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commentary on Aristotle, which commonly passes under the name of Alexander of Aphrodisia. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr., vol. 5, p. 156.)—X. A native of Aphrodisia in Caria, who flourished in the beginning of the third century. He is regarded as the restorer of the true doctrine of Aristotle, and he is the principal peripatetic, after the founder of this school, who adopted the system of the latter in all its purity, without intermingling along with it, as Alexander of Æge and his disciples did, the precepts of other schools. He was surnamed, by way of compliment, 'E:nymric, Exegetes (“the interpreter,” or “expounder”), and became the head of a particular class of Aristotelian commentators, styled “Alexandreans.” He wrote, 1. A treatise on Destiny and Free Agency (IIepi EluapHévnç kai rod É?' huiv), a work held in high estimation, and which the author addressed to the emperors Septimius Severus and Antoninus Caracalla. In it he combats the Stoic dogma, as hostile to free agency, and destructive, in consequence, of all morality. The best edition of this work is that printed at London, in 1658, 12mo. It is inserted also, with new corrections, in the 3d vol. of Grotius's Theological Works, Amst., 1679, fol. 2. A commentary on the first book of the first Analytics of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1489, and 4to, Florent., 1521. Translated into Latin by Felicianus, fol., Venet., 1542, 1546, and 1560. 3. A commentary on the eight books of the Topica, fol., Venet., 1513 and 1526. A Latin translation by Dorotheus, which appeared for the first time in 1524, fol., Venet., has been often reprinted. In 1563, a translation by Rasarius appeared, fol, Venet., which is preferable to the other. 4. Commentaries on the Elenchi sophistici of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1520, and 4to, Florent., 1552. Translated into Latin by Rasarius, Venet., 1557. 5. A commentary on the twelve books of the metaphysics of Aristotle. The Greek text has never been printed, although there are many MS. copies in the Royal Library at Paris, and other libraries. A Latin translation, however, by Sepulveda, appeared at Rome, 1527, in fol., and has been often reprinted. 6. A commentary on Aristotle's work De Sensu, &c., Gr., at the end of Simplicius's commentary on the work of Aristotle respecting the Soul, fol., Venet., 1527. 7. A commentary on the Meteorologica of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1527, and in the Latin of Alex. Picolomini, fol., 1540, 1548, 1575. 8. A treatise Tepi uíšeaç (De Mistione), directed against the dogma of the Stoics respecting the penetrability of bodies, Gr., with the preceding. Two Latin translations have appeared, one by Caninius, Venet., 1555, fol, and the other by Schegk, Tubing., 1540, 4to. 9. A treatise on the Soul, in two books, or, more correctly speaking, two treatises on this subject, since there is little if any connexion between these books. Gr., at the end of Themistius; and in Latin by Donati, Venet., 1502, fol. 10. Physica Scholia, &c. (ovatköv axoŽíov, droptăv, Kai Wāaeov, 316Åia 6’), Gr., fol., Venet., 1536, and in Latin by Bagolinus, Venet., 1541, 1549, 1555, 1589. 11. Problemata Medica, &c., the best Greek edition of which is in Sylburgius's works of Aristotle; this is attributed by some to Alexander Trallianus. 12. A treatise on Fevers; never published in Greek, but translated by Walla, and inserted in a collection of various works, Venet., 1488. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 157, seqq.)—XI. A native of Myndus, quoted by Athenaeus. (Compare Meurs., Bibl., in Thes. Gronov., vol. 10, p. 1208, seqq.) He is supposed by some to be the same with the writer mentioned by Athenaeus under the name of Alexon. (Schweigh., Indez Auct. ad Athen.—Op., vol. 9, p. 24, seqq.)—XII. A native of Tralles, who lived in the sixth century, and distinguished himself as a physician. He wrote several treatises on medicine, some of which are extant, and have been published at different times; namely, a Greek edition, sol., Paris,

