient navigators had observed that the constellations of the She-Goat and the Kids (Capella and Hardi) brought stormy and rainy weather, and they were therefore regarded as inauspicious for mariners and dangerous for ships. (Arat. Phan., 156, seqq.— Schol. ad Arat., p. 46, ed. Buhle.—Voss., ad Virg., Georg., 1,205.) H. probably the name as: was applied to the constellation of the She-Goat, in its primitive meaning of a tempest, a primitive meaning which afterward disappeared from use, while the secondary one of a she-goat usurped its place. (Buttmann, ad Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 309.) With this earlier meaning of ai; is connected that of alyto, “a storm” or “tempest,” subsequently indicative of the AEgis of Jupiter, which he was believed to wield amid the warfare of the elements. From all this arose the early legend. The bright stars in the constellation of Capella become the fair, white she-goat Amalthaea. The storms and clouds which the constellation brings with it, become the fear-inspiring look on the part of the animal, and, by the rude simplicity of early times, the she-goat is made the foster-parent of Jove. (Compare Hock, Creta, vol. 1, p. 177, seqq.—Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 424, seqq.)—II. A daughter of Melisseus, king of Crete. She and her sister Melissa had charge of the infant Jupiter, and fed him with goat's milk and honey. This is merely a later version of the early fable mentioned under Amalthea I. The she-goat and bees are now two females. (Diod. Sic., 5, 70.—Compare Böttiger, Amalthaea, vol. 1, p. 24.)—III. A sibyl of Cumae, called also Hierophile and Demophile. She is supposed to be the same who brought nine books of prophecies to Tarquin, king of Rome. (Wid. Sibyllae.) AMAlthEUM, a gymnasium, or, rather, gymnasium and study combined, which Atticus had arranged in his villa in Epirus. It was replete with all that could amuse or instruct, and here, too, were placed the statues of all the illustrious men by whom the glory of the Roman state had been advanced to its proud elevation, just as Jupiter had been nurtured by the goat Amalthaa. Hence its name Amaltheum ('Aua? 9efov). (Cic., Ep. ad Att., 1, 16–Compare Ernesti, Clar. Cic., Ind. Gracco-Lat.)—Cicero appears to have had something of the kind in his villa at Arpinum, and which he calls his Amalthaea, in the singular (fem.). (Ep. ad Att., 2, 1.) AMANUs, I. a continuation of the chain of Mount Taurus, stretching to the north as far as Melitene and the Euphrates. It is situate at the castern extremity of the Mediterranean, near the Gulf of Issus, and separates Cilicia from Syria. The defile or pass in these mountains was called Portus Amanicus, or Pyla Syrise. Its valleys and recesses were inhabited by wild and fierce tribes, who lived chiefly by plundering their neighbours, though they boasted of their freedom under the sonorous name of Eleuthero-Cilices, or Free Cilicians. The modern name of the chain is, according to Mannert, Almadag ; but, according to D'Anville, Al-Lukan. (Strab., 521.-Lucan, 8,244.—Cic., Ep. ad Att., 5, 20–Plin., 5, 27.)—II. A deity worshipped in Pontus and Cappadocia, and also called Omanus and Anandatus. (Compare Tschucke, ad Strab., 11, p. 512, ed. Casaub.—vol. 4, p. 478.) Bochart identifies him with the sun (Geogr. Sacr., p. 277), and others with the Persian Hom, a type of the same luminary. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 164.) Mount Amanus thus becomes the mountain of the sun, even as Lebanon appears in the Phoenician Cosmogony of Sanchoniathon. AMARXcus, a son of Cynaras, king of Cyprus, who, having fallen and broken a vase of perfumes which he was carrying, pined away, being either overpowered by the strong fragrance, or struck with grief at the loss he had sustained. The gods, out of compassion, changed him into the amaracus, or sweet-marjoram. Servius (ad Virg, Æn., 1,693), gives a somewhat different account, and makes Amaracus, not a son, but an attendant, of the king's. As regards the plantamaracus itself, and its identity with the adupuzov of the Greeks, consult Fée, Flore de Virgile, p. cloxxv. AMARDI, a nation of Asia. Ptolemy (5,13) places them in the greater Armenia, on the borders of Media; Nearchus, Pliny (6,17), and Strabo, in the mountains of Elymais, in Persia. Others assign Margiana as the country in which they lived. It is possible that there were several tribes of this same name spread over different countries, or perhaps several colonies of this people. Vossius thinks that all robbers and fugitives inhabiting the mountains were called Amardi by the Persians. (Voss., ad Pomp. Mel. B., 5—Compare Pomp. Mel, French transl., vol. 1, p. 202.) AMARyllis, the name of a female in Virgil's eclogues. Some commentators have supposed that the o spoke of Rome under this fictitious appellation, ut this supposition is a very improbable one. (Consult Heyne, ad Virg., Eclog., 1, 28, towards the conclusion of the note.) AMARYNThus, a town of Euboea, seven stadia from Eretria, celebrated for the temple and worship of Diana Amarynthia. (Strab.,448.--Liv., 35, 38.-Pausan., 1, 31.) AMAséNUs, a small river of Latium, crossing the Pontine Marshes, and falling into the Tyrrhenian Sea, now La Toppia. (Virg., AEn., 7,685.) AMAsia, or AMAs; A ("Audaeta, by the later Greeks 'Auaqia), a city of Pontus, on the river Iris, the origin of which is not ascertained. It was the birthplace of Mithradates the Great and of Strabo the geographer. At a later period, when under the Roman sway, it became the capital of Pontus Galaticus (Hierocles, É. 701), and bore upon its coins the title of Metropois. Strabo (560) gives us a particular description of his native city. The modern Amasyah or Amassia is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Amasea. (Mannert, 6, pt. 2, p. 461, seqq.) AMAsis, I. a king of Egypt, of one of the earlier dynasties. He rendered himself odious to his subjects by his violent and tyrannical conduct, and, on the invasion of Egypt by Actisanes, king of AEthiopia, the greater part of the inhabitants went over to the latter. Such is the account given by Diodorus Siculus (1,60), where many think we should read Amósis for Amasis. (Consult Steph. and Wesseling, ad Diod., l.c.) Justin Martyr (Parancs., p. 10) makes him to have been the first Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. Eusebius (Chron.) asserts that he was the same king during whose reign Jacob died. Olearius (ad Philostr., Wit. Apoll, 42) maintains that he was monarch of Egypt in the time of the Exodus. All is uncertainty respecting him.—II. An Egyptian, who, from having been a common soldier, became king of Egypt. He succeeded in gaining the favour of king Apries, and was despatched by that monarch to quell a sedition which had broken out. As he was endeavouring to dissuade those who had revolted from the step they had taken, one of them came behind him and put a helmet on his head, saying that he put it on him to make him a king. Amasis was thereupon proclaimed king by the insurents, and immediately marched against and defeated former master, B.C. 569. He governed with pru

