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*. the rights of the people (populum and colo, oplicola, Publicola). Niebuhr dissents from this etymology in the following remarks: “We cannot agree with the Greek Dionysius and Plutarch in translating Publicola as a compound term by Ömuokmås, “the protector of the people;' but we must recognise therein the old Latin form of the adjective with a superduous termination, which is sometimes mistaken for a diminutive, sometimes for a compound. It is equivalent to Publicus, in the sense of 6muorukóc. Thus Scaevola is not the diminutive, but synonymous with Scaevus, and Æguicolus is nothing but Æquus or AEquicus; Volsculus nothing but Volscus.” (Roman History, vol. 1, p. 360, Walter's trans.) Publilia LEx, I, a law proposed by Publilius the Dictator, A.U.C. 414, ordaining that, before the people gave their votes, the senate should authorize whatever they might determine. (Livy, 8, 12.)—II. A law ordaining that the plebeian magistrates should be created at the comitia tributa. (Liv., 2, 56.) Publius Syrus, a celebrated composer and actor of mimes. He was a native of Syria, and was brought from Asia to Italy in early youth in the same vessel with his countryman and kinsman Manlius Antiochus, the professor of astrońogy, and Staberius Eros, the grammarian, who all, by some desert in learning, rose above their original fortune. He received a good education and liberty from his master, in reward for his witticisms and his facetious disposition. He first represented his mimes in the provincial towns of Italy, whence, his fame having spread to Rome, he was summoned to the capital, to assist in those public spectacles which Caesar offered his countrymen in exchange for their freedom. (Macrob. Sat., 2, 7.) On one occasion he challenged all persons of his own profession to contend with him on the stage; and in this competition he successfully overcame every one of his rivals. By his success in the representation of these popular entertainments, he amassed considerable wealth, and lived with such luxury that he never gave a great supper without having sow's udder at table, a dish which was prohibited by the censors as being too great a luxury even for the table of patricians. (Plin., 8, 51.) Nothing farther is known of his history, except that he was still continuing to perform his mimes with aplause at the period of the death of Laberius, which j ten months after the assassination of Caesar. (Chron. Euseb., ad Olymp., 184.) We have not the names of any of the mimes of Publius, nor do we precisely know their nature or subject; all that is preserved from them being a number of detached sentiments or maxims, to the amount of 800 or 900, seldom exceeding a single line, but containing reflections of unrivalled force, truth, and beauty, on all the various relations, situations, and feelings of human life. Both the writers and actors of mimes were probably careful to have their memory stored with commonplaces and precepts of morality, in order to introduce them appropriately in their extemporaneous performances. The maxims of Publius were interspersed through his dramas; but, being the only portion of these productions now remaining, they have just the appearance of thoughts or sentiments, like those of Rochefoucauld. His mimes must either have been very numerous, or very thickly loaded with these moral aphorisms. It is also surprising that they seem raised far above the ordinary tone even of regular comedy, and appear for the greater part to be almost stoical maxims. Seneca has remarked, that many of his eloquent verses are fitter for the buskin than the slipper. (Ep., 8.) How such exalted precepts should have been grafted on the lowest farce, and how passages, which would hardly be appropriate in the most serious sentimental comedy, were adapted to the actions or manners of gross and drunken buffoons, is a difficulty which could only be solved had we out; received entire a larger portion of these 7

