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any other explanation; next, there is the large body of Fathers' from every Church, who do interpret the text, as a matter of course, of Baptism; thirdly, all the Liturgies, in all the different ways in which it is possible to apply it.
Some of them again recite this Scripture in their service; or they use its language in the consecration of the baptismal font;
1 In Note B. are quoted Origen, S. Cyprian, S. Basil, S. Gregory of Nyssa, S. Ambrose, S. Jerome, S. Augustine, S. Chrysostom, and Theodoret ; and even Pelagius admits the same; add to these Justin Martyr (Apol. i. § 61.), S. Irenæus (v. 15. 3), S. Theophilus (ad Autol. I. ii. § 16), S. Athanasius (de Sabb. et Circumcis. § 5), S. Cyril of Jerus. (Cat. xviii. 35), S. Epiphanius (Hær. i. 4), The Apostolical Constitutions (1. 8. c. 6), S. Gregory of Nazianzum (de Baptismo), S. Hippolytus (in Theoph. § 9), Methodius. (Conv. Virg.)
2 Titus ii. 11.—iii. 7. is one of the lessons in the Alexandrian, Coptic, and Æthiopic (Ass. ii. 152), where it is retained even in the more compendious form of Baptism (ib. 188), and in the revised Syriac Liturgy (ib. i. 228.)
3 Latin, Gelasiu (ii. 3), Gellon (53), Chelle (62), Colbertin (65), Moisac. (68), Apamea (75).
"Be it a living, regenerating fountain of water, a purifying stream, that all "who are to be washed in this health-giving stream, by the operation of the "HOLY SPIRIT within them, may obtain a free grant of perfect cleansing."
Gothic and Gallican.
"Pray we our LORD and GOD to sanctify this fountain, and to make it unto "all who descend therein, a laver of most blessed regeneration for the remission "of all sins, through the LORD, &c." (ii. 34.)
"Give place (O army of Satan) to the HOLY SPIRIT; that to all who descend "into this fountain it may be a laver of the Baptism of regeneration in the "remission of all sins" (ib. 35).
Alexandrian, Coptic, and Ethiopic.
"Sanctify this water and this oil, that they may be a bath of regeneration "(Amen) to eternal life (Amen), for a clothing of immortality (Amen), for the 66 adoption of sons (Amen), for the renovation of the HOLY SPIRIT (Amen), &c.
' (ib. ii. 165.) Grant to it power to become life-giving water (Amen), sancti"fying water (Amen), water cleansing sin (Amen), water of the bath of rege“neration (Amen), water of the adoption of sons (Amen), &c.” (ib. 173.)
"But Thou, LORD of all, make this a water of redemption, water of sancti
fication, purifying of flesh and spirit, loosing of bonds, remission of sins, en"lightening of souls, bath of regeneration, renovation by the Spirit, gift of adop"tion, clothing of immortality, fountain of life, &c." (ib. p. 138.)
or in their prayers for those about1 to be admitted to Holy Bap
tism, or after the Baptism has been completed.
ON THE INTERPRETATION OF TIT. III. 5.
Antient Antiochian, Jerusalem (bis) Apostolic, by Severus, from Greek. "But Thou, LORD of all, make these waters, waters of comfort, waters of joy "and gladness, waters betokened in the death and resurrection of Thy Only"Begotten SoN, waters of redemption, purifying of defilements of flesh and "spirit, loosing of bonds, remission of sins, enlightening of souls, bath of rege“neration, gift of adoption, clothing of immortality, renovation of Thy HOLY "SPIRIT, waters cleansing every stain of soul and body, &c." (ib. ii. pp. 220231-259-291.)
Revised Syriac, Apostolic from Greek (ib. 233–259).
"The waters are sanctified to be a divine bath of regeneration,' in the name "of the Living FATHER to life (Amen), in the name of the Living Son to life "(Amen), in the name of the Living and HOLY SPIRIT to life for ever and ever " (Amen)."
