Obrazy na stronie

Alesia or Alexia, a famous and strongly fortified city of the Mandubii, in Gallia Celtica. It was so ancient a city, that Diodorus Siculus (4, 19) ascribes the building of it to Hercules. (Compare the learned and ingenious remarks of Ritter, in his Vorhalle, p. 378, on the subject of the Celtic Hercules.) It was situate on a high hill, supposed to be Mount Aurois, near the sources of the Sequana or Seine, and washed on two sides by the small rivers Lutosa and Ozera, now Lose and Ozerain. Alesia was taken and destroyed by Caesar after a famous siege, but was rebuilt, and became a place of considerable consequence under the Roman emperors. It was laid in ruins in the 9th century by the Normans. At the foot of Mount Auxois is a village called Alise (Depart. Côte d'Or), with several hundred inhabitants. (Flor., 3, 10.—Cas., B. G., 7, 69.) Alesium, a mountain in the vicinity of Mantinea, on which was a grove dedicated to Ceres; also the temple of the equestrian Neptune, an edifice of great antiquity, which had been originally built, according to tradition, by Agamedes and Trophonius, but was af. terward enclosed within a new structure by order of Hadrian. The mountain was said to have taken its name from the wanderings of Rhea (ro bpoc 'A27atov, did row &Amy, or gaat, kažotuevov Tiju Péaç. Pausan. 8, 10). Alêthes, a son of Hippotes, and one of the Heraclidae. He was the first of this race that reigned at Corinth, and he also headed a Doric invasion of Attica in the time of Codrus. (Pausan., 2, 4.) AleukDAE, a royal family of Thessaly, reigning at Larissa (Aristot., Polit., 5, 6), and who were descended from Aleuas, monarch of the same country. The manner in which this individual attained to supreme * is related by Plutarch (de Frat. Am., p. 492). he representatives of the family of the Aleuada, at the time of the Persian invasion of Greece, were Thorax, Thrasydeius, and Eurypylus. (Herod., 9,58) They forced the Thessalians to take part with Xerxes; though the latter, irritated subsequently at the conduct of the Phocians, followed from that time, of their own accord, the standard of the Persian king. (Philostr., Heroic, c. 19, § 15.) Alstas, monarch of Thessaly, and founder of the family of the Aleuada. (Plut, de Frat. Am., p. 492.) He resided at Larissa, and hence the epithet Larissaus applied to him by Ovid. (Ib., 323.) AlexayáNus, an AEtolian, who, with a body of his countrymen, slew Nabis, tyrant of Sparta. He had been sent at the head of a band of auxiliaries, by the 48tolians, ostensibly to aid Nabis, but in reality to get possession of Lacedæmon. The inhabitants, however, rallied after the fall of the tyrant, defeated the AEtolians, who were scattered throughout the city and plundering it, and slew Alexamenus. (Liv., 35,34, seqq.) Alexander, a name of very common occurrence, as designating not only kings, but private individuals. We will classify the monarchs by countries, and then come to private or less conspicuous personages.

1. Kings of Macedonia.

Alexander I., son of Amyntas, and tenth king of Macedon. He ascended the throne 497 B.C., and reigned 43 years. It was he who, while still a youth, slew, in company with a party of his young friends, habited in female attire, the Persian ambassadors at his father's court, having been provoked to the act by their immodest behaviour towards the females present at a banquet. With this prince the glory of Macedon may be said to have commenced. He enlarged his territories, partly by conquest, and partly by the gift which Xerxes bestowed upon him, of all the country from Mount Olympus to the range of Haemus. (Herod, 5, 18, seqq.—Justin, 7, 3.)