productions, which seem to have been peculiar to Roman genius. The sentiments of Publius Syrus now appear trite. They have become familiar to mankind, and have been re-echoed by poets and moralists from age to age. All of them are most felicitously expressed, and few of them seem erroneous, while, at the same time, they are perfectly free from the selfish or worldlyminded wisdom of Rochefoucauld or Lord Burleigh. (Dunlop's Roman Literature, vol. 1, p. 558, seqq.) The sentences of Publius Syrus are appended to many of the editions of Phaedrus. The most useful edition of these sentences is perhaps that of Gruter, Lugd. Bat., 1727, 8vo. The latest and most accurate edition, however, is that of Orellius, appended to his edition of Phaedrus, Turici, 1832, 8vo. It contains, also, thirty sentences never before published. (Bähr, Gesch. Lit. Rûm., vol. 1, p. 776.) Pulchería, I. sister of Theodosius the Great, and celebrated for her piety and virtues.—II. A Roman empress, daughter of Arcadius, and sister of Theodosius the younger. She was created Augusta A.D. 414, and shared the imperial power with her brother. After the death of the latter (A.D. 450), she gave her hand to Marcianus. (Vid. Marcianus I.) Pulcheria died A.D. 454, and was interred at Ravenna, where her tomb is still to be seen. Pulch RUM ProMo'Ntorium, the same with Hermaum Promontorium. (Vid. Hermaeum.) Punicum Bellum, the name given to the wars between Rome and Carthage. The Punic wars were three in number. The first took its rise from the affair of the Mamertini, an account of which will be found under the article Messana, page 836, col. 1. This was ended by the naval battle sought off the AEgates Insulae; and it was also memorable for the naval victory of Duilius, the first ever gained by the Romans. (Vid. Carthago, © 4.—Duilius.-AEgates.) The Second Punic War commenced with the affair of Saguntum, and was terminated by the battle of Zama. During its continuance Hannibal carried on his celebrated campaigns against the Romans in Italy. (Wid. Carthago, $4.—Hannibal.–Metaurus.-Zama.) The Third Punic War was the siege and destruction of Carthage itself. (Vid. Carthago, & 4.) PupièNUs, MARcus Clodius MaxiMUs, a man of obscure family, who raised himself by his merit to the highest offices in the Roman armies, and gradually became a praetor, consul, prefect of Rome, and a . or of the provinces. His father was a blacksmith. After the death of the Gordians, Pupienus was elected with Balbinus to the imperial throne, and, to rid the world of the usurpation and tyranny of the Maximini, he immediately marched against these tyrants; but he was soon informed that they had been sacrificed to the fury and resentment of their own soldiers. He prepared, after this, to make war against the Persians, who insulted the majesty of Rome, but was massacred, A.D. 236, by the praetorian guards. Balbinus shared his fate. Pupienus is sometimes called Maximus. In his private character he appeared always grave and serious. He was the constant friend of justice, moderation, and clemency, and no greater encomium can be passed upon his virtues than to say that he was invested with the purple without soliciting it, and that the Roman senate said they had selected him from thousands, because they knew no person more worthy or better qualified to support the dignity of an emperor. (Capitol, Wit. Marim.—Id., Wit. Gord.) Pupius, a tragic poet at Rome, contemporary with Caesar. He was famed for his power in exciting emotion. Hence the scholiast on Horace remarks (Epist., 1, 1, 67), “Pupius, Tragardiographus, ita #: spectantium movit, ut eos flere compellcret. Inde istum versum fecit: “‘Flebunt amici et bene noti mortem meam ; . Nam populus in me vivo wayma, is: salts.

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Purpur ARíAE, islands off the coast of Mauritania, so called from the manufacture of purple dye established in them. They answer at the present day to Madeira and the adjacent isles. (Plin., 6, 32.)