1548; a Latin edition among the “Medicae artis Principes,” fol., Paris, 1567, &c. Alexander Trallianus is a most judicious, elegant, and original author. No medical writer, whether of ancient or modern times, has treated of diseases more methodically than he has done; for, after all the Nosological systems which have been proposed and tried, we can name none more advantageous to the student than the method adopted by him, of treating of diseases according to the part of the body which they affect, beginning with the head and proceeding downward. The same plan is pursued in the third book of Paulus AEgineta, who has copied freely from Alexander. Of the ancient medical writers subsequent to Galen, Alexander shows the least of that blind deference to his authority for which all have been censured : may, in many instances he ventures to differ from him; not, however, apparently from a spirit of rivalship, but from a commendable love of truth. In his eleventh book, he has given the fullest account of the causes, symptoms, and treatment of gout which is to be met with in any ancient writer; and as it contains many things not to be met with elsewhere, it deserves to be carefully studied. He judiciously suits the treatment to the circumstances of the case, but his general plan of cure appears to have consisted in the administration of purgative medicines, either cathartic salts or drastic purgatives, such as scammony, aloes, and hermodactylus. The last-mentioned medicine was most probably a species of Colchicum Autumnale, which forms the active ingredient of a French patent medicine called L'Eau Mcdicinale d'Hyssop, much celebrated some years ago for the cure of gout and rheumatism. Dr. Haden lately published a small pamphlet, wherein Colchicum was strongly recommended as an antiphlogistic remedy of great powers. The writers, both Greek and Arabian, subsequent to Alexander Trallianus, repeat the praises bestowed by him upon the virtues of hermodactylus. Demetrius Pepagomenos has written a professed treatise to recommend this medicine in gout.— The style of Alexander, although less pointed than that of Celsus, and less brilliant than that of Aretaeus, is remarkable for perspicuity and elegance. It must be mentioned with regret, however, as a lamentable instance of a sound judgment being blinded by superstition, that our author had great confidence in charms and amulets. Such weakness is to be bewailed, but need not be wondered at, when we recollect that Wiseman, one of the best English authorities on surgery, had great confidence in the royal touch for the cure of Scrofula. The use of amulets appears to have been very ancient, if we may credit Pindar (Pyth., 3), who refers the invention of them to AEsculapius, the son of Apollo. On the use of amulets by the ancients, consult Fabricius, Bibl. Gr., vol. 4, p. 305, and Bernard's notes on Psellus, de Lapidum Virtutibus.— XIII. Another name for Paris, son of Priam. Alexandriča (less correctly Alexandria, Burmann, ad Propert., 3, 9, 33–Ursin., ad Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 4, 2, 10–Fea, ad Horat., Od., 4, 14, 35), the name of eighteen cities, sounded by Alexander during his conquests in Asia, among which the most deserving of mention are the following: I. The capital of Egypt, under the Ptolemies, built B.C. 332. It was situate about 12 miles to the west of the Canopic mouth of the Nile, between the Lake Mareotis and the beautiful harbour formed by the Isle of Pharos. It was the intention of its founder to make Alexandrea at once the seat of empire and the first commercial city in the world. The latter of these plans completely succeeded; and for a long period of years, from the time of the Ptolemies to the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, the capital of Egypt was the link of connexion between the commerce of the east and west. The oods and other articles of traffic were brought up the

d Sea, and landed at one of three different points

Of these, the first was at the head of the western gulf of the Red Sea, where the canal of Neco commenced, and where stood the city of Arsinoë or Cleopatris. This route, however, was not much used, on account of the dangerous navigation of the higher parts of the Red Sea. The second point was the harbour of Myos Hormus, in latitude 27°. The third was Berenice, south of Myos Hormus, in latitude 23° 30'. What the ships deposited at either of the last two places, the caravans brought to Coptos on the Nile, whence they were conveyed to Alexandrea by a canal connecting this capital with the Canopic branch. Between Coptos and Berenice a road was constructed by Ptolemy Philadelphus, 258 miles in length. Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, who received Egypt in the general division, improved what Alexander had begun. On the long, narrow island of Pharos, which is very near the coast, and formed a port with a double entrance, a magnificent tower of white marble was erected, to serve as a beacon and guide for navigators. The architect was Sostratus of Cnidus.-The first inhabitants of Alexandrea were a mixture of Egyptians and Greeks, to whom must be added numerous colonies of Jews, transplanted thither in 336, 320, and 312 B.C., to increase the population of the city. It was they who made the well-known Greek translation of the Old Testament, under the name of Septuaginta, or the Septuagint.—The most beautiful part of the city, near the great harbour, where stood the royal palaces, magnificently built, was called Bruchion. There was the large and splendid edifice, belonging to the academy and Museum, where the greater portion of the royal library (400,000 volumes) was placed; the rest, amounting to 300,000, were in the Serapion, or temple of Jupiter Serapis. The larger portion was burned during the siege of Alexandrea by Julius Caesar, but was afterward in part replaced by the library of Per