Alexanpek II, son of Amyntas II. He was treach


erously slain by Ptolemy Alorites, after having reigned from B.C. 369 to B.C. 367, and not, according to the common account, for one year merely. Ptolemy Alorites, however, who slew him, was neither king nor the son of Amyntas, although called so by Diodorus (15, 71). It seems probable, from a comparison of Æschines (de Fals. Leg., p. 32) with a fragment in Syncellus (Dexippus, ap. Syncell., p. 263, B.), that Ptolemy was appointed regent in a regular way, during the minority of Perdiccas; that he afterward abused his trust, and was, in consequence, cut off by Perdiccas. The duration of his administration, three years, is mentioned by Diodorus (15, 77). Alex ANDER III., surnamed the Great, son of Philip of Macedon, was born in the city of Pella, B.C. 356. His mother was Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus, king of Epirus. Leonnatus, a relation of his mother's, an austere man, and of great severity of manners, was his early governor, and at the age of eight years, Lysimachus, an Acarnanian, became his instructer. Plutarch gives this individual an unfavourable character, and insinuates that he was more desirous of ingratiating himself with the royal family, than of effectually discharging the duties of his office. It was his delight to call Philip, Peleus; Alexander, Achilles; and to claim for himself the honorary name of Phoenix. Early impressions are the strongest, and even the pedantic allusions of the Acarnanian might render the young prince more eager in after life to imitate the Homeric model. In his fifteenth year, Alexander was placed under the immediate tuition of the celebrated Aristotle. The philosopher joined his royal pupil B.C. 342, and did not finally quit him until he came to the throne. The master was worthy of the scholar, and the scholar of his master. The mental stores of Aristotle were vast, and all arranged with admirable accuracy and judgment; while, on the other hand, Alexander was gifted with great quickness of apprehension, an insatiable desire of knowledge, and an ambition not to be satisfied with the second place in any pursuit. At a distance from the court, this great philosopher instructed him in all the branches of human knowledge, especially those necessary for a ruler, and wrote, for his benefit, a work on the art of government, which is unfortunately lost. As Macedon was surrounded by dangerous neighbours, Aristotle sought to cultivate in his pupil . talents and virtues of a military commander. With this view he recommended to him the reading of the Iliad, and revised this poem himself. The poet, as Aristotle emphatically names Homer, was the philosopher's inseparable companion: from him he drew his precepts and maxims; from him he borrowed his models. The preceptor imparted his enthusiasm to his pupil, and the most accurate copy of the great so was prepared by Aristotle, and placed by Alexander in a precious casket which he sound among the spoils of É. The frame of the young prince was, at the same time, formed by gymnastic exercises. He gave several proofs of manly skill and courage while very young; one of which, the breaking in of his fiery courser Bucephalus, which had mastered every other rider, is mentioned by all his historians as an incident that convinced his father Philip of his future unconquerable spirit. When he was sixteen years old, Philip, setting out on an expedition against Byzantium, delegated the government to him during his absence. Two years later (B.C. 338), he performed prodigies of valour in the battle at Chaeronea, where he obtained great reputation by conquering the sacred band of the Thebans. “My son,” said Philip, after the battle, embracing him, “seek another empire, for that which I shall leave you is not worthy of you.”. The father and son, however, quarrelled when Philip repudiated Olympias. Alexander, who took the part of his mother, was obliged to flee to Epirus to “. the vengeance of his father, but he soon obtained pardon and returned. He afterward accompanied Philip on an expedition against the Triballi, and saved his life in a battle. Philip, having been elected chief commander of the Greeks, was preparing for a war against Persia, when he was assassinated, B.C. 336. This occurrence, at an eventful crisis, excited some suspicion o Alexander and Olympias; but as it was one of his first acts to execute justice on those of his father's assassins who fell into his hands, several of the nobility being implicated in the Fo this imputation rests on little beyond surmise. It is more than probable that the conspirators were in correspondence with the Persian court, and that ample promises of protection and support were given to men undertaking to deliver the empire from the impending invasion of the captain-general of Greece. Alexander, who succeeded without opposition, was at this time in his twentieth year; and his youth, in the first instance, excited several of the states of Greece to endeavour to set aside the Macedonian ascendency. By a sudden march into Thessaly he, however, soon overawed the most active; and when, on a report of his death, chiefly at the instigation of Demosthenes and his party, the various states were excited to great commotion, he punished the open revolt of Thebes with a severity which ef. fectually prevented any imitation of its example. Induced to stand a siege, that unhappy city, after being mastered with dreadsul slaughter, was razed to the ground, with the ostentatious exception of the house of the poet Pindar alone; while the unfortunate surviving inhabitants were stripped of all their }. sions and sold indiscriminately into slavery, Intimidating by this cruel policy, the Macedonian party aimed the ascendency in every state throughout

