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Christianity in the times of the Apostles, there might be some plausibility in the conjecture. But there is no trace of such a designation ; and indeed it would have been exceedingly improper as applied to a doctrine, which was preached publicly every where, and of whose ministers, both Jews and Pagans complained that they turned the world upside down. There are few words in the New Testament more common than idos, but there is not a single instance wherein it is accompanied with the article, that can be rendered otherwise than his own, her own, or
§ 23. So much for the distinction uniformly observed in Scripture between the words diaboaos and daquoviov; to which I shall only add, that in the ancient Syriac version, these names are always duly distinguished. The words employed in translating one of them are never used in rendering the other; and in all the Latin translations I have seen, ancient and modern, Popish and Protestant, this distinction is carefully observed. It is observed also in Diodati's Italian version, and most of the late French versions. But in Luther's German translation, the Geneva French, and the common English, the words are confounded in the manner above observed. Some of the later English translations have corrected this error, and some have implicitly followed the common version,
Αδης AND Γεεννα.
The next example I shall produce of words in which, though commonly translated by the same English term, there is a real difference of signification, shall be adns and yeevva, in the common version rendered hell. That yeevva is employed in the New Testament to denote the place of future punishment prepared for the devil and his angels, is indisputable. In the Old Testament we do not find this place in the same manner mentioned. Accordingly the word yeevva does not occur in the Septuagint. It is not a Greek word, and consequently not to be found in the Grecian classics. It is originally a com
hinnom, the valley of Hinnom, a place near Jerusalem, of which we hear first in the Book of Joshua 58. It was there that the cruel sacrifices of children were made by fire to Moloch, the Ammonitish idol 39. · The place was also called Tophet and that, as is supposed, from the noise of drums, (Toph signifying a drum,) a noise raised on purpose to drown the cries of the helpless infants. As this place was, in process of time, considered as an em. blem of hell, or the place of torment reserved for
גיא חנם pound of the two Hebrew words
38 Jos. xv. 8. It is rendered by the 70 Jos. xviii. 16. Fas-Evroply and in some editions, ramena, hence the name in the N. T. 39 2 Chron. xxxiii, 6.
40 2 Kings, xxiii. 10.
the punishment of the wicked in a future state, the
$ 2. As to the word ddns, which occurs in eleven places of the New Testament, and is rendered hell in all, except one, where it is translated grave, it is quite common in classical authors, and frequently used by the Seventy, in the translation of the Old Testament. In my judgment, it ought never in
41 Matt. xxiij. 15,
James, iji. 6.
Scripture to be rendered hell, at least in the sense wherein that word is now universally understood by Christians. In the Old Testament the corresponding word is 598.23 sheol, which signifies the state of the dead in general, without regard to the goodness or badness of the persons, their happiness or misery. In translating that word, the Seventy have almost invariably used ádns. This word is also used some. times in rendering the nearly synonymous words or phrases 793 bor, and 7 '2x abne bor, the pit, and stones of the pit, nya 58 tsal moth, the shades of death, 2017 dumeh, silence. The state is always represented under those figures which suggest something dreadful, dark, and silent, about which the most prying eye, and listening ear, can acquire no information. The term adns, hades, is well adapted to express this idea. It was written anciently, as we learn from the poets (for what is called the poetic, is nothing but the ancient dialect), ådns, ab a privativa et eidw video, and signifies obscure, hidden, invisible. To this the word hell in its primitive signification perfectly corresponded. For, at first, it denoted only what was secret or concealed. This word is found with little variation of form, and precisely in the same meaning, in all the Teutonic dialects 43
But though our word hell, in its original signification, was more adapted to express the sense of adns
43 See Junius' Gothic Glossary, subjoined to the Codex Ar. genteus, on the word hulyan.
than of yeevva, it is not so now. When we speak as Christians, we always express by it, the place of the punishment of the wicked after the general judgment, as opposed to heaven, the place of the reward of the righteous. It is true that, in translating heathen poets, we retain the old sense of the word hell, which answers to the Latin orcus, or rather infernus, as when we speak of the descent of Æneas, or of Orpheus, into hell. Now the word infernus, in Latin, comprehends the receptacle of all the dead, and contains both elysium the place of the blessed, and tartarus the abode of the miserable. The term inferi, comprehends all the inhabitants good and bad, happy and wretched. The Latin words infernus and inferi bear evident traces of the notion that the repository of the souls of the departed is under ground. This appears also to have been the opinion of both Greeks and Hebrews, and indeed of all antiquity. How far the ancient practice of burying the body may have contributed to produce this idea concerning the mansion of the ghosts of the deceased, I shall not take it upon me to say ; but it is very plain, that neither in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, nor in the New, does the word 'adns convey the meaning which the present English word hell, in the Christian usage, always conveys to our minds.
$ 3. It were endless to illustrate this remark by an enumeration and examination of all the passages in both Testaments wherein the word is found. The