mus, which Antony presented to Cleopatra. The

useum, where many scholars lived and were supported, ate together, studied, and instructed others, remained unhurt till the reign of Aurelian, when it was destroyed in a period of civil commotion. The library in the Serapion was preserved to the time of Theodosius the Great. He caused all the heathen temples throughout the Roman empire to be destroyed; and even the splendid temple of Jupiter Serapis was not spared. A crowd of fanatic Christians, headed by their archbishop, Theodosius, stormed and destroyed it. At that time, the library, it is said, was partly burned, partly dispersed; and the historian Orosius, towards the close of the fourth century, saw only the empty shelves. The common account, therefore, is an erroneous one, which makes the library in question to have been destroyed by the Saracens, at the command of the Calif Omar, A.D. 642, and to have furnished fuel during six months to the 4000 baths of Alexandrea. This narrative rests merely on the authority of the historian Abulpharagius, and has no other proof at all to support it. But, whatever may have been the cause of this disastrous event, the loss resulting to science was irreparable. The Alexandrean library, called by Livy “Elegantia regum curaque egregium opus,” embraced the whole Greek and Latin literature, of which we possess but single fragments—In the division of the Roman dominions, Alexandrea, with the rest of Egypt, was comprehended in the Eastern empire. The Arabs possessed themselves of it in 640; the Calif Motawakel, in 845, restored the library and academy; but the Turks took the city in 868, and it declined more and more, retaining, however, a flourishing commerce, until, as has already been remarked, the ortuguese, at the end of the 15th century, discovered a way to the East Indies by sea.—The modern city, called in Turkish Scanderia, does not occupy the site of the old town, of which nothing remains except a portico in the vicinity of the gate lead

ing to Rosetta, the southwestern amphitheatre, the obelisk, or needle of Cleopatra, and Pompey's pillar, 88 feet 6 inches high, which, according to an English writer (Walpole's Collection, vol. 1, p. 380), was erected by Pompeius, governor of part of Lower Egypt, in honour of the Emperor Dioclesián. The equestrian statue on the top is no longer standing. (Mannert, 10, pt. 1, p. 611, seqq.—Encyclop. Americ., vol. 1, p. 162, seqq.)—II. A city of Sogdiana, on the river Iaxartes, to the east of Cyropolis. It was founded by Alexander on the farthest limits of his Scythian expedition, and hence it was also called Alexandreschata ('Aześavépéaxara, i. e., 'AAt;ávöpeta taxárn Alexandrea Ultima).-III. A city of Arachosia, near the confines of India; now Scanderie of Arokhage, or Waihend.—IV. A city of India, at the junction of the Indus and Acesines; now, according to some, Lahor, but, according to others, Veh.—V. A city in the vicinity of the range of Paropamisus, on the east side of the Coas.-VI. A city of Aria, at the mouth of the river Arius; now Corra.—WII. A city of Carmania, near Sabis.—VIII. A city of Gedrosia; now Hormoz, or Houz.-There were several other cities of the same name, called after Alexander, though not founded by him. Among these may be mentioned the following—IX. Troas ('Aześāvépeta à Towsic), a city on the western coast of Mysia, above the promontory of Lectum. It was more commonly ...; Alexandrea; sometimes, however, Troas. (Act. Apost., 16, 8.Itin. Ant., p. 334.) The place owed its origin to Antigonus, who gave it the name of Antigonia Troas. After the fall of Antigonus, the appellation was changed to Alexandrea Troas by Lysimachus, in honour of Alexander. Antigonus had already increased its population by sending thither the inhabitants of Cebrene, Neandria, and other towns; and it received a farther increase under Lysimachus. Under the Romans it acquired still greater prosperity, and became one of the most flourishing of their Asiatic colonies. (Strab., 593–Pliny, 5, 30.) In the Acts of the Apostles it is simply called Troas, and it was from its port that St. Paul and St. Luke set sail for Macedonia (16, 11). We are informed by Suetonius (Vit. Caes., 79), that Julius Caesar once had it in contemplation to transfer the seat of empire to this quarter; a plan far from happy, since the port was not large, and the fertility of the surrounding country not at all such as to warrant the attempt. The same idea, however, is said to have been entertained by Augustus. (Faber, Epist., 2, 43–Compare the commentators on Horace, Od., 3, 3.) In a later age, Constantine actually commenced building a new capital here, but the superior situation of Byzantium soon induced him to abandon the undertaking. (Zosimus, 2, 30, p. 151, seqq., ed. Reitemeter.—Compare Zonaras, 13, 3.) Augustus, when he gave over the design just alluded to, still sent a Roman colony to this place, and hence the language used by Strabo (13, p. 594, ed. Casaub.), viv 68 Kai Pouatov drouxiav čáčektau. (Compare Plin., 5, 30.—Caius, in leg. 7, dig. de Cens.) The ruins of this city are called by the Turks Eski (Old) Stamboul. (Mannert, 6, pt. 3, p. 473, seqq.)— X. Ad Issum (karū "Iagov), a city of Syria, on the coast of the Sinus Issicus, about sixteen miles from Issus in Cilicia. The founder is unknown. The Itin. Hieros. (p. 580) gives it the name of Alexandrea Scabiosa. (Compare Chron. Alexandr., p. 170, where the appellation is given as Gabiosa.) The modern Scanderoon, or Alexandretta, occupies the site of the ancient city. Alex ANDREA UltiMA. Alexandri ARAE, according to some, the limits of Alexander's victories near the Tanais. This, however, is all a mere fable of the ancients, who made Alexander to have crossed the Tanais, and approached what they considered the limits of the world in that quarter. l ll