reece, and Athens particularly disgraced itself by the meanness of its submission. Alexander then proceeded to Corinth, where, in a general assembly of the states, his office of superior commander was recognised and defined; and in the twenty-second year of his age, leaving Antipater, his viceroy, in Macedon, he passed the Hellespont, to overturn the Persian emH. with an army not exceeding four thousand five

undred horse and thirty thousand foot. To secure the protection of Minerva, he sacrificed to her on the plain of Ilium, crowned the tomb of Achilles, and congratulated this hero, from whom he was descended through his mother, on his good fortune in having had such a friend as Patroclus, and such a poet as Homer to celebrate his fame. The rapid movements of Alexander had evidently taken the Persian satraps by surprise. They had, without making a single attempt to molest his passage, allowed him, with a far inferior fleet, to convey his troops into Asia. They now resolved to advance and contest the passage of the river Granicus. A force of twenty thousand cavalry was drawn up on the right bank of the stream, while an equal number of Greek mercenaries crowned the hills in the rear. Unintimidated, however, by this array, Alexander led his army across, and, after a severe conflict, gained a decisive victory. The loss on the Persian side was heavy, on that of their conquerors so extremely slight (only eighty-five horsemen and thirty foot-soldiers) as to lead at once to the belief, that the general, who wrote the account of Alexander's camaigns, mentioned the loss of only the native-born W. Splendid funeral obsequies were performed in honour of those of his army who had fallen; various privileges were granted to their fathers and children; and as twenty-five of the cavalry that had been slain on the Macedonian side belonged to the royal troop of the “Companions,” these were honoured with monumental statues of bronze, the workmanship of the celebrated Lysippus. The immediate consequence of this victory was the freedom and restoration of all the Greek cities in Asia Minor, and its sub