Putköli, a city of Campania, now Pozzuoli, on the coast, and not far from the Lucrine Lake. Its Greek name was Dicaearchia; but, when the Romans sent a colony thither, they gave it the name of Puteoli, probably from the number of its walls, or perhaps from the stench which was emitted by the sulphureous and aluminous springs in the neighbourhood. (Strabo, 245. —Plin., 31, 2.) Respecting the origin of this place, we learn from Strabo that it was at first the harbour of Cumae. Hence we may fairly regard it as a colony of that city, without calling in the Samians to assist in its foundation, as Stephanus Byzantinus reports, and Hieronymus. (Euseb., Chron., 2.) The Romans appear to have first directed their attention to this spot in the second Punic war, when Fabius the consul was ordered to fortify and garrison the town, which had only been frequented #. for commercial purposes. (Liv., 24, 7.) In the following year it was attacked by Hannibal without success (Liv., 24, 13), and about this time became a naval station of considerable importance : armies were sent to Puteoli from thence (Liv., 26, 17), and the embassy sent from Carthage, which was to sue for peace at the close of the second Punic war, disembarked here, and proceeded to Rome by land (Lip., 30, 22), as did St. Paul about 250 years afterward. The apostle remained seven days at Puteoli before he set forward on his journey by the Appian Way. (Acts, xxviii., 13.) In the time of Strabo, this city appears to have been a place of very great commerce, and particularly connected with Alexandrea; the imports from that city, which was then the emporium of the East, being much greater than the exports of Italy. (Strabo, 793. –Suet., Aug., 98,-Senec., Ep., 77.) The harbour of Puteoli was spacious and of peculiar construction, being formed of vast piles of mortar and sand, which, owing to the strongly cementing properties of the latter material, became very solid and compact masses; and these, being sunk in the sea, afforded secure anchorage for any number of vessels. (Strab., 245.) Pliny (35, 13) has remarked this quality of the sand in the neighbourhood of Puteoli, which now goes by the name of Pozzolana. The same writer informs us (36, 12), that this harbour possessed also the advantage of a conspicuous lighthouse. The remains which are yet to be seen in the harbour of Puteoli are commonly, but erroneously, considered to be the ruins of Caligula's bridge; whereas that emperor is said expressly to have used boats, anchored in a double line, for the construction of the bridge which he threw over from Puteoli to Baiae ; these were covered with earth, after the manner of Xerxes's famous bridge across the Hellespont. Upon the completion of the work, Caligula is described as appearing there in great pomp, on horseback or in a chariot, for two days, followed by the praetorian band and a splendid retinue. It is evident, therefore, that this structure was designed for a temporary purpose, and it is farther mentioned that it was begun from the piles of Puteoli. (Suet., Calig., 19.-Josephus, Antiq. Jud., 19, 1.)— Puteoli became a Roman colony A.U.C. 558, was recolonized by Augustus, and again, for the third time, by Nero. (Tacit., Ann., 14, 27.) This place appears to have espoused the cause of Vespasian with great zeal, from which circumstance, according to an inscription, it obtained the title of Colonia Flavia. The same memorial informs us, that Antoninus Pius caused the harbour of Puteoli to be repaired. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 163, seqq.)

Puticăli, a place at Rome, in the vicinity of the Esquiline. The Campus Esquilinus was, in the early days of Rome, without the walls of the city, and a number of pits were dug in it to receive the dead

bodies of the lower orders. These holes were called puticuli, from their resemblance to wells, or, more probably, from the stench which issued from them, in consequence of this practice. (Varro, L. L., 4, 5– Fest, s. v. Putic.) The Esquilia, seem to have been considered as unwholesome till this mode of burial was discontinued, which change took place in the reign of Augustus, when the gardens of Macenas were laid out here. (Hor., Sat., 1, 88.-1d., Ep.,5,100) PyDNA, a city of Macedonia, on the western cost of the Sinus Thermaicus, above Dium. The earliest mention of this town is in Scylax, who styles its Greek city (p. 26), from which it appears at that time to have been independent of the Macedonian princes. Tho. cydides speaks of an attack made upon it by the Atho. nians before the Peloponnesian war (1,61). It was afterward taken by Archelaus, king of Macedon, who removed its site twenty stadia from the sea, as Do dorus asserts; but Thucydides states, that it had been long before that period, in the possession of Akro der the son of Amyntas, and that Themistocles so thence on his way to Persia (1, 137). After the can of Archelaús, Pydna again fell into the hands of to Athenians; but the circumstances of this change to not known to us. It was aftefward taken from to by Philip, and given to Olynthus. The next fitto ative to Pydna which is recorded in history, is so terior to the reign of Alexander the Great, who mother Olympias was here besieged by Cassano. and, all hopes of relief being cut off by the into ment having been made round the town from ** sea, famine at length compelled Olympias to suneo when she was thrown into prison, and afterward " to death. (Diod. Sic., 19, 5i.)—Pydna is also simo for the decisive victory gained in its neighbourhoo! Paulus AEmilius over the Macedonian army uno Perseus, which put an end to that ancient emploThe epitomiser of Strabo says, that in his time * called Kitros (Strab., 509); as likewise the scho to Demosthenes; and this name is still attached” spot at the present day. Dr. Clarke observed a A. tros a vast tumulus, which he considered, with most probability, as marking the site of the great battle fought in these plains. (Cramer's Anc. Grea. wel 1, p. 214, seqq.) Pygmael, a fabulous nation of dwarfs, pho is Aristotle near the sources of the Nile (Hist. As, & 12—Aelian, H.A., 2, 1; 3,13); by Ctesias no dia (Ind., 11); and by Eustathius, amusingly o in England, over against Thule (hta Too Eustath, ad Il., 3, 6, p. 372.)—They were of "" diminutive size, being, according to one sco the height merely of a rvyuh, or 20 fingers to (Eustaih., l.c.), while others made them thirt of jai, or 27 inches in size. (Plin, 7, 2) To mies are said to have lived under a salubrious * amid a perpetual spring, the northern blasts * ** off by lofty mountains (Plin, l.c.) An anno fare was waged between them and the crane" o, Il., 3, 3); and they are fabled to have advanced battle against these birds, mounted on the backs rams and goats, and armed with bows and o They used also a kind of bells or rattles (*. scare them away. (Hecata.us, ap. Scho'. " o 6.—Heyne, ad loc.—Plin, l.c.). Every spoo * came down in warlike array to the seasho" o purpose of destroying the eggs and young of too. since otherwise they would have been overpo no the number of their feathered antagonists. (Holo ap. Plin., l.c.) Their dwellings were to. clay, feathers, and the shells of eggs. Aristotle, Yooever, makes them to have lived in caves, o: dytes, and to have come out at harvest-time” o ets to cut down the corn, as if to sell a so". o stath, l.c.)—Philostratus relates, that Hero fell asleep in the deserts of Africa after h"

