« PoprzedniaDalej »
... 109 ... 247
Page Don't say so.
249 Pearls of Thought Strung in Rhyme 181 Duty of laying by for Religious and Picture from the World's History 502 Charitable uses
690 Duty of giving away a stated pro- Practical Consequences of Teaching portion of our Income
507 any Future Restoration of the Race 697 Early Piety and Early Suffering 693 Prayers for the Sick and Sorrowful.. 688 Easy Questions and Answers from the
Prayers for Children ...
693 Pentateuch 697 Primary School ...
178 Education & the duties of Civil Life 306 Princess of Wales
363 Familiar Colloquies between a Father Rachel Noble's Experience
174 and his Children 48 Reason and Revelation
694 Fir Tree of the Jura
310 Religious Training for the People 114 For Ever
562 Report of Exhibition Bible Stand 689 Gathered Blossom 506 Rose Bryant
695 Girls' Packet 218 Sarah's Present
310 Glance at the Universe
179 Saturday Afternoons Gleanings among the Sheaves 431 Science Elucidative of Scripture Grandmamma's Conversations on the Select Sermons of Ralph Erskine 502 Bible...
307 Seven Years' Street Preaching in SanHailing a Wherry 248 Francisco ...
563 Hints on Classical Tuition
695 Simultaneous Method of Teaching to Hints on Scripture Reading and
562 History of Modern Europe
248 Holy Women of Old ...
506 How to Nurse the Sick
692 How Young Men may become Great
628 Tales of the Scottish Peasantry 310 Illustrated Pocket Critical and Ex
Temperance Congress of 1862 ...
115 planatory Commentary
115 Ten Minutes with Uncle Oliver on Indifference 501 the Bicentenary
502 Infants' Packet
248 The British Controversialist 109, 694 Influence 752 The Cottage Fireside...
309 Jesus Calls Thee
The Good Shepherd and His Little
47 Kitto's Cyclopædia of Biblical Liter
The Gospel Narrative Vindicated 358 ature...
The Holy Land
696 Life of our Lord upon the Earth 750 The Mourning Mother Comforted ... 562 Life Triumphant...
The Negro Race not under a Curse .. 506 Life Unfolding
The Old Lieutenant and his Son 623 Little Crowns, & How to Win Them 430 The Power of Consistency
628 London Quarterly Review
54 The Pentateuchal Narrative VindiLucy Page 248 cated ...
244 Madagascar, its Mission and its
The Separating Flood
304 The Sabbath School Mary Markland, the Cottager's The Two Apprentices
308 Daughter ...
The Unpreached Gospel an EmManual for Sunday School Teachers 505 bedded Truth
503 Memoir of the Life and Labours of The Wandering Sheep
248 the Rev. W. Griffiths
45 Mick Tracy ..
51 Thoughts of Sunshine in Sorrow 49 Missions in Western Polynesia 428 Thy Kingdom Come...
248 Morning 216 Three in Heaven
693 Model Preacher 362 True Happiness ...
507 Moses or the Zulu 687 Vindication of Bishop Colenso...
358 Mrs. Ruffle
247 My Ministerial Experiences
Watchwords for the Church Militant 180 Nature's Normal School 176 What hath God wrought? ..
306 Near the Cross 178 Whose Child are You?
248 Notes on the Gospels
248 Old Margie's Flower Stall 310 Words to the Wise
507 On doing what one does with one's Worth Her Weight in Gold
507 Our own Fireside
752 SUNDAY SCHOOLS. Our Village Girls
431 Adult Classes, how to Teach and susPastoral Recollections and Sketches 110 tain them
535 Patience Hart's First Experience in Adaptation
545, 603 Service
49 Albion Schools, Bethnal Green 366
...314, 588, 675, 754
. 656, 711
Annual Meeting of Sunday School
Salford, and the Royal Marriage... 312
Word ' at Class, and the
STONEHENGE. STONEHENGE, in its present aspect of rúin and disorder, gives but a faint impression of its pristine sublimity and grandeur, and yet enough remains to enable us in idea to recover and replace the majestic proportion of the whole. Its ancient name was Choir Gaur, which may be translated, a circular high place of assembly. The Saxon term, Stonehenge, by which we know it now, means only "the hanging stones," and would naturally occur to a spectator as he gazed in astonishment at its lofty imposts. The plan comprises two concentric circles,and within them two imperfect ovals, forming a cell or sanctum. The outer diameter of the largest circle is 109 feet, and four cubits broad, and the interval between the uprights two cubits wide. The entire circle consisted of thirty stones, crossed at their tops by thirty others, meeting in a kind of architrave; each upright was to be nine cubits high, but at the entrance which faces the north-east, the interval is rather greater. According to modern phraseology and actual computation, the height of the stones on either side the entrance is a little more than thirteen feet, the breadth of one seven feet, of the other six feet four inches, and depth of the transverse over them two feet eight inches; the width of the entrance is five feet. Of the original thirty uprights, seventeen remain. The stones are irregular in form and size, but many of them show the marks of tools. Eight feet from the interior of this circle is another circle of much smaller stones, rude and uneven in shape; we may assume their proportions to have been half of those in the outer series; they had no horizontal coverings or imposts. Their number, when complete, was forty, and traces of twenty may yet be found. The sanctum of the temple was a space bounded by