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present parliament, the petitioners; the ing themselves freemen, who purchase the right hon. John Thyane esq. commonly same at 250l. each, and which sum is never called lord John Thynne, and Charles accounted for to the legal freemen, though Palmer, esq. were candidates; and that they are entitled to partake of the receipts the notice of the said election was not in of the estates belonging to the freemen of pursuance to the sheriff's precept, and that the said city, and that the right of electing Joseph Phillott, the then mayor and re- / two members to represent the city of Bath turning officer, acted with gross partiality, has been usurped by 30 individuals, many and refused to admit the petitioners as of whom do not ever reside in the said candidates, though duly qualified by law city, and others hold sinecure places and to be so, and legally proposed at the said pensions to a great amount in the court of election; and that the said Joseph Phil. | Exchequer, Lottery Office, Stamp Office, lott, the returning officer, with 21 others, and other situations under government, self-appointed, claiming to be freemen, and that the said Joseph Phillott, as mayor were exclusively proceeding to elect two and returning officer, refused to admit a members of parliament in the Guildhall, majority of legal votes who desired to vote the doors of which were closed on the for the petitioners, and received others freemen and citizens of the said city, at who had not been duly admitted to their the hour appointed for the election to freedom to vote for the sitting members, commence, being also guarded by above whereby a colourable majority was obtain30 ruffians called bludgeon-men, who ed for ford John Thynne and Charles Palwere protected in all their gross outrages mer esq., who were not duly qualified to and violence on the freemen and citi- represent the said city as the law directs; zens of the said city, contrary to the and praying such relief as to the House freedom of election, the express law of shall appear meet.” the land, and the privileges of the House, Ordered to be taken into consideration and so continued till the Guildhall was upon the 11th of February next. thrown open with some violence from without; and that the Dorham Act was 1 Vote OF THANKS TO THE MARQUIS not read, though repeatedly required ; and OF WellinGTON - VICTORY OF SALAthat on trivial pretences, and without any MANCA.] Lord Castlereagh rose, pursuant justifiable reason, a large military force to the notice he had given on a former was introduced into the said city, during day, to call the attention of the House to the election, to disperse a portion of the the services rendered to their country by freemen legally assembled, and to prevent that gallant officer, general.the marquis of the exercise of their elective franchise Wellington, and the brave army under his contrary to their rights and the privileges command during the last campaign in of the House ; and that the said Joseph Spain, and particularly to those by which Phillott, as returning officer, refused to they had signalised themselves in the admit a majority of the freemen of the glorious and ever-memorable battle of Sasaid city to vote for the petitioners, and lamanca. He was sure he should forget admitted to vote at the said election only his duty to the House, the country, and to 22 persons, styling themselves the mayor, that illustrious officer and his army, if on. aldermen, common council and freemen this occasion he were to introduce into of the city of Bath, most of whom have the discussion any matter that might been illegally admitted to the freedom of cause a controversial feeling respecting the said city, and most of whoin are also the policy of the war in the peninsula, and honorary freemen not qualified to vote, more especially if he were to offer any thereby giving to 22 self-appointed indi-thing respecting the conduct of his Majesviduals the exclusive right of choosing ty's ministers in connection with the subtwo representatives for a city containing a ject of the motion he was about to submit population of 35,000 persons, and exclud- to the House. Any charges that might be ing the whole body of the freemen who preferred against them for the mode in have legally and constitutionally obtained which that war had been conducted, they the right of freedom in the said city, and would be happy to meet on a future day. who have voted in the election of mem. On this, they hoped it would not be nebers to represent the city of Bath in par. cessary, as it was their wish to bring forliament from time immemorial, till they ward nothing that might divide the feelings were illegally deprived of the same by the of the House and the public, and abstract admission of a new order of persons styl. them from that subject, on whicb all de. lighted to dwell with admiration and gra- | that he was enabled to reduce this fortress titude. Al the same time, however, while (which was one of a most respectable dehe wished to guard against the introduc-cription) before marshal Marmont was tion of any miatter on which a difference of able to call his troops from their winter opinion might exist; he thought it would | cantonments, and advance forther than not be just to the army, and more parti. Salamanca. Lord Wellington having got cularly, he thought, it would not be just possession of Ciudad Rodrigo, meditated to the marquis of Wellington, if he were an advance on Badajoz, and his arrangeto confine himself to the feelings excited ments consequent on this design were by that great transaction, considered as an made with so much expedition and seinsulated affair, brilliant as it was in itself, crecy, that marshal Marmont believed the and great and glorious as it was,--and a | English army to be still at Ciudad Romore glorious action had never adorned drigo, when seven of eight divisions had the annals of this or any other great mili- | arrived at Badajoz. He attacked this fortary power: for he was proud to say, this tress, which was stronger and of