quered Antaeus, and that he was suddenly awakened by an attack which had been made upon his body by an army of these Liliputians, who prosessed to be the avengers of Antaeus, since they were his brethren, and earthborn like himself. A simultaneous onset was made upon his head, hands, and feet. Arrows were discharged at him, his hair was ignited, spades were thrust into his eyes, and coverings or doors (útpat) were applied to his mouth and nostrils to prevent respiration. The hero awoke in the midst of the warfare, and was so much pleased with the courage dislayed by his tiny foes, that he gathered them all into ; lion skin and brought them to Eurystheus. (Philostr., Icon., 2, 22, p. 817, ed. Morell.)—The Pygmies of antiquity, like those of more modern times, may be safely regarded as mere creatures of the imagination. We have had them even placed, by popular belief, in our own country. A number of small graves, two or three feet in length, were found in the West, containing fragments of evidently adult bones. The idea of a pigmy race was immediately conceived ; but it was unknown to the discoverers, that the Indians, after disinterring their dead, buried them in graves just large enough to hold the bones made up into a small bundle for the convenience of transportation. (M*Culloch, Researches on America, p. 516.)—With respect to the Pygmies of ancient fable, it may be remarked, that Homer places them merely in southern lands, without specifying their particular locality; nor does he say a word respecting their diminutive size. (Heyne, ad Hom., Il., 3, 3.) Aristotle, as we have already said, assigns them a residence near the sources of the Nile (Hist. An.., 8, 15), in which he is followed by Ælian (H. A., 2, 1 ; 3, 15) and others. Some agree with Ctesias in making India their native country. Pliny, in one passage, places them also in India (7, 2), but in another in Thrace (4, 2). Others, again, making the cranes to wing their way from the northern regions over the Pontus Euxinus, regard Scythia and Thrace as the Pygmy land.—Many have supposed that the fable of the Pygmies and cranes has a reference to the country of Egypt. As the cranes make their appearance there about the month of November, the time in which the waters are subsided, and devour the corn sown on the lands, the whole fable of the Pygmies may be explained by supposing them to have been none other than the Egyptians, and the term pygmy (Tvypaioc) not to refer to any diminutiveness of size, but to the cubits (tröyuai, Tràxetc.) of the Nile's rise. Some scholars suppose the germe of the fable to be sound in the remarks of Strabo, respecting the utkpoovtav Tów &v Auðūn ovouévov. (Strabo, 820.) Barrow, in his Travels to the Cape of Good Hope (vol. 1, p. 239), endeavours to identify the Bosjesmans of the Cape and the Pygmies of the ancients, but with no great success. Heeren regards the whole Pygmy narrative as fabulous, but assigns it an Indian origin, and makes it to have spread from the East into the countries of the West. (Ideen, vol. 1, p. 368.) Malte-Brun inclines in favour of the existence of a pygmy race, from the accounts of modern travellers, who state that they have seen in the remote East small and deformed beings not unlike in appearance to the o of former days, and for the most part only four feet in size. Hence he thinks it not unlikely that a diminutive race, resembling, in some degree, the ancient pygmies, may still be existing among the remote and desert regions of Thibet ! (Malte. Brun, Annales des Voyages, vol. 1, p. 355, seqq.—Bähr, ad Ctes., p. 295.) Pygmalion, I. a king of Tyre, son of Belus, and brother to the celebrated Dido. (Wid. Dido.)—II. A celebrated statuary of the island of Cyprus. The debauchery of the females of Amathus, to which he was a witness, created in him such an aversion for the fair sex, that he resolved never to marry. The affection which he had denied to the other sex he liberally be