1 Latin, Gothic, and old Gallican.
On making a Catechumen (ib. i. 29).
"Grant him Thy mercy and loving-kindness through the washing of rege"neration; bring him to the spiritual grace; that together with us, he may "return praise and thanksgiving to thee, LORD GOD FATHER ALMIGHTY; lead "him into the way of truth; teach him Thy righteousness, through our LORD, " &c."
Mighty is our GOD; and may He bring to the bath of the water of regene"ration' you who are fleeing to the faith; and us also, who deliver to you the 46 mystery of the Catholic Faith, may He bring with you to the heavenly king
2 Western. Old Gallican (ii. 42). *
"GOD, the FATHER of our LORD JESUS CHRIST, who hath regenerated thee "by water and the HOLY SPIRIT, and who hath given thee remission of sins by "the washing of regeneration' and (His) blood," &c. (The Sacramentary of Gelasius omits the words "by the washing of regeneration;" and of the other Latin rituals, it is not generally expressed whether they used the longer or the shorter form.)
Coptic, &c. (ii. 182.)
"Thou Thyself, our LORD, by the grace of Thy CHRIST, and by the descent "of Thy HOLY SPIRIT, hast consecrated this water, whence it has been made to
Thy servant baptized therein a washing of regeneration, and a renewal' after
"his antient error, whereby he has been enlightened by the light of Thy
They carry their own evidence, and they are evidence for the whole Christian Church, and this evidence becomes the stronger
"doms, through the gift of our LORD JESUS CHRIST, to whom be honour and "dominion for ever and ever. Amen." (Ib. i. 36.)
Gallican (ib. 39).
"O GOD, to whom flee thirsty souls, longing for the draught of immortality;
grant to these, Thy suppliant servants, to find the gift which they long for; "to obtain the grace which they claim; let them enter the fountain, the source "of regeneration; there to lay aside that death-bringing offence of our "first parents, the frailness of perishing flesh being changed into a new man. "Through the LORD, &c."
Ambrosian (ib. 45).
"O GOD, to dedicate to whom no littleness unfits, who graciously admittest
every age, and every sex to the worship of Thy Majesty, to Thee we dedicate "these beginnings of a new man, and rudiments of infant life: grant that the
sign of the Holy Cross of Thy only-Begotten, inscribed upon this little one,
may protect him, as yet ignorant of ill: Thine may he be; to Thee may he
grow up; Thee may he fear; Thee love; Thee his Creator ever acknowledge; "and, brought by Thee, arrive at the holy washing of regeneration.' Through "the same JESUS CHRIST our LORD, who liveth," &c.
Alexandrian, Coptic, Ethiopic.
"Search the lurking recesses of their hearts. Thou who 'searchest Jerusalem "with lanterns' (Zeph. i. 12.) and permit not the malignant spirit to lurk in "them; but grant them purity and health, grant them eternal salvation, rege
nerate them with the washing of regeneration' and of remission of sins; make "them a temple for Thy HOLY SPIRIT, through Thy Only-Begotten Son, our "LORD GOD, and SAVIOUR, JESUS CHRIST, through whom," &c. (ib. 153, 154.)
Dispose his soul to receive the HOLY SPIRIT, and that he may be accounted "worthy to obtain the washing of regeneration,' and the clothing of immortality, "and the remission of his sins," &c. (ib. 162, 163.)
Armenian. (After the 25th, 26th, and 51st Psalms.)
"Pray we also the most merciful God for this Catechumen, that according "to His great mercy, He would have compassion upon him, and vouchsafe to "him the divine washing of regeneration,' and the garment of immortality; "and number him with the faithful, called after His name, and save him by "His free mercy." (pp. 169, 170.)