twothirds of a larger oval, and of an interior smaller oval. The great oval was composed of ten upright stones, capped by five horizontal stones, so as to constitute five sets of trilithons; the uprights rise in height from sixteen to twenty-one feet, the imposts are sixteen feet in length, and not continued beyond the ends of the uprights. Four trilithons remain standing, one fell at the close of the last century, and where it fell its fragments lie Titanic ruins. The small oval consisted of nineteen stones, and eleven of these we still may trace; the inner oval, like the inner circle, was unprovided with any architrave, but the stones of the former were taller and less rugged than those of the latter. Within the sanctum or cell is an altar-stone, fifteen feet in length, prostrate on the ground. Beside the circles, ovals, and altar, there are five smaller detached stones, making the entire number that entered into the composition of the building 140. The width of entrance into the cell, left by the incompleteness of its elliptical boundaries, is forty-three feet. The altar-stone faces the entrance into the temple, at a distance from it of fifty-seven feet. The outer circle was constructed of surface stones, or, to adopt the provincial phrase, sarsens-blocks of sandstone that lie strewn about the chalk downs of Wiltshire. The stones of the inner circle are granitic, and must have been brought a considerable distance. Exterior to the outer circle, and 100 feet from it, is a ditch or trench, surrounding the whole, except that, opposite the entrance, it divides into two parallel lines to form an arenue indicating its approach; the trench is flanked on its outer side by an agger or rampart of earth, which has a circumference of 369 yards. It is a distinction between the religious and military works of the ancient British, that in the former the ditch is inside, and in the latter outside, the agger. The avenue runs north-east and south-west, and the entrance of the temple is directed towards that point of the heavens where the sun rises at the summer solstice.
Half-a-mile to the north of Stonehenge is a race-course or hippodrome, extending cast and west for noarly two miles; it is bounded and enclosed by two ditches 200 cubits asunder, or between 300 and 400 feet. At the eastern extremity is a mound of earth running across the course, supposed to be the place set apart for the company who witnessed the race.
Stonehenge has the aspect of having been built at different periods. Mr. Warner started the idea that the Belgæ having taken this part of the country from the Celts, proceeded to raise a monument of rival magnitude to that of Abury. It is possible that there may have been a primitive Celtic temple to the sun, and that round this the Belga erected a larger and more elaborate structure. The conception and completion of the larger and loftier circle has been supposed to denote the civilization of a later age; while the fact of its materials having been drawn from the immediate neighbourhood, has been alleged as an argument that the artificers were not in undisturbed possession of the territory, Assuming, however, as we have a right to do, that Stonehenge was essentially of Druidical origin, we may also believe that in its finished form, if not in its more rudimentary features, it was the latest as it was the grandest of the religious erections of the order; it was the great high sanctuary or metropolitan temple of the realm, the Pantheon of national worship.
A few miles only from the ancient city of Sarum, it has imparted a name of its own to a town more closely adjoining, for the stones of which it was composed were the petræ ambrosiæ, the anointed stones of the Greeks, the ambers of an earlier epoch, such as that which Jacob set up for a pillar, pouring oil on the top of it, vowing a vow and saying, “This stone which I have set up for a pillar shall be God's house." By the word amber was implied something solar and divine; a monument in Cornwall is still called mainamber, or the hallowed stone. The proper anointing material with which stones were consecrated to a religious character and office was the oil of roses, ambrosia, a term applied by the heathen poets to the food of the gods. Hence the parish in which Stonehenge is situate has received the name of Ambrosebury, or Amesbury, though subsequent superstition has made it the shrine of a fabled St. Ambrose. It has been no uncommon thing with the Romish chroniclers to canonize an idea, and then to record the doings of a saint called into existence by their own imagination. Amesbury is distinguished in modern times as the birth-place of Joseph Addison.
The stupendous temple of Abury, (or Avebury,) six miles from Marlborough, is in a state of far greater dilapidation than Stonehenge; but man, rather than time, has been the destroyer. Through the skill and perseverance of antiquarian explorers, especially of Dr. Stukeley, the plan of the work has been successfully traced. Stonehenge was simply circular; Abury represents a serpent with wings transmitted through a circle. The circle, as the figure of the sun, the great natural emblem of the Divine person, became