stowed upon the works of his own hands. He became enamoured of a beautiful statue of ivory which he had made, and, at his earnest request and prayers, according to the mythologists, the goddess of Beauty changed this favourite statue into a woman, whom the artist married, and by whom he had a son called Paphus, who founded the city of that name in Cyprus. (Ovid, Met, 10, 9.)—Compare the other version of the legend, as given from the Cyprian fables of Philostephanus, by Clemens of Alexandrea (Protrept., p. 50), and by Arnobius (adv. Gent., lib. 6, p. 206). Consult, also, Philostratus (Wit. Apollon., 5, 5) and Meursius (Cypr., 2). Pylkdes, I. a son of Strophius, king of Phocis, by one of the sisters of Agamemnon. He was educated together with his cousin Orestes, with whom he formed a most intimate friendship, and whom he aided in avenging the murder of Agamemnon by the punishment of Clytaemnestra and AEgisthus. He received in marriage the hand of Electra, the sister of Orestes, by whom he had two sons, Medon and Strophius. The friendship of Orestes and Pylades became proverbial. (Vid. Orestes.)—II. A celebrated actor in the reign of Augustus, banished by that emperor for pointing with his finger to one of the audience who had hissed him, and thus making him known to all. (Suet., Wit. Aug., 45.—Macrob., Sat., 2, 7.) Pylae (IIážat), a general name among the Greeks for any narrow pass. The most remarkable were the following. I. Pylae Albania. . (Wid. Caucasus.)—II. Pyla Amanicae, a pass through the range of Mount Amanus, between Cilicia Campestris and Syria. Darius marched through this pass to the battle field of Issus. (Quint. Curt., 3, 4.— Ptol., 5, 8.-Plin., 5, 27.)—III. Pylae Caspiae. (Wid. Caspiae Porta.)—IV. Pylae Caucasiae. (Wid. Caucasus.)—V. Pylae Cilicine, a pass of Cilicia, in the range of Mount Taurus, through which flows the river Sarus. (Plin., 5, 27. —Polyb., 12, 8.)—VI. Pylae Sarmatia. (Vid. Cancasus, towards the close of that article.)—VII. Pylae Syria, a pass leading from Cilicia into Syria, and bounded on one side by the sea. (Xen., Anab., 1, 4. —Arrian, Exp. Alez., 2, 8.) Pylos, I. an ancient city of Elis, about eighty stadia to the east of the city of Elis, and which disputed with two other towns of the same name the honour of being the capital of Nestor's dominions; these were Pylos of Triphylia, and the Messenian Pylos. This somewhat interesting question in Homeric geography will be considered under the head of the last-mentioned city. Pausanias informs us (6, 22) that the Elean city was originally founded by Pylus, son of Cleson, king of Megara ; but that, having been destroyed by Hercules, it was afterward restored by the Eleans. (Compare Xen, Hist. Gr., 7, 4, 16.) his town was deserted and in ruins when Pausanias made the tour of Elis. We collect from Strabo (339) that Pylos was at the foot of Mount Pholoé, and between the heads of the rivers Peneus and Selleis. This site agrees sufficiently with a spot named Portes, where there are vestiges of antiquity, under Mount Maurobouni, which must be the Pholoé of the ancients. (Gell, Itin. of the Morea, p. 30, seq.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 91.)—II. A city of Elis, in the district of Triphylia, regarded by Strabo, with great probability, as the city of Nestor. (Vid. Pylos III.) It is placed by that geographer at a distance of thirty stadia from the coast, and near a small river once called Amathus and Pamisus, but subsequently Mamaus and Arcadicus. The epithet of huabóew, applied by Homer to the Pylian territory, was referred to the first of these names. (Strabo, 344.) Notwithstanding its ancient celebrity, this city is scarcely mentioned in later times. Pausanias, even, does not appear to have been aware of its existence (6,22). Strabo affirms that on the conquest of Triphylia by the Eleans, o, * Its territory to the neighbouring town of Lepraeum. (Strab., 355.) The vestiges of Pylos are thought by Sir W. Gell to correspond with a Palaio Castro, situated at Pischine or Piskini, about two miles from the coast. Near this is a village called Sarene, perhaps a corruption of Arene. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 40.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 117.)—III. A city of Messenia, on the western coast, off which lay the island of Sphacteria. It was situated at the foot of Mount AEgaleus, now Geranio or Agio Elia. (Strabo, 459.) This city was regarded by many as the capital of Nestor's dominions, and, at a later period, was celebrated for the brilliant successes obtained there by the Athenians in the Peloponnesian war. It is necessary, however, to distinguish between the ancient city of Pylos, and the fortress which the Athenian troops under Demosthenes erected on the spot termed Coryphasium by the Lacedaemonians. (Thucyd., 4, 3.) Strabo affirms, that when the town of Pylos was destroyed, part of the inhabitants retired to Coryphasium; but Pausanias makes no distinction between the old and new town, simply stating that Pylos, founded by Pylus, son of Cleson, was situated on the promontory of Coryphasium. To Pylus he has also attributed the foundation of Pylos in Elis, whither that chief retired on his expulsion from Messenia by Neleus and the Thessalian Pelasgi. He adds, that a temple of Minerva Coryphasia was to be seen near the town, as well as the house of Nestor, whose monument was likewise to be seen there. Strabo, on the contrary, has been at considerable pains to prove that the Pylos of Homer was not in Messenia, but in Triphylia. From Homer's description, he observes, it is evident that Nestor's dominions were traversed by the Alpheus; and, from his account of Telemachus' voyage when returning to Ithaca, it is also clear that the Pylos of the Odyssey could neither be the Messenian nor Elean city; since the son of Ulysses is made to