Wid. Alexandrea, II.

ALEXANDRINA SCHOI,A.

(Mannert, 4, p. 159 and 256.) For the true Alexandri Arae, vid. Hyphasis. Alexandri cast RA (# 'AWešávópov trapeubožň), a place in Marmarica, at the Oasis of Ammon, where the Macedonian forces were encamped while Alexander was consulting the oracle. (Ptol.) Alexandri insula, an island in the Sinus Persicus, on the Persian coast. (Ptol.—Plin., 6, 25.) Alex ANDRI portus, a harbour of Gedrosia, where the fleet of Nearchus was detained four weeks by adverse winds. (Arrian, Indic., 22.) It was in the immediate vicinity of Eirus Promontorium, or Cape Monze. (Compare Vincent's Commerce of the Ancients, vol. 1, p. 197.) AlexandriNA. Aquae, baths in Rome, built by the Emperor Alexander Severus. AlexandriNA schola. When the flourishing period of Greek poetry was past, study was called in to supply what nature no longer furnished. Alexandrea in Egypt was made the seat of learning by the Ptolemies, admirers of the arts, whence this age of literature took the name of the Alexandream. Ptolemy Philadelphus founded the famous library of Alexandrea, the largest and most valuable one of antiquity, which attracted many scholars from all countries; and also the Museum, which inay justly be considered the first academy of sciences and arts. (Vid. Alexandrea.) The grammarians and poets are the most important among the scholars of Alexandrea. . These grammarians were philologists and literati, who explained things as well as words, and may be considered a kind of encyclopedists. Such were Zenodotus the Ephesian, who established the first grammar-school in Alexandrea, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Aristarchus of Samothrace, Crates of Mallus, Dionysius the Thracian, Apollonius, the Sophist, and Zoilus. Their merit is to have collected, examined, reviewed, and preserved the existing monuments of intellectual culture. To them we are indebted for what is called the Alerandrean Canon, a list of the authors whose works were to be regarded as models in the respective departments of Grecian literature. The names composing this Canon, with some remarks upon its claims to attention, will be given at the close of the present article.—To the poets of the Alexandrean age belong Apollonius the Rhodian, Lycohron, Aratus, Nicander, Euphorion, Callimachus, Theocritus, Philetas, Phanocles, Timon the Phliasian, Scymnus, Dionysius, and seven tragic poets, who were called the Alexandrean Pleiades. The Alexandrean age of literature differed entirely, in spirit and character, from the one that preceded. Great attention was paid to the study of language ; correctness, purity, and elegance were cultivated; and several writers of this period excel in these respects. But that which no study can give, the spirit which filled the earlier poetry of the Greeks, is not to be found in most of their works. Greater art in composition took its place; criticism was now to perform what genius had accomplished before. But this was impossible. Ge. nius was the gift of only a few, and they soared far above their contemporaries. The rest did what may be done by criticism and study; but their works are tame, without soul and life, and those of their disciples, of course, still more so. Perceiving the want of originality, but appreciating its value, and striving af. ter it, they arrived the sooner at the point where poetry is lost. Their criticism degenerated into a disposition to find fault, and their art into subtilty. They seized on what was strange and new, and endeavoured to adorn it with learning. The larger part of the Alexandreans, commonly grammarians and poets at the same time, are stiff and laborious versifiers, without genius. –Besides the Alexandrean school of poetry, one of philosophy is also spoken of, but the expression is not to be understood too strictly. Their dis

ALEXANDRINA SCHOLA.