dence and energy. Under his reign Fo enjoyed

for many years uninterrupted prosperity. To prevent those offences which an idle and overflowing population might commit, he ordained that every one of his subjects should yearly give an account, to the ruler of the nome or district in which he resided, of the means of subsistence which he enjoyed, and the manner in which he lived. He showed also an enlightened spirit in the permission which he granted to strangers, and particularly to the Greeks, to visit Egypt; he gave them settlements along his coasts, and permitted them to erect temples there for the performance of their national worship. , Solon was one of those who visited Egypt during the reign of this prince. Amasis espoused a Grecian female, a native of Cyrene: he displayed his attachment to the Greeks in various ways, ...} contributed liberally, not only to the rebuilding of the temple at Delphi, but to the improvement and embellishment of many cities and temples of Greece. In his own country he constructed numerous magnificent works, in the massy and gigantic style so peculiar to Egypt. He subjected also the isle of Cyprus, and made it tributary to his crown. The prosperity of Amasis, however, was disturbed, at last, by the preparations which Cambyses, king of Persia, made to attack his kingdom. The Persian monarch had demanded the daughter of Amasis in marriage; but the father, knowing that Cambyses meant to make her, not his wife, but his concubine, endeavoured to deceive him by sending in her stead the daughter of Apries. The female herself disclosed the imposition to Cambyses, and the latter, in great wrath, resolved to march against Egypt. The ... of Phanes, moreover, an officer among the Greek auxiliaries, who fled to Cambyses on account of some dissatisfaction with Amasis, proved a serious injury to the Egyptian prince. The Greek informed Cambyses how he might pass the intervening deserts, and gave him also very important information respecting the kingdom he was about to invade. Amasis escaped by death the perils which threatened his country. He died B.C. 525, after a reign of 44 years, and the whole fury of the storm fell upon his son Psammeticus. Cambyses, however, determined not to be disappointed of his revenge, caused the body of the deceased monarch to be taken from the royal sepulchre at Sais; and, after having practised various indignities upon it, commanded it to be burned, an order equally revolting to the religious feelings of both the Persians and Egyptians. The story of Åmasis and Polycrates is well known (vid. Polycrates), though the reason commonly assigned for the former's refusing to continue the alliance is perhaps less worthy of credit than that given by Diodorus Siculus, 1, 15. (Herodot., 2, 162, seqq.—Id., 3, 1, seqq.) Athenaeus (15, 25.—vol. 5, p. 479, ed., Schweigh.) informs us, that Amasis first insinuated himself into the good graces of Apries by a chaplet of flowers which he presented to him on his birthday. The king, enchanted with the beauty of the chaplet, invited him to a feast which he gave on that occasion, and received him among

the number of his friends. AMAstris, I, a daughter of the brother of Darius Codomannus. Alexander intended giving her in marriage to Craterus, but, in the confusion and political changes which followed the death of the conqueror, the plan, of course, fell to the ground, and she became the wife of Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus. (Memnon, c. 5.) Dionysius, at his death, left her as the guardian of his children, on account of the influence she enjoyed among the Macedonians. She was subsequently married to Lysimachus, and, though some time after separated from him by reason of the olitical movements of the day, continued to enjoy i. consideration and respect. She founded a city at this period, and called it after her name. She was murdered by her own sons, who were punio Lysima


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