ass Cruni, Chalcis, Phea, and the coast of Elis, which

e could not have done if he had set out from the lastmentioned place ; if from the former, the navigation would have been much longer than from the description we are led to suppose, since we must reckon 400 stadia from the Messenian to the Triphylian Pylos only, besides which, we may presume, the poet would in that case have named the Neda, the Acidon, and the intervening rivers and places. Again, from Nestor's account of his battle with the Epeans, he must have been separated from that people by the Alpheus, a statement which cannot be reconciled with the position of the Elean Pylos. If, on the other hand, we suppose him to allude to the Messenian city, it will appear very improbable that Nestor should make an incursion into the country of the Epei, and return from thence with a vast quantity of cattle, which he had to convey such a distance. His pursuit of the enemy as far as Buprasium and the Olenian rock, after their defeat, is equally incompatible with the supposition that he marched from Messenia. In fact, it is not easy to understand how there could have been any communication between the Epeans and the subjects of Nestor, if they had been so far removed from each other. But as all the circumstances mentioned by Homer agree satisfactorily with the situation of the Triphylian city, we are necessarily induced to regard it as the Pylos of Nestor. Such are the chief arguments adduced by Strabo.—According to Thucydides, the Messenian Pylos had two entrances, one on each side of the island of Sphacteria, but of unequal breadth; the narrowest being capable of admitting only two vessels abreast. The harbour itself must have been very capacious for two such considerable fleets as those of Athens and Sparta to engage within it. These characteristics sufficiently indicate the port or bay of Navarino as the scene of those most inter