sequent results were shown in the reduction of almost the whole of that country. A dangerous sickness, however, brought on by bathing in the Cydnus, checked for a time his career. He received a letter from Parmenio, saying that Philip, his physician, had been bribed by Darius to poison him. Alexander gave the letter to the physician, and at the same time drank the potion which the latter had prepared for him. Scarcely was he restored to health when he advanced towards the defiles of Cilicia, whither Darius had imprudently betaken himself with an immense army, instead of awaiting his adversary on the plains of Assyria. The second battle took place near Issus, between the sea and the mountains, and victory again declared for the Macedonian monarch. The Macedonians conquered on this day, not the Persians alone, but the united esforts of southern Greece and Persia; for the army of Darius, besides its eastern troops, contained thirty thousand Greek mercenaries, the largest Greek force of that denomination mentioned in i. It was this galling truth that, among other causes, rendered the republican Greeks so hostile to Alexander. All the active partisans of that faction were at Issus, nor were the survivers dispirited by their defeat. Agis, king of Sparta, gathered eight thousand who had returned to Greece by various ways, and sought with them a bloody battle against Antipater, who with difficulty defeated the Spartans and their allies. Without taking these facts into consideration, it is impossible duly to estimate the difficulties surmounted by Alexander. After the defeat at Issus, the treasures and family of Darius fell into the hands of the conqueror. The latter were treated most magnanimously. Alexander did not pursue the Persian monarch, who fled towards the Euphrates, but, in order to cut him off from the sea, turned towards Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. Here he received a letter from Darius, proposing peace. Alexander answered, that if he would come to him he would restore, not only his mother, wife, and children, without ransom, but also his empire. This reply produced no effect. The victory at Issus had opened the whole country to the Macedonians. Alexander took possession of Damascus, which contained a large portion of the royal treasures, and secured all the towns along the Mediterranean Sea. Tyre, imboldened by the strength of its insular situation, resisted, but was taken, after seven months of incredible exertion, and destroyed. The capture of Tyre was perhaps the greatest military achievement of the Macedonian monarch ; but it was tarnished by his cruel severity towards the conquered, thirty thousand of the inhabitants having been sold by him as slaves. Some excuse, however, may be found in the excited feelings of the Macedonian army, occasioned by numerous insults on the part of the Tyrians; by acts of cruelty towards some of their Macedonian captives ; and also by the length and obstinacy of the siege; for more men were slain in winning Tyre, than in achieving the three great victories over Darius. Alexander continued his victorious march through Palestine, where all the towns surrendered except Gaza, which shared the fate of Tyre. Egypt, wearied of the Persian yoke, received him as a deliverer. In order to confirm his power, he restored the former customs and religious rites, and founded Alexandrea, which became one of the first cities of ancient times. Hence he went through the desert of Libya, to consult the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, an adventure resembling more the wildness of romance than the soberness of history, and which has on this very account been regarded by some with an eye of incredulity. It rests, however, on too firm a basis to be invalidated. After having been acknowledged, say the ancient writers, as the son of the god (vid. Ammon), Alexander, at the return of spring, marched against Darius, who in the mean time had collected an army in Assyria, and rejected the proposals of Alexander for peace. A battle was fought at Gaugamela, not far from Arbela, B.C. 331. Arrian estimates the army of Darius at 1,000,000 of infantry and 40,000 cavalry; while that of Alexander consisted of only 40,000 infantry and 7000 horse. On the Persian side, moreover, were some of the bravest and hardiest tribes of upper Asia. Notwithstanding the immense numerical superiority of his enemy, Alexander was not a moment doubtful of victory. At the head of his cavalry he attacked the Persians, and routed them after a short conflict. One great object of his ambition was to capture the Persian monarch on the field of battle; and that object was at one time apparently within his grasp, when he received, at the instant, a message from Parmenio that the left wing, which that general commanded, was hard pressed by the Sacae, Albanians, and Parthians, and he was compelled, of course, to hasten to its relief. Darius fled from the field of battle, leaving his army, baggage, and immense treasures to the victor. Babylon and Susa, where the riches of the East lay accumulated, opened their gates to Alexander, who directed his march to Persepolis, the capital of Persia. The only passage thither was defended by 40,000 men under Ariobarzanes. Alexander attacked them in the rear, routed them, and entered Persepolis triumphant. From this time the glory of Alexander began to decline. Master of the greatest empire in the world, he became a slave to his own passions; i. himself up to arrogance and dissipation; showed himself ungrateful and cruel, and in the arms of pleasure shed the blood of his bravest generals. Hitherto sober and moderate, this hero, who strove to equal the gods, and called himself a god, sunk to the level of vulgar men. Persepolis, the wonder of the world, he burned in a fit of intoxication. Ashamed of this act, he set out with his cavalry to pursue Darius. Learning that Bessus, satrap of Bactriana, kept the king prisoner, he hastened his march with the hope of saving him. But Bessus, when he saw himself closely pursued, caused Darius to be assassinated (B.C. 330), because he was an imPediment to his flight. Alexander beheld on the frontiers of Bactriana a dying man, covered with wounds, lying on a chariot. It was Darius. The Macedonian her could not restrain his tears. After interring him with all the honours usual among the Persians, he took to. of Hyrcania and Bactriana, and caused himself to be proclaimed King of Asia. He was form"g still more gigantic plans, when a conspiracy broke out in his own camp. Philotas, the son of Parmenio, was implicated. Alexander, not satisfied with the blood of the son, caused the father also to be put to death. This act of injustice excited general displeasure. At the same time, his power in Greece was threatened; and it required all the energy of Antipater to dissolve, by force of arms, the league formed by the Greeks against the Macedonian authority. In the mean time, Alexander marched in the winter through the north of Asia as far as it was then known, checked neither by Mount Caucasus nor the Oxus, and reached the Caspian Sea, hitherto unknown to the Greeks. Insatiable of glory and thirsting for conquest, he spared not even the hordes of the Scythians. Returning to Bactriana, he hoped to gain the affections of the Persians by assuming their dress and manners; but this hope was not realized. The discontent of the army gave occasion to the scene which ended in the death of Clitus. Alexander, whose pride he had offendtd, killed him with his own hand at a banquet. Clitus had been one of his most faithful friends and brave of. fleets, and Alexander was afterward a prey to the onest remorse. In the following year he subdued the whole of Sogdiana. Oxyantes, one of the leaders ** enemy, had secured his family in a castle built * losty rock. The Macedonians stormed it. Rox* the daughter of Oxyantes, one of the most beau

