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O fool, the body of a gnat enshrines wisdom,
See Koran, Sura II. 24. * On the one hand it is wrong to deny the wisdom manifested in the structure of the heavens, and on the other hand it is equally wrong to say with the astrologer that they are self moved, and govern things on earth. L.
• Compare “ The sweet influences of the Pleiades.” Job xxxviii, 31.
* This idea is found in Aristotle. Nicom. Eth. vi. 7. 4. The perfection of a star is its ascension, and its defect its setting. L.
Each serving diligently in its own appointed place,
THOUGHTS ON SOULS.
Ponder well once for all on your own origin,
* I.e., in compound bodies. All these are proofs of the entire subjection of all things to one primal agent, “ The Truth.” L.
3 Compare Burke: “From the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers is drawn out the harmony of the universe."
3 Haiuli, substance, is the Greek He Hyle,-explained in Istilahat us Sufiat, p. 25, as the inward element in things as opposed to the outward form,—the hypokeimenon, that which underlies,' quod substat.
+ When the simple elements are united into compounds, each element drops its own ‘form,' and is blended with the others into one common substance. L.
6 Universal Reason, the first emanation from the Absolute, is likened to Adam; and Universal Soul, the second emanation, to Eve, since Universal Soul was evolved out of Universal Reason, like Eve out of Adam's rib. L.
That which was made last was first in thought.'
Yet are they the theatres of the true epiphany." 265 When the back of a mirror is blackened,
It will reflect a man's face from its face ; 4
For that the soul of each one is hidden in you,
Know yourself that you are the world's soul.
1 Universal Reason is also the very essence of man,' so that what was first in the Divine thought, was the last in fact. Man was thus the final cause of creation. L.
? All things were created as subsidiary to man, but man is an end in himself, and not a means to any further end. L.
* This refers to Koran, Sura XXXIII. 72: “Verily, we proposed a deposit to the heavens, and to the earth, and to the mountains between them, but they refused the burden, and we entrusted it to man, who is unjust (or dark ') and foolish.' This deposit is the duty of displaying the Divine attributes, and man does this through the universality of his nature, containing “ the fullness of the Godhead.” He is good on one side and evil on the other,—“ created half to rise and half to fall." The good represents the beautiful attributes of God (jamal), and the evil the terrible attributes (jalal). L.
* Man, the mirror of Divinity, is on one side blackened with the darkness of Not Being, in order to reflect Very Being. L.
O" And He said unto the angels, ' Worship Adam,' and they all worshipped him except Iblis.”—Koran, Sura II. 32.
The essence of man,'or Universal Reason, is the soul which animates all things, and forms the bond of mystical union between them and man. L.
The north quarter of the world is your dwelling place,'
Shamali, north, also means left. ? 'Ayn, eye, appearance, essence, reality. The“ quality”of a proposition.—Schmölders (Documenta Philosophiæ Arabum), p. 130. ’Ayan i sabita, the established evidences or epiphanies of the Divine “ideas,” manifested in the phenomenal world; opposed to 'ayan i 'ilmiya, the same “ideas” concealed in the 'intellectual presence' of God. ` Universal reason' is said to be in the Divine 'ilm (knowledge), and man to be the same 'essence of man’ manifested in ’ayn (to outward view). Lahiji uses the expression, “the worlds of 'ilm and 'ayn.” A name is called the 'ayn of the thing named. See Dabistan (Calcutta edition), p. 456.
: 'Universal Reason, the first emanation, is also the “ essence of man,” the lowest emanation. L.
* Natural, i.e. involuntary, such as digestion, growth, &c. L. 5 Or“ each power.” L.
• Each creature or each power reflects some one of the Divine names or attributes. From this name each is first manifested and to this it returns. L.
"Mubda, beginning or origin, is said to be the stage of wajud i 'ilmiat ; ma’ash,
Hence you learn all the names of God,
Give me news of myself as to what “I” means. 290 When Absolute Being has to be indicated
lifetime or sustenance, that of wajud i 'ayni, i.e. the Divine idoas evolved to view. Mu'ad, return, is the retrocession of the creature back to wajud i 'ilmiat. Each creature wanders about during its manifestation in forgetfulness of its origin. L.
'I.e., God. The names which follow are those of the seven essential Divine attributes. The argument is that since each creature is the manifestation of some one Name of God, and you are the epitome of all creatures, therefore you see in yourself reflections of all the names of God. L.
* Koran, Sura LVII. 3.
• By no process of logic or thought can you escape from egoism and tuism, and attain to true knowledge, so it is better for you to renounce the attempt to reach knowledge by thought. L.
• When the thinker and the object of his thought become united, thinking is no longer possible, for thinking implies duality. The end of thought is (when union takes place) bewilderment,-dazzling of the mental eye, owing to its proximity to “ The Truth.” L.
• Alluding to the Hadis— Whoso knows himself knows his Lord.' Introrsum ascen dere has been the watch word of mystics in all ages.