tailed in the fourth book of Thucydides. A spot nomed Pila, and laid down in Lapie's map as nearly in the centre of the bay, probably answers to the ancient Pylos. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 132, seqq.) PYRAMídes, famous monuments of Egypt, of massive masonry, which, from a square base, rise diminishing to a point or vertex when viewed from below.— The pyramids commence immediately south of Cairo, but on the opposite side of the Nile, and extend in an uninterrupted range for many miles in a southerly direction parallel with the banks of the river. The perpendicular height of the first, which is ascribed to Cheops, is 480 feet 9 inches, that is, 43 feet 9 inches higher than St. Peter's at Rome, and 136 feet 9 inches higher than St. Paul's in London. The length of the former base was 764 feet, that of the present base is 746 feet. (Wyse, Operations at the Pyramids of Gizeh, vol. 2, p. 109.) The following are the dimensions of the second pyramid : the base,684 feet; the central line down the front from the apex to the base, 568; the perpendicular, 356; coating from the top to where it ends, 140. These dimensions, being consid: erably greater than those usually assigned even to the first or largest pyramid, are to be accounted for by their being taken (by Belzoni) from the base as clear. ed from sand and rubbish, while the measurements of the first pyramid given by others only applied to it as measured from the level of the surrounding sandThe antiquity of these erections, and the purpose for which they were formed, have furnished matter for much ingenious conjecture and dispute in the absence of certain information. It has been supposed thal they were intended for scientific purposes, such as that of establishing the proper length of the cubit, of which they contain, in breadth and height, a certain number of multiples. They were, at all events, con: structed on scientific principles, and give evidence of a certain progress in astronomy; for their sides are accurately adapted to the four cardinal points. Wheth: er they were applied to sepulchral uses, and intended as sepulchral monuments, has been doubted; but the doubts have in a great measure been dispelled by the recent discoveries made by means of laborious exch. vations. The drifting sand had, in the course of ages, collected around their base to a considerable height, and had raised the general surface of the country above the level which it possessed when they were constructed. The entrance to the chambers had also been, in the finishing, shut up with large stones, and built round so as to be uniform with the rest of the exterior. The largest, called the Pyramid of Cheops, had been opened, and some chambers discovered in it, but not so low as the base, till Mr. Davison, British consul at Algiers, explored it in 1763, when accom" panying Mr. Wortley Montague to Egypt. He discovered a room before unknown, and descended the three successive wells to a depth of 155 feet. Cap. tain Caviglia, master of a merchant-vessel, afterward pursued the principal oblique passage 200 feet farther down than any former explorer, and found it comr municate with the bottom of the well. This circum" stance creating a circulation of air, he proceeded 28 feet farther, and found a spacious room 66 feet by 27, but of unequal height, under the centre of the pyr amid, supposed by Mr. Salt to have been the place for containing the thera or sarcophagus, though now none is found in it. The room is 30 feet above the level of the Nile. The upper chamber, 35% feet by 174, and 18; high, still contains a sarcophagusThree chambers, hitherto undiscovered, were expose and opened, in 1836-7, by Colonel Wyse. The longest, measuring 38 feet l'inch, by 17 feet 1 inch, has been denominated by him the “Wellington Cham: ber;” the second (38 feet 9 inches, by 16 feet 8 inch: es) he named “Nelson's;” and the third (37 feet 4 Lady Arbuthnot, who was present at the time of the discovery. These chambers vary as to height, and the blocks of grante which form the ceiling of the one below serve as the pavement of the one above it. According to Colonel Vyse, these three chambers were chiefly intended as voids in that portion of the pyramid above what is termed the “king's chamber” (the only one that appears to have had any destination), and thereby to lessen the superincumbent mass. (Consult the costly and elaborate work of Colonel Wyse, “Operations carried on at the Pyramids of Gizeh in 1837,” &c., London, 1840, 2 vols. 4to.—vol. 1, p. 205, 235,256.)—In the course of the work just alluded to (vol. 2, p. 105), Colonel Vyse has some remarks on the question whether the pyramids were connected in any way with astronomical purposes. It seems that, in six pyramids which have been opened, the principal passage preserves the same inclination of 26° to the horizon, being directed to the polar star. “As it had been supposed,” remarks the colonel, “that the inclined passages were intended for astronomical purposes, I mentioned the circumstance to Sir John Herschel, who, with the utmost kindness, entered into various calculations to ascertain the fact. I also informed Sir John of the allusion in the ‘Quarterly Review' to Mr. Caviglia's remarks respecting the polar star, and likewise of its having been seen by Captains Irby and Mangles from the inclined passage in the Great Pyramid, at the period of its culminating, on the night of the 21st of March, 1817. It would appear from the remarks of Sir John, which here follow, that the direction of the passage was determined by the star which was polar at the time that the pyramid was constructed, and that the exact aspect of the building was regulated by it; but it could not have been used for celestial observation. The coincidence of the relative position of a Draconis is at all events very remarkable.”

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1. Sir John Herschel's Observations on the Entrance Passages in the Pyramids of Gizeh.