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tiful virgins of Asia, was among the prisoners. Alexander fell in love with and married her. Upon the news of this, Oxyantes thought it best to submit, and came to Bactria, where Alexander received him with distinction. Here a new conspiracy was discovered, at the head of which was Hermolaus, and among the accomplices Callisthenes. All the conspirators were condemned to death except Callisthenes, who was mutilated and carried about with the army in an iron cage, until he terminated historments by poison. Alexander now formed the idea of conquering India, the name of which was scarcely known. He passed the Indus, and formed an alliance with Taxilus, the ruler of the region beyond this river, who assisted him with troops and 130 elephants. Conducted by Taxilus, he marched towards the river Hydaspes, the passage of which, Porus, another king, defended at the head of his army. Alexander conquered him in a bloody battle, took him prisoner, but restored him to his kingdom. He then marched victoriously on, established Greek colonies, and built, according to Plutarch, seventy towns, one of which he called Bucephala, after his horse, which had been killed on the Hydaspes. Intoxicated by success, he intended to advance as far as the Ganges, and was preparing to pass the Hyphasis, when the discontent of his army obliged him to terminate his progress and return. Previous to turning back, however, he erected on the banks of the Hyphasis twelve towers, in the shape of altars; monuments of the extent of his career, and testimonials of his gratitude towards the gods. On these gigantic altars he offered sacrifices with all due solemnity, and horse-races and gymnastic contests closed the festivities. When he had reached the Hydaspes, he built a fleet, in which he sent a part of his troops down the river, while the rest of the army proceeded along the banks. On his march he encountered several Indian princes, and, during the siege of a town belonging to the Malli, was severely wounded. Having recovered, he continued his course down the Indus, and thus reached the sea. Having entered the Indian Ocean and performed some rites in honour of Neptune, he left his fleet; and, after ordering Nearchus, as soon as the season would permit, to sail to the Persian Gulf, and thence up the Tigris, he himself prepared to march to Babylon. He had to wander through immense deserts, in which the greater part of his army, destitute of water and food, perished in the sand. Only the fourth part of the troops with which he had set out returned to Persia. On his route he quelled several mutinies, and placed governors over various provinces. In Susa he married two Persian princesses, and rewarded those of his Macedonians who had married Persian women; because it was his intention to unite the two nations as closely as possible. He distributed rich rewards among his troops. At Opis, on the Tigris, he declared his intention of sending the invalids home with presents. The rest of the army mutinied; but he persisted, and effected his purpose. Soon after, his favourite, Hephæstion, died. His grief was unbounded, and he buried his body with royal splendour. On his return from Ecbatana to Babylon, the magicians are said to have predicted that this city would be fatal to him. The representations of his friends induced him to despise these warnings. He went to Babylon, where many foreign ambassadors waited for him, and was engaged in extensive plans for the future, when he became suddenly sick after a banquet, and died in a few days, B.C. 323. Such was the end of this conqueror, in his 32d year, after a reign of 12 years and 8 months. He left behind him an immense empire, which became the scene of continual wars. He had designated no heir, and being asked by his friends to whom he left the empire, answered, “To the worthiest.” After many disturbances, the generals acknowl

