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240

O fool, the body of a gnat enshrines wisdom,
Then how is there no wisdom in Mercury and Mars ?
Albeit if you look into the roots of this matter,
You see the heavens subject to the Almighty.2
When the astrologer is destitute of religion, and says
That starry influences proceed from the heavenly motions,
He sees not that these revolving heavens
Are all under the sway and dominion of “ The Truth.”

245

ILLUSTRATION.
You may say these heavens are revolving
In the rotation of day and night like a potter's wheel.
And thereby every moment the wisdom of the Master
Fashions a new vessel out of water and clay.
Whatever exists in time and in space
Proceeds from one master hand, one workshop.
The stars, who are of the people of perfection,
Wherefore are they always undergoing the defect of setting ?
Why are they continually varying in position,
In place and orbit, in colour and size ?
Why are they now in Nadir, now in Zenith ?
Sometimes in opposition, sometimes in conjunction ?
Wherefore again is the heart of heaven fretted with fire ?
What does it desire that it is always in a whirl ?
All the planets circling round in search of this,
Sometimes above, sometimes beneath the earth ?
The elements water, air, fire and earth
Have taken their station below the heavens ;

250

See Koran, Sura II. 24. * On the one hand it is wrong to deny the wisdom manifested in the structure of the heavens, and on the other hand it is equally wrong to say with the astrologer that they are self moved, and govern things on earth. L.

• Compare “ The sweet influences of the Pleiades.” Job xxxviii, 31.

* This idea is found in Aristotle. Nicom. Eth. vi. 7. 4. The perfection of a star is its ascension, and its defect its setting. L.

255

Each serving diligently in its own appointed place,
Before or behind which it never sets its foot.
Though all four are contrary in their nature and position,
Still one may see them ever united together.'
Inimical are they to each other in essence and form
Yet united into single bodies by fiat of necessity.?
From them is born the three-fold kingdom of Nature,
Minerals, then plants, then animals,
Setting up substance in their midst,
As Sufis becoming pure from form.*
All at the command and by favour of the Master,
Standing in their places subject to His will,
The minerals by His wrath laid low in the dust,
The plants by His favour standing erect,
The sexual passion of animals with ardour unfeigned
Preserving their genera, species, and individuals,
All confessing the rule of their Master,
Searching out His will day and night!

RULE IV.

THOUGHTS ON SOULS.

260

Ponder well once for all on your own origin,
Your first mother had a father who was also her mother.5
Behold the world entirely comprised in yourself,

* I.e., in compound bodies. All these are proofs of the entire subjection of all things to one primal agent, “ The Truth.” L.

3 Compare Burke: “From the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers is drawn out the harmony of the universe."

3 Haiuli, substance, is the Greek He Hyle,-explained in Istilahat us Sufiat, p. 25, as the inward element in things as opposed to the outward form,—the hypokeimenon, that which underlies,' quod substat.

+ When the simple elements are united into compounds, each element drops its own ‘form,' and is blended with the others into one common substance. L.

6 Universal Reason, the first emanation from the Absolute, is likened to Adam; and Universal Soul, the second emanation, to Eve, since Universal Soul was evolved out of Universal Reason, like Eve out of Adam's rib. L.

That which was made last was first in thought.'
The last that was made was the soul of Adam,
The two worlds were a means to his production.
There is no other final cause beyond man,
It is disclosed in man's own self.2
The black hearted and the fool are the opposites of light

Yet are they the theatres of the true epiphany." 265 When the back of a mirror is blackened,

It will reflect a man's face from its face ; 4
And the rays of the sun in the fourth heaven
Are not reflected till they fall on the dust of earth.
You are the reflection of “ The Adored of angels,"
For this cause are you worshipped of angels.
Each creature that goes before you has a soul,
And from that soul is bound a cord to you.6
Therefore are they all subject to your dominion,

For that the soul of each one is hidden in you,
270 You are the kernel of the world in the midst thereof,

Know yourself that you are the world's soul.

1 Universal Reason is also the very essence of man,' so that what was first in the Divine thought, was the last in fact. Man was thus the final cause of creation. L.

? All things were created as subsidiary to man, but man is an end in himself, and not a means to any further end. L.