tinguishing character arises from this circumstance, that, in Alexandrea, the eastern and western philosophy met, and an effort took place to unite the two systems; for which reason the Alexandrean philosophers have often been called Eclectics. This name, however, is not applicable to all. The New Platonists form a distinguished series of philosophers, who, renouncing the skepticism of the New Academy, endeavoured to reconcile the philosophy of Plato with that of the East. The Jew Philo, of Alexandrea, belongs to the earlier New Platonists. Plato and Aristotle were diligently interpreted and compared in the 1st and 2d centuries after Christ. Ammonius the Peripatetic belongs here, the teacher of Plutarch. But the real New Platonic school of Alexandrea was established at the close of the 2d century after Christ by Ammonius of Alexandrea (about 193 A.D.), whose disciples were Plotinus and Origen. Being for the most part Orientals, formed by the study of Greek learning, their writings are strikingly characterized, e.g., those of Ammonius Saccas, Plotinus, Iamblicus, Porphyrius, by a strange mixture of Asiatic and European elements, which had become amalgamated in Alexandrea, owing to the mingling of the eastern and western race in its population, as well as to its situation and commercial intercourse. Their philosophy had a great influence on the manner in which Christianity was received and taught in Egypt. The principal Gnostic systems had their origin in Alexandrea. The leading teachers of the Christian catechetical schools, which had risen and flourished together with the eclectic philosophy, had imbibed the spirit of this philosophy. The most violent religious controversies disturbed the Alexandrean church, until the orthodox tenets were established in it by Athanasius in the controversy with the Arians.—Among the scholars of Alexandrea are to be found great mathematicians, as Euclid, the father of scientific geometry; Apollonius of Perga in Pamphylia, whose work on Conic Sections still exists; Nicomachus, the first scientific arithmetician : astronomers, who employed the Egyptian hiero: glyphics for marking the northern heurisphere, and fixed the images and names (still in use) of the constellations; who left astronomical writings (e. g., the Phaenomena of Aratus, a didactic poem, the Sphaerica of Menelaus, the astronomical works of Eratosthenes, and especially the Magna Syntazis of the geographer Ptolemy), and made improvements in the theory of the calendar, which were afterward adopted into the Julian calendar: natural philosophers, anatomists, as Herophilus and Erasistratus: physicians and surgeons, as Demosthenes Philalethes, who wrote the first work on diseases of the eye; Zopyrus and Cratevas, who improved the art of pharmacy and invented antidotes: instructers in the art of medicine, to whom Asclepiades, Soranus, and Galen owed their education: medical theorists and empirics, of the sect founded by Philirus. All these belonged to the numerous associations of scholars continuing under the Roman dominion, and favoured by the Roman emperors, which rendered Alexandrea one of the most renowned and influential seats of science in antiquity.—The best work on the learning of Alexandrea is the prize-essay of Jacob Matter; Essai Historique sur l'Ecole d'Alexandrie, Paris, 1819, 2 vols. (Encyclop. Americ-, vol. 1, p. 164, seqq.)—We alluded, near the coinmencement of the present article, to the literary Canon; settled by the grammarians of Alexandrea. We will now proceed to give its details, after some prefatory remarks respecting its merits. The canon of classical authors, as it has been called, was arranged by Aristophanes of Byzantium, curator of the Alexandron library, in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes; and his celebrated disciple Aristarchus. The daily increasing multitude of books of every kind had now become so