edged Aridaeus, a man of a very weak o, the son 10

of Philip and the dancer Philinna, and Alexander the posthumous son of Alexander and Roxana, as kings, and divided the provinces among themselves, under the name of satraples. They appointed Perdiccas, to whom Alexander, on his deathbed, had given his ring, prime minister of the two kings. The body of Alexander was interred by Ptolemy in Alexandrea, in a golden coffin, and divine honours were paid to him, not only in Egypt, but also in other countries. The sarcophagus in which the coffin was enclosed has been in the British Museum since 1802. The English nation owe the acquisition of this relic to the exertions of Dr. Clarke, the celebrated traveller, who found it in the possession of the French troops in Egypt, and was the means of its being surrendered to the English army. In 1805, the same individual published a dissertation on this sarcophagus, fully establishing its identity.—No character in history has afforded matter for more discussion than that of Alexander; and the exact quality of his ambition is to this day a subject of dispute. By some he is regarded as little more than a heroic madman, actuated by the mere desire of personal glory; others give him the honour of vast and enlightened views of policy, embracing the consolidation and establishment of an empire, in which commerce, learning, and the arts should flourish in common with energy and enterprise of every description. Each class of reasoners find facts to countenance their opinion of the mixed character and actions of Alexander. The former quote the wildness of his personal daring, the barren nature of much of his transient mastery, and his remorseless and unnecessary cruelty to the vanquished on some occasions, and capricious magnanimity and lenity on others. The latter advert to facts like the soundation of Alexandrea, and other acts indicative of large and prospective views of true policy; and regard his expeditions rather as schemes of discovery and exploration than mere enterprises for fruitless conquest. The truth appears to embrace a portion of both these opinions. Alexander was too much smitten with military glory, and the common self. engrossment of the mere conqueror, to be a great and consistent politician; while such was the strength of his intellect, and the light opened to him by success, that a glimpse of the genuine sources of lasting greatness could not but break in upon him. The fate of a not very dissimilar character in our days shows the nature of this mixture of lofty intellect and personal ambition, which has seldom effected much permanent

ood for mankind in any age. The fine qualities and 5. of the man were, in Alexander, very similar to those of the ruler. His treatment of Parmenio and of Clitus, and various acts of capricious cruelty and ingratitude, are contrasted by many instances of extraordinary greatness of mind. He was also a lover and favourer of the arts and literature, and carried with him a train of poets, orators, and philosophers, although his choice of his attendants of this description did not always do honour to his judgment. He, however, encouraged and patronised the artists Praxiteles, Lysip

us, and Apelles; and his munificent presents to Aristotle, to enable him to pursue his inquiries in natural history, were very serviceable to science. Alexander also exhibited that unequivocal test of strong intellect, a disposition to employ and reward men of talents in every department of knowledge. In person this extraordinary individual was of the middle size, with a neck somewhat awry, but possessed of a fierce and majestic countenance.—It may not be amiss, before concluding this sketch, to consider for a moment the circumstances connected with the death of this celebrated leader. His decease has usually been ascribed either to excess in drinking or to poison. Neither of these suppositions appears to be correct. The fever to which he fell a victim (for the Royal Diary whence Arrian has copied his accounts the last illness of Alexander, speaks ex


pressly of a violent fever having been the cause of his decease) was contracted very probably in his visit to the marshes of Assyria. The thirst which subsequently compelled him, on a public day, to quit his military duties, proves that this sever was raging in his veins before it absolutely overcame him. The carousals in which he afterward indulged must have seriously increased the disease. Strong men like Alexander have often warded off attacks of illness by increased excitement; but, if this fail to produce the desired effect, the reaction is terrible. It is curious to observe, in Arrian's account of Alexander's last illness, that no physician is mentioned. The king seems to have trusted to two simple remedies, abstinence and bathing. His removal to a summer-house, close to the large cold bath, shows how much he confided in the latter remedy. But the extraordinary fatigues which he had undergone, the exposure within the last three years to the rains of the Pendjab, the marshes of the Indus, the burning sands of Gedrosia, the hot vapours of Susiana, and the marsh miasma of the Babylonian Lakes, proved too much even for his iron constitution. The numerous wounds by which his body had been perforated, and especially the serious injury done to his lungs by an arrow among the Malli, must in some degree have impaired the vital functions, and enfeebled the powers of healthy reaction. (Plut., Wit. AlezArrian, Erp. Aler.—Quintus Curtius–Diod. Sic., 17 et 18–Encyclop. Americ., vol. 1, p. 151, seqq.— Biogr. Univ., vol. 1, p. 195— Williams's Life of Alerander the Great, p.346, &c., Am. ed.)—After many dissensions and bloody wars ". themselves, the generals of Alexander laid the soundations of several great empires in the three quarters of the globe Ptolemy seized Egypt, where he firmly established himself, and where his successors were called Ptolemies, in honour of the founder of their empire, which subsisted till the time of Augustus. Seleucus and his posterity reigned in Babylon and Syria. Antigonus at first established himself in Asia Minor, and Antipater in Macedonia. The descendants of Antipater were conquered by the successors of Antigonus, who reigned in Macedonia till it was reduced by the Romans in the time of King Perseus. Lysimachus made himself master of Thrace; and Leonatus, who had taken possession of Phrygia, meditated for a while to drive Antipater from Macedonia. Eumenes established himself in Cappadocia, but was soon overpowered by his rival Antigonus, and starved to death. During his lifetime, Eumenes appeared so formidable to the successors of Alexander, that none of them dared to assume the title of king. Alexander IV., son of Alexander the Great and Roxana. He was born after his father's death, and was proclaimed king while yet an infant, along with Philip Aridaeus, an illegitimate brother of Alexander the Great. Soon after, however, he was put to death, together with Roxana, by Cassander, who thereupon assumed the sovereign power. (Justin, 15, 2.) Alexander W., son of Cassander. He ascended the throne of Macedonia along with his brother Antipater, B.C. 298. Antipater, however, having put to death Thessalonica, their mother, Alexander, in order to avenge his parent, called in the aid of Demetrius, son of Antigonus. A reconciliation, however, having taken place between the brothers, Demetrius, who was apprehensive lest this might thwart his own views on the crown of Macedon, slew Alexander and seized upon the royal authority. (Justin, 16, 1.)