“Four thousand years ago, the present polar star, a Ursae Minoris, could by no possibility have been seen at any time in the twenty-four hours through the gallery in the Great Pyramid, on account of the precession of the Equinoxes, which at that time would have displaced every star in the heavens, from its then apparent position on the sphere, by no less a quantity than 55° 45' of longitude, and would have changed all the relations of the constellations to the diurnal sphere. The supposed date of the pyramid, 2123 years B.C., added to our present date, 1839, form 3962 years (say 4000), and the effect of the precession on the longitudes of the stars in that interval having been to increase them all by the above-named quantity, it will follow that the pole of the heavens, at the erection of the pyramid, must have stood very near to the star a Draconis, that is, 2° 51' 15" from it to the westward, as we should now call it ; a Draconis was therefore, at that time, the polar star; and as it is comparatively insignificant, and only of the third magnitude, if so much, it can scarcely be supposed that it could have been seen in the daytime even in the climate of Gizeh, or even from so dark a recess as the inclined entrance of the Great Pyramid. A latitude, however, of 30°, and a polar distance of the star in question of 1° 51’ 15", would bring it, at its lower culmination, to an altitude of 27° 91", and therefore it would have been directly in view of an observer stationed in the descending passage, the opening of which, as seen from a point sixty-three feet within, would, by calculation, subtend an angle of 7° 7'; and even from the bottom, near the sepulchral chamber, would still appear of at least 2° in breadth. In short, speaking as in ordinary parlance, the passage may be said to %. been directly pointed at a Draconis, at its inferior culmina

tion, at which moment its altitude above the horizon of Gizeh (lat. 30) would have been 27° 9'—refraction being neglected as too trifling (about 2') to affect the question. The present polar star, a Ursae Minoris, was at this epoch 23° more or less in arc from the then pole of the heavens, and, of course, at its lower culmination, it was only 7° above the horizon of Gizeh.” (Wyse, Operations, &c., vol. 2, p. 107, seq.)

2. Operations of Belzoni.

Belzoni, after some acute observations on the appearances connected with the second pyramid, or that of Chephrenes, succeeded in opening it. The stones which had constituted the coating (by which the sides of most of the pyramids, which now rise in steps, had been formed into plain and smooth surfaces) lay in a state of compact and ponderous rubbish, presenting a formidable obstruction; but somewhat looser in the centre of the front, showing traces of operations for exploring it in an age posterior to the erection. On the east side of the pyramid he discovered the foundation of a large temple, connected with a portico appearing above ground, which had induced him to explore that part. Between this and the pyramid, from which it was fifty feet distant, a way was cleared through rubbish forty feet in height, and a pavement was found at the bottom, which is supposed to extend quite round the pyramid; but there was no appearance of any entrance. On the north side, notwithstanding the same general appearance presented itself aster the rubbish was cleared away, one of the stones, though nicely adapted to its place, was observed to be loose; and when it was removed, a hollow passage was found, evidently forced by some former enterprising explorer, and rendered dangerous by the rubbish which sell from the roof; it was therefore abandoned. o: by analogy from the entrance of the first pyramid, which is to the east of the centre on the north side, he explored in that situation, and found, at a distance of thirty feet, the true entrance. After incredible perseverance and labour, he found numerous passages, all cut out of the solid rock, and a chamber forty-six feet three inches by sixteen feet three inches, and twenty-three feet six inches high. It contained a sarcophagus in a corner, surrounded by large blocks of #." When opened, after great labour, this was found to contain bones, which mouldered down when touched, and, from specimens afterward examined, turned out to be the bones of an ox. Human bones were also found in the same place. An Arabic inscription, made with charcoal, was on the wall, signifying that “the place had been opened by Mohammed Ahmed, lapicide, attended by the master Othman, and the king Alij Mohammed,” supposed to be the Ottoman emperor, Mohammed I., in the beginning of the fifteenth century. It was observed that the rock surrounding the pyramids, on the north and west sides, was on a level with the upper part of the chamber. It is evidently cut away all around, and the stones taken from it were most probably applied to the erection of the pyramid. . There are many places in the neighbourhood where the rock has been evidently quarried, so that there is no foundation for the opinion formerly common, and given by Herodotus, that the stones had been brought from the east side of the Nile, which is only probable as applied to the granite brought from Syene. The operations of Belzoni have thrown light on the manner in which the pyramids were constructed, as well as the purposes for which they were intended. That they were meant for sepulchres can hardly admit of a doubt. It is remarkable that no hieroglyphical inscriptions are found in or about the pyramids as in the other tombs; a circumstance which is supposed to indicate the period of their construction to have been prior to the invention of that mode of writing, though some think that the variation may be accounted for #* difference

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