* This refers to Koran, Sura XXXIII. 72: “Verily, we proposed a deposit to the heavens, and to the earth, and to the mountains between them, but they refused the burden, and we entrusted it to man, who is unjust (or dark ') and foolish.' This deposit is the duty of displaying the Divine attributes, and man does this through the universality of his nature, containing “ the fullness of the Godhead.” He is good on one side and evil on the other,—“ created half to rise and half to fall." The good represents the beautiful attributes of God (jamal), and the evil the terrible attributes (jalal). L.

* Man, the mirror of Divinity, is on one side blackened with the darkness of Not Being, in order to reflect Very Being. L.

O" And He said unto the angels, ' Worship Adam,' and they all worshipped him except Iblis.”—Koran, Sura II. 32.

The essence of man,'or Universal Reason, is the soul which animates all things, and forms the bond of mystical union between them and man. L.

275

The north quarter of the world is your dwelling place,'
Because the heart is on the left side of the body.
The world of reason and mind is your stock in trade,
Earth and heavens are your vesture.
Behold this Not being which is the evidence ? of Being,
See this height how it is the essence of depth.
Your natural powers are ten thousand,
Your volitions transcend limits and counting.
For that cause is each man5 furnished with instruments,
With limbs, members, and sinews.
Physicians become bewildered at these,
And stand amazed at the anatomy of man.
Not one has mastered this science,
Who does not avow his ignorance thereof.
His limit and portion are appointed to each by “ The Truth,"
Each arises from and returns to one Name.
In that name each creature has its being,
To that name it is ever giving praise ;
At its beginning each proceeds from that source,
At its return that is its door of departure.
By the door whereat each enters, it departs,
Though in its lifetime each wanders from door to door.?

280

Shamali, north, also means left. ? 'Ayn, eye, appearance, essence, reality. The“ quality”of a proposition.—Schmölders (Documenta Philosophiæ Arabum), p. 130. Ayan i sabita, the established evidences or epiphanies of the Divine “ideas,” manifested in the phenomenal world; opposed to 'ayan i 'ilmiya, the same “ideas” concealed in the 'intellectual presence' of God. ` Universal reason' is said to be in the Divine 'ilm (knowledge), and man to be the same 'essence of man’ manifested in ayn (to outward view). Lahiji uses the expression, “the worlds of 'ilm and 'ayn.” A name is called the 'ayn of the thing named. See Dabistan (Calcutta edition), p. 456.

: 'Universal Reason, the first emanation, is also the “ essence of man,” the lowest emanation. L.

* Natural, i.e. involuntary, such as digestion, growth, &c. L. 5 Or“ each power.” L.

• Each creature or each power reflects some one of the Divine names or attributes. From this name each is first manifested and to this it returns. L.

"Mubda, beginning or origin, is said to be the stage of wajud i 'ilmiat ; maash,

Hence you learn all the names of God,
For that you are an image reflected from “ The Named." !
Power and Knowledge and Will are shown forth
In you, O slave of the Lord of bliss !
You are the Hearing, Seeing, Living, Speaking,
Yet you endure not of yourself but of Him!
O first who are also the essence of the last!
O inner who are also the essence of the outward !?
You day and night are cogitating about yourself,
It is most meet that you should think on self no more,
Since the end of thought is bewilderment,
This discourse on thought ends at this point.

285

QUESTION III.
What am I ? tell me what “I” means ?
What is the meaning of “ Travel into yourself ?” 5

ANSWER III.
Again you question me, saying, “ What am I ?”

Give me news of myself as to what “I” means. 290 When Absolute Being has to be indicated

lifetime or sustenance, that of wajud i 'ayni, i.e. the Divine idoas evolved to view. Mu'ad, return, is the retrocession of the creature back to wajud i 'ilmiat. Each creature wanders about during its manifestation in forgetfulness of its origin. L.

'I.e., God. The names which follow are those of the seven essential Divine attributes. The argument is that since each creature is the manifestation of some one Name of God, and you are the epitome of all creatures, therefore you see in yourself reflections of all the names of God. L.

* Koran, Sura LVII. 3.

• By no process of logic or thought can you escape from egoism and tuism, and attain to true knowledge, so it is better for you to renounce the attempt to reach knowledge by thought. L.

• When the thinker and the object of his thought become united, thinking is no longer possible, for thinking implies duality. The end of thought is (when union takes place) bewilderment,-dazzling of the mental eye, owing to its proximity to “ The Truth.” L.

• Alluding to the Hadis— Whoso knows himself knows his Lord.' Introrsum ascen dere has been the watch word of mystics in all ages.

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