2. Kings of Epirus. Alexander I., surnamed Molossus, was brother of Olympias, and successor to Arybas. He came into Italy to aid the Tarentines against the Romans, and used to say, that while his nephew, Alexander the Great, was warring against women (meaning the es

femmate nations of the east), he was fighting against men. (Justin, 17, 3.-Liv., 8, 17, et 27.) As regards the circumstances connected with his death, vid. Acheron, II.

Alexander II., son of the celebrated Pyrrhus. To avenge the death of his father, who had been slain at Argos, fighting against Antigonus, he seized upon Macedonia, of which the latter was king. He was soon, however, driven out, not only from Macedonia, but also from his own dominions, by Demetrius, son of Antigonus. Taking refuge, on this, among the Acarmanians, he succeeded, by their aid, in regaining the throne of Epirus. (Justin, 26, 3–Id., 28, 1.Plut., Wit. Pyrr., 34.)

3. Kings of Syria.

Alexander I., surnamed Bala or Balas, a man of low origin, but of great talents and still greater audacity, who claimed to be the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, assumed the name of Alexander, and being acknowledged by Ptolemy Philometor, Ariarathes, and Attalus, seized upon the throne of Syria. He was defeated, however, and driven out by Demetrius Nicator, the lawful heir ; and, having taken refuge with an Arabian prince, was put to death by the latter. (Justin, 35, l, seq.)

Alexander II., surnamed Zabina or Zebenna, a usurper of the throne of Syria. He was the son of a petty trader in Alexandrea, but claimed, at the instigation of Ptolemy Physcon, to be the offspring of Alexander Bala. Ptolemy aided him with troops, and Demetrius Nicator was defeated at Damascus, and driven but of his kingdom. A few years after, however, Alexander was himself defeated by Antiochus Grypus, aided in his turn by the same Ptolemy, and put to death. Grypus was son of Demetrius Nicator. (Justin, 39,

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Alexander I., Jannaeus, monarch of Judaea, son of Hyrcanus, and brother of Aristobulus, to whom he succeeded, B.C. 106. He was a warlike prince, and displayed great ability in the different wars in which he was engaged during his reign. Driven from his kingdom by his subjects, who detested him, he took up arms against them, and waged a cruel warfare for the space of six years, slaying upward of 50,000 of his foes. Having at last re-entered Jerusalem, he crucified, for the amusement of his concubines, 800 of his revolted subjects, and at the same time caused their wives and children to be massacred before their eyes. Being re-established on the throne, he made various conquests in Syria, Arabia, and Idumea, and finally died of intemperance at Jerusalem, B.C. 76, after a reign of 27 years. (Josephus, Ant. Jud., 17, 22, &c.)