more imcountry had become a great military portance than that of Ciudad Rodrigo, power, though formerly looked to princi- early in the month of March, and carried pally as a naval one by the other uations on the works with such vigour and alaof Europe. But still he contended, it crity, that the French armies of the north would be to let down and to undervalue and of Portugal, under Soult and Marthe victory of Salamanca, if it were to be mont, were unable to relieve it, and it was brought before the House unconnected even confessed by Soult, an officer of great with other considerations, and not as it ability, in explaining to the war minister stood, connected on the grand scale of the of France the causes of the loss of Bamilitary operations of which it formed so dajoz-it was admitted in his dispatches to pre-eminent a part. This was not a victory Berthier, which were intercepted, that lord which had been thrown in the way of lord Wellington had taken Badajoz in the face Wellington, which he had been able to ac of two armies, each of which in strength complish, and gloriously accomplish, on was equal to his own. It was stated by the instant; but it was a transaction which Soult that the army under lord Wellington wound up a military object, the result of was not superior to that under his comlong preparation and of foresight, in which mand, nor to that commanded by Marthe application of just principles was so mont; but be stated the difficulty of asinterwoven with various circumstances, sembling troops to be so great, and the rathat he should fail in his duty to the army, pidity of lord Wellington's movements to and to the marquis of Wellington, if he be so extraordinary (an admission most were not shortly and generally to describe honourable to the gallant marquis, more the causes which had led to the Victory of particularly as it came from an enemy), Salamanca, and its consequent advantages. | his operations carried on with such ceThe House would recollect, that at the lerity, the siege pressed with such vigour, close of the former, and at the commence and the assault made with such gallantry, ment of the present campaign, lord Wel. as to exceed all his calculations : so that lington, after dispossessing Massena of he had only reached Albuera with his Portugal, had made himself master of Al. | army, on his way to relieve the fortress, meida, but Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz when he received intelligence that it had were still in the hands of the enemy. fallen. These services then, it would be Both armies had retired into winier seen, lord Wellington had accomplished quarters, and remained for some time in under circumstances of great difficulty. inactivity on account of the season; but He had taken two important fortresses, in such vigorous preparations for renewing the presence of two armies, respectively hostilities were made by the marquis of equal in numbers to his own, and in such a Wellington so early as January, (a period way as to extort from the French comat which, even in that clime, armies have manders an acknowledgment, that all their seldom been occupied in preparing to preparations were rendered useless, and take the field) that in that month he was all their efforts foiled. Lord Wellington enabled to lay siege to Ciudad Rodrigo. having done these services, which of Nothing higher to the praise of the mar- themselves would have appeared most quis of Wellington could be said, than that splendid in the career of an individual less he had completed his preparations for this illustrious than himself, and completed operation with such activity and secrecy, that task which bad been the glorious object of a former campaign, and expelled into Andalusia, this will be my object." the enemy from the country of an ally al. When lord Wellington had reduced Ba. ways wound up in the interest and affec- dajos, in consequence, certainly, of a cir. tious of England - Portugal. After this cumstance for which he was not responhe had still a great object before him ; it sible, the delay on the part of the Spa. was for him to direct his force so as to niards to revictual Ciudad Rodrigo, he eflect what he might be capable of doing was obliged to march to protect that for the interest of Spain, with a view to fortress, and secure that interesting frontier repel the invading army. Lord Welling of Portugal. The noble lord afterwards ton had now to compare his army with stated, that he did not allogether regret that of the enemy, and to deliberate on that circumstances had caused him to di. what would be the probable result of the rect an operation in the north instead of the campaign. Though the army under him south, as he had intended; and he hoped, was certainly both respectable and im as he found himself at the head of an portant, yet when he compared it with army to which he could look with confi. the means of the enemy, a very grave dence for success in an action with Marprospect appeared before him, and he mont, he might in that quarter, more par. certainly could not flatter himself with a ticularly if Castile were thrown open, be result like that which had crowned his able to do that which would deliver Anda. measures. The French armies were so lusia more completely than if, as be had strong, though the successes of lord Wel. first intended after the capture of Badajoz, lington had caused their strength to be he had advanced against the French in frequently under-rated in this country, and that province itself. The climate also he indeed by the world at large; that the found more favourable to his soldiers, and gallant marquis did not expect to be en- he advanced with a perfect confidence in abled with his means to drive them out of the moral qualities and physical force of Spain, (as many sanguine persons did), his army. He (lord C.) begged the House but he felt that he might force them to to bear this in mind. Lord Wellington abandon the military bold they had at that did make an irruption into Castile. He time; that grasp of the country, on which drove the French from Salamanca, and