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Wherefore at his solicitation I began
They will pardon my shortcomings;
Has never attempted to write poetry.
The Red Sea is not contained in a jug.
Why should I take on myself a further burden ?
And not plagiarized as a demon from angels.
Off hand, each to each, neither more nor less.
'Prosody can “weigh” heavy and light (or, as we should say, long and short) syllables, but not Sufi mysteries. L.
? Fariduddin 'Attar, author of the Mantik ut Tair, &c., was a druggist.
* Koran, Sura XV. 18. The devils are said to ascend to overhear the talk of the angels in heaven.
Again that noble was instant with me,
From demonstrated knowledge, 'ilm ul yakin, bring them to the stage of experienced or evidenced knowledge, 'ayn ul yakin. The first is the knowledge gained by logical demonstration, the second that “spiritually discerned " by illumination, Kashf. L.
? Zauk, 'taste," • delight,' religious exaltation.'
First of all I am perplexed about my own thought;
· Thinking is the means to reach knowledge of God, m'arifat; and thinking is of two kinds, logical demonstration, and spiritual illumination. L.
* Tasawwur, conception, “idea.”
3 Tazakkar, reminiscence, the anamnesis of Plato. All major premisses, or first principles, says Labiji, are gained by intuition, or reminiscence of ideas known to the mind in a former state.
• Compare Risala Shamsiya 5, Part is intuitive and part is inferential and the result of thought, i.e. of such an arrangement of known things, that it leads to the knowledge of unknown things.' See Aristotle, An Pri. I. i. 6.
s 'Ibrat, from 'abr, passing over, interpretation, explication, probably a translation of Aristotle's Peri Hermeneias, which treats of propositions.
* Tasdik, assertion, verification, proposition, as in Risala Shamsiya 3.
But to learn of what kind this arrangement is,
| Taklid. See note on couplet 109.
• Koran, Sura XX. 14 and 11: “ What is that in thy right hand, O Moses? He answered, It is my staff whereon I lean, and wherewith I beat down leaves for my flock. God said, Cast it down, O Moses ! And he cast it down, and behold it became a serpent, which ran about .... And when he was come near unto it (the burning bush), a voice called to him, saying, O Moses, verily I am thy Lord, wherefore put off thy shoes, for thou art in the sacred Valley Towa.'”
I.e., the tarikat, or Sufi's progress and course of illuinination which leads him to the true knowledge of God. L.
+ The Truth, Hakk, is the usual Sufi expression for the Absolute Divine Being.
5 Tajrid, stripping off, making bare, seclusion from the world, logical abstraction, purification from self. Lahiji explains it as ' Passing by the stages of carnal lusts, and mental operations, and human pleasures and relations, and emerging from the limitation of self, which veils man's real essence. Similarly, Plotinus directs the mystical aspirant to 'simplify his nature,' that he may become identified with the infinite. And Dionysius, the pseudo-Areopagite, exhorts his disciple 'to abandon the senses and all operations of the intellect, all objects of sense and all objects of thought, and ignorantly to strive upwards towards union with Him who is above all essence and knowledge ; inasmuch as by separation of himself from all things, he will be exalted to the super-essential radiance of the Divine darkness.'— Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, I. 288.
From the contingent he seeks to prove the necessary,
If the sun tarried always in one position,
? He argues in a circle ; proves one contingent proposition by another contingent, which in its turn is proved by the first, and so on in an endless circle. L.
: Sense supplies us with finite objects only, and reason has only these finite objects to work on. It cannot transcend them, or mount from them to the infinite.
3 The figment of contingent being occurs for the first time in the fifth book of Plato's Republic. Being, he argues, is the object of knowledge, and not being of ignorance, and therefore opinion which lies between them must have an object of its own as well, and this object is intermediate or contingent being, which is and is not, and partakes both of existence and non-existence. On this Professor Jowett notes :-“ Plato did not remark that the degrees of knowledge in the subject have nothing corresponding to them in the object. With him a word must answer to an idea, he could not conceive of an opinion which was an opinion about nothing.”— Jowett's Plato, II. 59. * Compare Hafiz, Ode 355 (Brockhaus' edition):
‘But how can our eyes behold Thee as Thou art ?
As our sight is, so see we, and only in part.' 6 Tamsil, simile, analogy in logic. Schmölders (Documenta Philosophiæ Arabum). This illustration was probably suggested by Ghazzali. See Lewes, History of Philosophy, II. 51.