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and even Idolatry ;' and there is high authority? (if authority be needed) for thinking it not inconsistent with our loyalty to our own religion to mete out similar tolerant measure to them.
1 Dr. Wolff says of the Sufis of Bokhara, “ They are people who really try, as they express themselves, to come nearer to God' by a moral life, separation from the world, meditation, prayer, and reading the books of other religious sects.”— Missionary Tour, p. 205.
* E. g. The passage from St. Augustine quoted by Sale as the motto to his translation of the Koran-“Nulla falsa doctrina est quæ non aliquid veri permisceat;” and those from St. Augustine, St. Clement and others, quoted by Max Müller in the Preface to his “ Chips."
Page 26, note 5, line 3, for soul, read reason.
41, couplet 409, read “ The fourth is the purification of the secret from other.'”
58, note 4, line 1, erase “or of the faith.”
Title-page, line 2, for at del, read itāl.
, reo, for widos, read wydog. This error of s for , occurs several times.
In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
In the name of Him who taught the soul to think,
' I. e. The reasonable soul, nafsi natika.
? I. e. The material visible world, and the invisible, spiritual or 'world of command.' (" Are not creation and command of Him?” Koran, Sura VII. 52.) The Sufis identified these with the Platonic worlds of ideals and of sensible objects. See Dabistan-i- Muzahib, p. 445 (Calcutta edition).
3 Pen (kalam) a name of ’Akl i kull, universal reason, the first emanation from the “ One.” Kaf, i. e. kudrat, power. L.
• The command of God, Kun fa-yakunu, “Be and it was,' is here alluded to. Koran, Sura II. 3. See Psalm xxxiii.. 9.
5 See Milton's Paradise Lost, VIII. 270.
• The phenomenal world has no real objective' existence. It is only the repetition of the “One,” (L.), who is, as Milton says:
. Infinite And through all numbers absolute, though One.
Paradise Lost, VIII. 420.
10 The worlds of command and of creatures proceed from one
One becomes many and many few.
They are but one point revolving quickly in a circle.?
In this circuit the first emanation became the last.' 20 A single mim* divides Ahad from Ahmad;
The world is immersed in that one mim.
See Answer XI. Coming and going are mere subjective impressions produced on the mind of the percipient by the rapid renewals of Divine manifestations. L.
· See Answer XII., i.e. the one Divine Being who is evolved, and rayed out through His various emanations down to man,—the lowest point in the circle, and is united again to Himself in man's upward journey back to Unity. L.
3 Ahmad, or Muhammad, is the type of the “perfect man,” who is the theatre or exhibition place of all the Divine names and attributes. The first emanation, 'ayn, was universal reason, and this descended, through the intermediate emanations, into man, and is again carried upwards by the perfect man" in his ascent to “Unity," and is united with the “One.” Thus the first becomes the last. L.
4 Mim, the forty grades of emanations, from universal reason down to man. L. • Koran, Sura XII, 108.
His entrancing state is the union of union,
? See Answer V.
See Answer VII. 3 See Answer IX.
* See Answer X. • See Answer IV., Illustration 2. The positive law is the shell, and Sufi mysteries the pearl within it. One exposes these mysteries to the vulgar and causes scandal, another keeps them concealed. L. • See Answer XI.
? See Answer XII. 8 See Answer XIII.
• See Answer XIV. 10 I. e., of the illusive unreal nature of all phenomena, ta'ayyunha. L. " See Answer XV.
THE CAUSE OF WRITING THIS BOOK.
Seven and ten years had passed after seven hundred,
From the Flight, when lo, in the month Shawál' 35 A messenger of a thousand graces and virtues
Arrived at the behest of the men of Khorasan.
In use amongst the masters of indications,
A world of mystery in a few words.
“That the men of the world may profit thereby.” 45 I replied, “What need ? for again and again
“Have I set forth these problems in treatises.”
“True,” said he, “but I hope to have from you · Answers in rhyme corresponding to these questions.”
+ 717 A.H.=1317 A.D.
* Lahiji says the name of this person was Shaikh Aminuddin, and the conversation took place at Tabriz.