alone the French must ground their hopes advanced upon the line of the Douro. of ultimate success. These, unless they | Though at the commencement of these could now retain, he would venture to say operations, his army was such that he they were farther off the consummation could court a general action with Marof their hopes, than at any period of the mont, when he arrived upon the line of four years during wbich the war had been the Douro, this was no longer the case. continued in the peninsula. He would The French, as was their practice, sacrirepeat it, unless the moral subjugation of ficed all the hold they had of the country, the people could be effected, which the by withdrawing their troops from the se. military possession of the country could veral fortresses they had previously occualone secure, the French were further from pied, to make head against lord Welling. the end they had in view than at any pe- | ion. Before the battle of Salamanca, riod of the last four years. The noble Marmont was reinforced from Leon and lord did not look at that time to the com- Estremadura, from the army of Cafplete expulsion of the enemy from Spain, farelli, and from the army of Madrid. and this he distinctly stated in his commu From that moment lord Wellington said, nications with his government; he (lord “I am not prepared to risk a general Castlereagh) did not speak of what he battle, unless I find that upon military might have written to individuals; but to grounds I engage you with a prospect of those under whom he served, the language success.” This lord Wellington laid down of lord Wellington was this : “ If I can re- as tbe principle on which he would actma duce the two fortresses (Ciudad Rodrigo principle in every respect correct, and conand Badajoz), and place Portugal under sistent with his genius. It was not for us their protection, my next operation shall to court general engagements in the ab. be directed to the south of Spain, to de- stract. The French might wish to do so; prive the enemy of the resources they but lord Wellington felt, that while he repossess in Seville; or if I oblige them to mained in Spain with such an army, the collect an army to defend them, I shall country never could be conquered ; and it iben compel them to raise the siege of was his object to make the French abanCadiz. If from Badajoz I can advance don all but the ground on which they stood, till he found them in such a situa- , even do that which must at all times be tion as would enable him to turn it to painful to a commander, I will retreat betheir discomfiture and defeat. Upon these fore the enemy. I will even retreat to principles he acted up to the battle of Sa. Ciudad Rodrigo, rather than give any adlamanca, and when the French crossed the vantage to the enemy; but if, in the Douro, (an opportunity of which lord course of my retreat, I can take any opWellington could not deprive them from portunity of attacking him with a prospect being in possession of the fords and of success;--if bis weakness, or my ad. bridges, so that it was impossible for him, dress, should enable me to take any adwith an inferior army, to make the Douro | vantage of him, without committing my a military position,) he then retreated; but own army, without committing my coun. his retreat was made on this principle. try, and above all without commiiting If you give me an advantage, I will at that great interest entrusted to my tack you, but otherwise I will not put to care, then will I revenge the crimes by the risk of a single battle the cause of the which France has disgraced herself; and peninsula, which may ultimately triumph attacking the enemy with that spirit and without such a sacrifice." And what was firmness which belongs to my nature, the result of this determination? It led to make him feel what my countrymen are that great action, which not only filled capable of effecting in such a cause." the nation with gratitude, but inspirited Such had been the object, and such was other countries to oppose the aggressions the language of our illustrious commander; of Franceman action, of which it was and the proud and ever-memorable vic. justly said, on a former evening, that, in tory of Salamanca grew out of this resoluthe history of all the battles which the tion. He asked the House, whether be campaign in Spain, or in any other coun- had not faithfully performed the promised try, presented, there was none which could object, by a battle, than which there was be less imputed to chance than the battle never one fought more nobly, or with of Salamanca. It was not one, the armies more advantage to the common cause? engaged in which met but the hour before Twenty thousand men had been put hors they engaged, and decided the struggle de combat ; and the advantage would have by force of arms unaided by policy; but been still greater, bad not night, and the it was a battle fought between two great | force of nature, interfered to prevent all armies (for they both were great) nearly those results which were aspired after. equal in numbers, though a superiority | The loss of the French army in the fight, was certainly on the side of the enemy, and through the consequences which natu. after looking at each other, and not only rally resulted from it, could not be estima. looking at each other, but watching, marted at less than the above number. He nouvring in each others presence for 'an contended, that the plan of campaign, as advantageous opportunity of attack, from originally conceived by lord Wellington, the 16th of July to the 22d of that month, (which did not aspire to effect the total the day on which the glorious and ever expulsion of the enemy, whose expulsion, memorable battle of Salamanca was fought. on military principles, was not to be ex