great, that there was no expression, however saulty,

for which precedent might not be found; and as there were far more bad than good writers, the authority and weight of numbers was likely to prevail; and the language, consequently, to grow more and more corrupt. It was thought necessary, therefore, to draw a line between those classic writers, to whose authority an appeal in matter of language might be made, and the common herd of inferior authors. In the most cultivated modern tongues, it seems to have been found expedient to erect some such barrier against the inroads of corruption; and to this preservative caution are we indebted for the vocabulary of the Academicians della Crusca, and the list of authors therein cited as affording “testi di lingua.” To this we owe the Dictionaries of the Royal Academies of France and Spain, of their respective languages; and Johnson's Dictionary of our own. But, as for the example first set in this matter by the Alexandrean critics, its effects upon their own literature have been of a doubtful nature. In so far as the canon has contributed to preserve to us some of the best authors included in it, we cannot but rejoice. On the other hand, there is reason to believe, that the comparative neglect into which those not received into it were sure to fall, has been the occasion of the loss of a vast number of writers, who would have been, if not for their language, yet for their matter, very precious; and who, perhaps, in many cases, were not easily to be distinguished, even on the score of style, from those that were preferred. (Moore's Lolora, p. 55, seqq.). The details of the canon are as follows: 1. Epic Poets. Homer, Hesiod, Pisander, Panyasis, Antimachus. 2. Iambic Poets. Archilochus, Simonides, Hipponax. 3. Lyric Poets. Aleman, Alcaus, Sappho, Stesichorus, Pindar, Bacchylides, Ibycus, Anacreon, Simonides. 4. Elegiac Potts. Callinus, Mimnermus, Philetas, Callimachus. 5. Tragic Poets. (First Class): AEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Ion, Achaeus, Agathon. (Second Class, or Tragic Pleiades): Alexander the AEtolian, Philiscus of Corcyra, Sositheus, Homer the younger, Afantides, Sosiphanes or Sosicles, Lycophron. 6. Comic Poets. (Old Comedy): Epicharmus, Cratinus, Popolis, Aristophanes, Phèrecrates, Plato. (Middle Comedy): Antiphanes, Alexis. (New Comedy); Memander Philippides, Diphilus, Philemon, Apollodorus. 7. Historians. Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Theopompus, Ephorus, Philistus, Anaximenes, Callisthenes. 8. Orators. (The ten Attic Orators) Antiphon, Andocides, Lysias, Isocrates, Isaeus, AEsthines, Lycurgus, Demosthenes, Hyperides, Dinarthus. 9. Philosophers. Plato, Xenophon, Eschines, Aristotle, Theophrastus. 10. Poetic Pleiades. (Sev. *n poets of the same epoch with one another) Apollonius the Rhodian, Aratus, Philiscus, Homer the younger, Lycophron, Nicander, Theocritus. (Schöll, Hist, Lit. Gr, vol. 3, p. 186, seqq.) Alexandropólis, a city of Parthia, probably east of Nisea, built by Alexander the Great. (Plin., 6, 25.) Alexia, or Alesia. Vid. Alesia. Alexicicus, an epithet applied to various deities, *ticularly to Jupiter, Apollo, Hercules, &c. It means "an averter of evil,” and is derived from 4We;ö, “to *" or “ward off,” and kaków, “evil.” Another Greek term of the same import is àmorpórator, and *gous to both is the Latin averruncus. (Consult or, ad Aristoph, Piut,359–Creuzer, symbolik, vol. 2, p. 255.) Aloxinus, a native of Elis, the disciple of Eubuli* and a member of the Megaric sect. He set him*Thamayagainst almost all of his contemporaries that * in any way distinguished for talent, such as Aristotle, Zeno, Menedemus, Stilpo, and the historian phorus, and from his habit of finding fault with others Yoknamed Elenzinus ('E2.Éyštvor), or “the faultfinder. In particular, he vented the most calumniout, * against Aristotle, and wrote a work

containing pretended conversations between Philip and Alexander of Macedon, in which the character of the Stagirite was very rudely assailed. Full of vanity and self-conceit, he retired to Olympia for the purpose, as he gave out, of establishing a sect to which he wished to give the appellation of Olympiac; the unhealthy state of the neighbourhood, and its deserted condition, except at the period of the games, caused his disciples to abandon him. He died in consequence of being wounded in the foot by the point of a reed, as he was bathing in the Alpheus. (Diog. Laert.) Alexinus and his preceptor Eubulides are only known as the authors of certain captious questions (úžvta) which they levelled at their antagonists. (Diog. Laert, 2, 108, seqq.—Cic., Acad., 4, 29.) ALExion, a physician, intimate with Cicero. ad Att., 13, ep. 25.) Alexis, I, a comic poet of Thurium, uncle on the father's side to Menander, and his instructer in the drama. (Proleg. Aristoph., p. xxx.) He flourished in the time of Alexander the Great, and, according to Suidas, wrote 245 pieces for the stage ($6tóaše 6páuara qué). Athenæus calls him 6 xapieto, “the gracefully sportive,” and the extracts which he as well as Stobacus give from the productions of the poet appear to justify the appellation. If he did not invent the character of the parasite, he at least introduced it more frequently into his comedies, or portrayed it more successfully than any of his predecessors. The titles of several of his pieces have been preserved, besides the extracts which are given by Athenæus and Stobaeus. (Athen., 2, 59, f-Schweigh., ad Athen., l.c.) The remains of this poet are also to be sound in the Ercerpta ex Trag. et Comoca. Gr. of Grotius, Paris, 1626, 4to.—II. An artist mentioned by Pliny as one of the pupils of Polycletus, but without any statement of his country or the works which he executed. (Plin., 34,8.) Alfi:Nus, or PUBLIUs ALFFNUs WARUs, a barber of Cremona, who, growing out of conceit with his line of business, quitted it and came to Rome. Here he attended the lectures of Servius Sulpicius, a celebrated lawyer of the day, and made so great proficiency in his studies as to become eventually the ablest lawyer of his time. His name often occurs in the Pandects. He was advanced to some of the highest offices in the empire, and was at last made consul, A.U.C. 755. (Compare the commentators on Horace, Serm, 1, 3, 130.) In some editions of Horace, Alfenus is styled Sutor, “a shoemaker.” Bentley, however, on the authority of two MSS., one of them a MS. copy of Acron, changes the lection to tonsor, “a barber.” His emendation has been very generally adopted. Algidum, a town of Latium, on the Via Latina, situate in a hollow about twelve miles from Rome. Antiquaries seem to agree in fixing its position at l'Osteria dell' Aglio. (Holstein, Adnot., p. 158.Vulp. Lat. Vet., 15, 1, p. 248.-Nibby, Viag. Antiq., vol. 2, p. 62.) Algidus, a chain of mountains in Latium, .# from the rear of the Alban Mount, and running paralle to the Tusculan Hills, being separated from them by the valley along which ran the Via Latina. The neighbourhood is remarkable for the numberless conflicts between the Roman armies and their unwearied antagonists the AEqui and Volsci. Mount Algidus, in fact, was advantageously placed for making inroads on the Roman territory, either by the Via Latina or the Via Lavicana. The woods of the bleak Algidus are a favourite theme with Horace. (Od., 1, 21, 6–3, 23, 9–4, 4, 58.-Cramer's Anct. Italy, vol. 2, p. 48.) This mountainous range was sacred to Diana (Hor. Carm. Sacc., 69) and to Fortune. (Liv., 21, 62.) ALIACMon. Vid. Haliacmon. AllARtus. Vid. Haliartus. Allinus CAEcINA. Wid. Caecina.