"Fill him with heavenly grace, and gladden him with Thy most ex"cellent name; that he may be called a Christian, and at the fitting season be
OF THESE LITURGIES.
if we remark, that (as before) they relate only to one single text; not all the passages in the Liturgies, which bore upon the doctrine, nor even all which bore upon the text, have been admitted; but those only which directly quote and apply it; and from these some notion may be formed of the full extent of the whole evidence. 2ndly, The mode in which the several liturgies employ the text, evinces their independence of each other; e. g. some only, use it as a lesson; some only, after baptism; and this renders the agreement the more conspicuous, in that all employ it in the consecration of the water of Baptism, and (as
"accounted worthy to receive the HOLY SPIRIT in the Baptism of regeneration. 'May he become of the body, and a member of Thy Holy Church," &c. (pp. 171, 172.)
"In the peace of GOD pray we,-for him, who is now coming to the holy "Enlightening, and for his salvation: that he may be made a child of light, "and heir of all good things; that he may be planted with, and be a partaker "of the death and the resurrection of CHRIST our GOD; that the robe of Bap"tism, and the earnest of the SPIRIT, may be preserved to him throughout, "unstained and undefiled in the terrible day of CHRIST our GOD; that this "water may be to him a 'washing of regeneration' to the remission of sins, and a garment of immortality." (ib. ii. 130-133.)
Syriac. Apostolic by James of Edessa.
"O CHRIST our GOD, make this child Thy servant meet for the gift of the "bath of regeneration,' and prepare him for good and pure works at all times," &c. (i. 258, by Severus, ii. 288.)
"The good Shepherd, who came forth to seek the lost sheep, (which through "the craft of the rebellious serpent had lost its place among things endued "with reason,) and lighted a candle, His Holy Flesh, and swept the house of "this world from sin, and found the lost coin, the royal image, encrusted with "passion, and rusted through sin, and purged it and cleansed it in the furnace "of Holy Baptism and in the washing of regeneration,' and imparted to it the 'beauty of its first creation. Now also, O God, for Thy goodness and the "manifoldness of Thy tender mercy, free and redeem all our souls from all filth "and rust of sin," &c. (Hymn, ib. 273, 274.)
preparing them for the reception of Thy HOLY SPIRIT, that they may
"be made meet for the washing of regeneration.'" (i. 232.)
in our own) in the prayer for those about to be baptized. Even this, however, is but a broad correspondence; the detail implies the existence of distinct models embodying the same principle: the Eastern and Western are manifestly distinct; and even amid the mutual correspondence of the Eastern Churches in the accumulation of the titles of Baptism there is no identity. It is the free following out of a pattern which had been given, implying at once the original correspondence of the pattern, and the independence of the execution. The antiquity of these titles is implied and illustrated by the like accumulations in the several fathers, especially of the Greek Church'. This evidence meets a longing which has been felt; "how are we to know that the "fathers, now extant, represent the doctrines of their several "Churches, and so the voice of the whole Church?" This might be met in another way, viz.; that as soon as lists of authorities began to be made, the same fathers whose works we now possess were appealed to, as chief witnesses. But, over and above, we have their testimony confirmed in another way; these Liturgies were not taken out of their writings, were not composed by them, were prior in their component parts to most of them, and yet they contain precisely the same doctrine, and do not teach but imply it, as the only doctrine known to the Church, and in that most solemn way, prayer to ALMIGHTY GOD. We should take a man's prayers as evidence of his faith; we appeal to our own Liturgy, as embodying that of our Church; why not then to the Liturgies of the universal Church for the faith of the
Holy Church Universal throughout the world?" Thus, then, we have two distinct bodies of evidence, both solidly establishing the same result, and each confirming the other. First, the works of the several Fathers, as individual witnesses of the faith of their several Churches, and so ultimately of the whole Church : and, secondly, in the Liturgies, the collective doctrine of each Church as a whole. They will also supply an answer to a question
1 See below, ch. 8. Extracts from the Fathers.
2 As has been noticed to me in the dialogues of Theodoret; so also in the Pelagian controversy in St. Augustine.