Without going into the detail, which be pected, even from a victory glorious as thought unnecessary, as every English. ihat of Salamanca) had been perfectly rea. man must be familiar with it, from having lized. The object of lord Wellington's read the Gazette with the highest interest operations in the north was to force the and delight over and over again; he enemy to quit bis hold of the country in would repeat that this was a victory the south, and to do that which the French achieved after maneuvres the most come officers were instructed by their governplicated, where two armies were long in ment never to do, if it could by possibility sight of each other, each observing what be avoided, namely, to raise the siege of the other did, and trying, by every effort | Cadiz. The French government was of military skill, to take advantage of any afraid of the moral effects of their raising errors that might occur. The greatness the siege of Cadiz, and hence these orders; of his mind was the admiration of all as they believed that while they appeared Europe. In him was seen a general not | in strength before Cadiz, the world would tenacious of what might be said by his give them credit for being strong in Spain. enemies, not putting to risk his army to He put it to the House, then, if the opera. maintain a particular position, but saying tions of lord Wellington had not compelled to himself and to his government, “I will the enemy to abandon the siege of Cadiz, the whole of Andalusia, and left them withi- | pulse and turned their backs on the exer. out any force to the westward of Alicant. tions of Spain) did they think that that What was the situation of Spain at present? spirit had nothing to do with that which Lord Wellington had said, that but for had recently manifested itself in another one unfortunate circumstance the success part of the world? Even the retreat of of the campaign would have been certain. lord Wellington to Torres Vedras had Success would have been certain, had not been of service to that power which now, the French collected the whole of their awakened to a sense of its own strength, disposable force, amounting to not less than had resisted and chastised the power of 70 or 80,000 men, upon the Tormes, and France, and from which so much might be compelled lord Wellington prudentially to augured for Europe. But with Russia,'the make a retreal, a retreat which was more hopes excited by the Spanish resistance like the prelude to a victory than a proof | did not end : beginning at the extremity, of disaster. The enemy had only been it was to be hoped its influence would exenabled to compel him to retreat by an tend further into Europe-to those powers abdication of every military principle which now, indeed, appeared to form a which had regulated their conduct before. part of the strength of France, but which, If Madrid had been a position of military | in fact, were only unnaturally connected importance, which it was not, the case with her, he meant the whole power of would have been materially different from Germany. Such were the effects result. what it at present appeared. Lord Welding from this battle; and which the House lington had not taken possession of it as a might justly trace to itself, as well as to military position, nor had he advanced its brave army, and its distinguished geupon it for the vain glory of taking the neral. Did the House know that the cha.\ enemy's capital, he did nothing for mere racter of the great battle of Borodino, for parade-he went there on this principle; it was a great battle, was partly caused by he knew that unless by advancing he lord Wellington ; a battle greater than threw a large force on the flank of Soult, that of Eylau, greater than that of Aspern, he could not make that general do what and that in which the power of France was really the object of his operations had received one of the severest checks it raise the siege of Cadiz, while Andalusia had ever received. In that great battle, in and the southern provinces of Spain were which 70 or 80,000 men laid down their delivered from the enemy. What, too, lives, it was consoling to know that prince was the result of these operations ? The Kutusoff had it in his power, on the mornFrench, in consequence, did abandoning of that day, to animate his troops by Cadiz; they had since abandoned Madrid, | telling them of the glory gained by the and thus had lost the moral conquest of English on the plains of Salamanca... Did Spain. They were obliged to evacuate not the House feel that it must be most the capital in their turns as well as us, and animating to the Russian army to know that were now only in possession of the ground the marquis of Wellington had at Salaon which they stood, and as far as ever manca completely routed the French from effecting the military or moral sub army? To be told, that if they stood to jugation of the country. And, he should the enemy like Englishmen, they would be glad to know a position in which a achieve as great a triumph, and as great French army could be placed, less useful a triumph they did achieve. For, though / to themselves or less prejudicial to the in- from various circumstances it was found terests of Europe? But if they were to impossible to follow up that victory, still measure the influence of the victory of it was a victory, than which a prouder Salamanca only by what it had produced triumph never was obtained by the forces in Spain, he would say, their estimate of of any country. In that action, that disits value would be most unfair, most untinguished general prince Bagration, whose wise, most untrue, in the circumstances in loss we had since to deplore, with 30,000 which Europe was at present placed. Didmen, repelled the whole military power of the House imagine that that spirit of re- France directed to one point. But it was sistance which grew out of that House, or not at Borodino only that lord Wellington rather out of that people they represented had served the cause of Russia by the in that House, (for he should like to know | influence of his actions, and where the what ministers could have retained their moral effects of his victory were found situations in this country, who at such a they pervaded the whole Russian empire. period had not obeyed the universal im- Russia had been assisted by his military

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