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Almentus, C., a Roman historian, who flourished during the period of the second Punic war, of which he wrote an account in Greek. He was the author also of a biographical sketch, in Latin, of the Sicilian rhetorician Gorgias of Leontini, and of a work De Re Militari. This last-mentioned production is cited by Aulus Gellius, and is acknowledged by Vegetius as the foundation of his more elaborate commentaries on the same subject. (Dunlop's Roman Lit., vol. 2, p. 25, in notis.)

Ali NDA, a city of Caria, southeast of Stratonicea. It was a place of some note and strength, and was held by Ada, queen of Caria, at the time that Alexander undertook the siege of Halicarnassus. (Arrian, Erp. Al., 1, 23.-Strab., 657.) The site has been identified by many antiquaries with the modern Moglah, the principal town of modern Caria, but on what au. thority is not apparent. Another traveller, from the similarity of names, places it at Aleina, between Moglah and Tshina. (Rennell's Geogr. of Western Asia, vol. 2, p. 53.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2,

p. 208.) Alipius. Vid. Alypius. Alir Rothius. Wid. Halirrothius.

Allectus, a praetorian prefect, who slew Carausius in Britain, and took possession of his throne, holding it for three years, from 294 to 297 A.D. He was at last defeated and slain by Asclepiodotus, a general of Constantius Chlorus, who landed on the coast of the island with an army. (Aurel. Vict, 39.) Allia, a river of Italy, running down, according to Livy, from the mountains of Crustumium, at the eleventh milestone, and flowing into the Tiber. It was crossed by the Via Salaria, about four miles beyond the modern Marcigliano, and is now the Aia. Cluverius (Ital. Ant., vol. 1, p. 707) is mistaken when he identifies the Allia with the Rio di Mosso, as that rivulet is much beyond the given distance from Rome. (Nibby, delle Vie degli Antichi, p. 87.) On its banks the Romans were defeated by the Gauls under Brennus, July 17th, B.C. 387. Forty thousand Romans were either killed or put to flight. Hence in the Roman calendar, “Alliensis dies” was marked as a most unlucky day. (Liv., 5, 37.—Flor., 1, 13–Plut., Wit. Cam.) The true name of the river is Alia, with the first vowel short. Our mode of pronouncing and writing the name is derived from the poets, who lengthened the initial vowel by the duplication of the consonant. (Niebuhr, Rom. Hist, vol. 2, p. 291, Walter's transl., in notis.) ALLIEN i Forum. Vid. Forum, II. ALLíf AE, a town of Samnium, northwest of the Wulturnus, the name of which often occurs in Livy. It was taken, according to that historian, by the consul Petilius, A.U.C. 429 ; and again by Rutilius. (Liv., 8, 25–Id., 9, 38.) This place was famous for the large-sized drinking-cups made there. (Horat., Serm., 2, 8,39.) The ancient site is occupied by the modern Allife. For a description of the numerous antiquities existing at Allife, consult Trutta, Diss. sopr. le Antich. Alif. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 233.) Allobröges, a people of §. between the Isara or Isere, and the Rhodanus or Rhone, in the country answering to Dauphiné, Piedmont, and Savoy. Their chief city was Vienna, now Vienne, on the left bank of the Rhodanus, thirteen miles below Lugdunum or Lyons. They were finally reduced beneath the Roman power by Fabius Maximus, who hence was honoured with the surname of Allobrogicus. (For the particulars of this war, consult Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. 2, p. 168, seqq., and the authorities there cited.) At a later day we find the ambassadors of this nation at Rome, tampered with by Catiline, but eventually remaining firm in their allegiance. (Sallust, Cat., 40, seqq.—Cic., in Cat., 3, 3, seqq.) The name Allobroges means “Highlanders,” and is formed from Al,