Alex ANDER II., son of Aristobulus II., was made prisoner, along with his father, by Pompey, but managed to escape while being conducted to Rome, raised an army, and made some conquests. Hyrcanus, son of Alexander Jannaeus, being then on the throne, solicited the aid of the Romans, and Marc Antony being sent by Gabinius, defeated Alexander near Jerusalem. Aster standing a siege for some time in the city of Alexandrea, he obtained terms of peace ; but not long after, having taken up arms for Caesar, who had released his father, he fell into the hands of Metellus Scipio, and was beheaded at Antioch. (Josephus, Antiq. Jud., 14, 13.)

Alexander III., son of Herod the Great, put to death by his father, along with Aristobulus his brother, on false charges brought against them by Pheroras their uncle, and Salome their aunt. (Josephus, Antiq. Jud., 16, 17.)

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6. Individuals.

Alexander, I. tyrant of Pherae in Thessaly, who seized upon the sovereign power, B.C. 368. He was of a warlike spirit, but, at the same time, cruel and vindictive, and his oppressed subjects were induced to supplicate the aid of the Thebans, who sent Pelopidas with an army. The tyrant was compelled to yield; but, having subsequently escaped from the power of the Theban commander, he reassembled an army, and Pelopidas having been imprudent enough to come to him without an escort, the tyrant seized and threw him into prison, whence he was only released on the appearance of Epaminondas at the head of an armed sorce. By dint of negotiation, he now obtained a truce, but renewed his acts of violence and cruelty as soon as the Thebans had departed. Pelopidas marched against and defeated him, but lost his own life in the action. Stripped upon this of all his conquests, and restricted to the city of Pherae, he no longer dared to carry on war by land, but turned his attention to pira

cy, and had even the audacity to pillage the Piraeus or .

main harbour of Athens. He was assassinated at last by his wife Thebe. (Val. Maz., 9, 13.-Corn. Nep., Wit. Pelop.–Pausan., 6, 5.)—II. Lyncestes, was accused of being one of the conspirators in the plot against Philip of Macedon, which resulted in the death of that monarch. He was pardoned on account of his having been the first to salute Alexander, Philip's son, as king. Not long aster, however, he was detected in a treacherous correspondence with Darius, and put to death. (Justin, 11, 2.)—III. Son of Polysperchon, at first a general on the side of Antigonus, after the death of Alexander the Great, and very active in driving out for him, from the Peloponnesus, the garrisons of Cassander. He afterward went over to Cassander, but was assassinated by some Sicyonians, after no long interval of time, at the siege of Dymae.—IV. A famous impostor of Paphlagonia, who lived in the time of Lucian, under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. By his artifices he succeeded in passing himself for a person sent by AEsculapius, and prevailed upon the Paphlagonians to erect a temple to this deity. As the priest and prophet of the god, he ran a long career of deception, which is fully exposed by Lucian in his Pseudomantis.-W. Severus, a Roman emperor. Wid. Severus.—WI. An Athenian painter, whose portrait appears on a marble tablet found at Resina in 1746, and stating the name and country of the artist. The age in which he lived is not known.—WII. A native of AEtolia, known as a tragic, lyric, and epigrammatic poet. He formed one of the Tragic Pleiades. The remaining six were Philiscus of Corcyra, Sositheus, Homer the younger, Æantis or Æantias, Sosiphanes, and Lycophron. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr., vol. 3, p. 86.)—VIII. A native of Cotyaeum, in Phrygia, or, according to Suidas, of Miletus, who flourished in the second century of our era. He took the name of Cornelius Alexander, from his having been a slave of Cornelius Lentulus, who gave him i. freedom, and made him the instructer of his children. He was surnamed Polyhistor, from the variety and multiplicity of his knowledge. The ancient writers cite one of his works in forty books, each one of which appears to have contained the description of some particular country, and to have had a separate title, such as Alyvirtuaká, Kaptaká, &c., Pliny often refers to him. It is probable that he was the author of a work entitled 6avuaatov avvaywyń, “A collection of wonderful things,” of which Photius speaks as the production of an individual named Alexander, without designatin

him any farther. This work contained accounts_o

animals, plants, rivers, &c. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr., vol. 5, p. 276, seqq.)—IX. A native of AEgae in Achaia, the disciple of Xenocrates, and, as is thought, of Sosigenes. He was one of the instructers of the Emperor Nero. Some critics regard him as the author of the

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