“high,” and Broga, “land.” (Adelung's Mithridates, vol. 2, p. 50.) Allucius, a prince of the Celtiberi in Spain, whose affianced bride having fallen into the hands of Scipio Africanus, was restored to him uninjured by the Roman commander; an act of self-control rendered still more illustrious by reason of the surpassing beauty of the maiden. (Liv., 26, 50.) ALMo, a small river near Rome, falling into the Tiber. It is now the Dachia, a corruption of Aqua d'Acio. At the junction of this stream with the Tiber, the priests of Cybele, every year, on the 25th March, washed the statue and sacred things of the goddess. Wid. Lara. (Ovid, Fast., 4, 337.-Lucan, 1, 600. Compare Wales. et Lindenbr., ad Ammian. Marcell., 23, 3–Lucan, ed. Cort. et Weber, vol. 1, p. 157, seqq.) ALöA, a festival at Athens, in the month Posideon (a month including one third of December and two thirds of January), in honour of Ceres and Bacchus. These deities were propitiated on this occasion, as by their blessing the husbandmen received the recompense of their toil and labour. The oblations, therefore, consisted of nothing but the productions of the earth. Hence Ceres was called Alòas (AAwaç), Alois ('AAcoic), and Eualosia (Eijaždaia). All these names are derived from the Greek ážog, “a threshing-floor.” According to Philochorus (p. 86, Fragm.), the Aloa was a united festival in honour of Bacchus, Ceres, and Proserpina. (Compare Corsini, Fast. Att., 2, p. 302.) We have written 'AAwds, &c., with the lenis in place of the aspirate, although the root be ažwc. The unaspirated form is, in fact, the earlier of the two, and the more likely, therefore, to be retained as a religious appellation. (Compare the remarks of Bergler, ad Alciphron, 1, ep. 33.) Reitz, however, favours the opposite form, though less correctly. (Ad Luc., Dial. Meretr., 1.) Creuzer gives'A2&a for the name of the festival, as we have done. (Symbolik, vol. 4, p. 308.) Alošus, I. son of Apollo and Circe. From him, through his son Epopeus, was descended the Marathon, after whom the famous plain in Attica was named. (Suid., s. v. Mapabóv.) Callimachus applied to this same Marathon, son of Apollo, the epithets of Öivypoc, “all humid,” and Švvópog, dwelling in the water” (Suid., l.c.), a remark that will serve as an introduction to the explanation given by Creuzer to the fable of the Aloidae. Wid. Aloidae.—II. Son of Neptune and Canace. He married Iphimedia, the daughter of his brother Triops; but Iphimedia having a stronger attachment for Neptune than for her own husband, became by the former the mother of two sons, Otus and Ephialtes, whom Aloeus, however, brought up as his own (Homer makes them to have been nurtured by Earth), and who were hence called Aloidae. Wid. Aloidae. (Hom., Od., 11, 304, seqq.) AloidAE ('A20eiðat), sons of Aloeus in name, but in reality the offspring of Neptune and Canace. (Wid. Aloeus, II.) Ho: were two in number, Otus and Ephialtes, and, according to Homer (0d., 11, 310, seqq.), were, in their ninth year, nine cubits in width and nine fathoms in height. At this early age, they undertook to make war upon heaven, with the intention of dethroning Jupiter; and, in order to reach the heavens, they strove to place Mount Ossa upon Olympus, and Pelion upon Ossa; but they were destroyed by Apollo before, to use the graphic language of Homer, “the down had bloomed beneath their temples, and had thickly covered their chin with a well-flowering beard.” According to the animated narrative of the same bard, they would have accomplished their object had they made the attempt, not in childhood, but after having “reached the measure of youth.” (Od., l.c.) Such is the Homeric legend respecting the Aloidae, as given in the Odyssey. In the Iliad (5,385) they are said to have bound Mars, and kept him captive for the

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