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bon. gentleman (Mr. Whitbread) had ceived. He did not complain of the gothought proper to say, that we were beaten vernment for not issuing letters of marque, at sea by the Americans, because one ship but of the absence of all maritime military of inferior force had been taken by ano- efforts against the coast of America at an ther of superior; and a right hon. gen. early period of the war. Had sufficient tleman (Mr. Canning) had stated that armaments been seasonably stationed off our commerce had been swept from the the American ports, all the American vesocean by the Americans. With respect sels would have been hermetically sealed to our commerce, he had to state, that till up in those ports. He did not mean the accounts from all the out-ports could to say, as had been supposed, that the be obtained, which was impossible till the whole of our commerce had been swept end of the year, a correct estimate could away by the maritime efforts of America. not be formed of it. However, to judge What he meant to say was, that the capfrom the port of London, where a great tures by the Americans were greater in an proportion of the trade of the country infinite proportion than they ought to have was carried on, the inference would be been, considering the disproportion behighly favourable. In the first ten tween our ships and theirs. The Chanmonths of last year, the exparts from cellor of the Exchequer seemed to have the port of London, in official value, forgot his logic when he thought that this amounted to eight millions and a half, and charge was answered by an amount of the in the first ten months of the present year, exports from the port of London; for the they exceeded thirteen millions, a greater amount of those exports by no means insum than for the same period of any dicated their arrival at their place of destiformer year, except 1809, which was the nation. His charge against the governgreatest ever known. No doubt the in. ment for not publishing a counter-decla. terruption of the American trade was se ration to that issued by America, on the verely felt in many parts of the country ; subject of captain Henry's supposed misbut it would be matter of great triumph sion, was also unanswered. The American to Mr. Gallatin, if at the commencement declaration stood recorded in the face of of Congress he could give such an account the world, and the government had not of the commerce of America. In the done the country justice in not stating the amount of the revenue of last year, there denial in a manner equally public. Why was only a deficiency of 90,0001. a very was such a counter-declaration withheld? small sum indeed in a total of sixty mil. Because, said the noble lord, of its being lions.

irritable matter. This was humiliation Mr. W. Smith said, the right hon. the with a vengeance, if the Americans were Chancellor of the Exchequer had stated, to be allowed to publish such a charge, as a matter of triumph, that 11,500,0001., and we were not to answer them for fear had been expended in the peninsular war, of irritating them. Much had been said in the last eleven months, while in 1809, in the course of the evening, on the subonly 2,800,0001. had been expended for ject of peace. He believed there existed the same purpose. He, however, must in the government of France, a determiobserve, that the depreciation of currency nation to pull down this country from the was not quite so great in 1809 as in 1812; 1 situation which she held in Europe; and and he believed the quantity of gold and therefore we had not only to contend with silver exported in the latter year, would our other difficulties, but also with that peraccount for a considerable portion of the manent hostility of sentiment, wbich was increased sum. The same remark, he be- not alone directed against our warlike Jieved, might be made with respect to the power, but against our very existence as a deficiency of the revenue. As they went nation. It was dangerous, therefore, to on, they would find that 60 millions this throw out among the people that peace year, would not be equal to 60 millions in was easy of attainment. Great distress the last. Nor would they find 60 millions certainly existed in the country, though it in the next year, equivalent to the same 'had been greatly exaggerated; but a sum now; and, instead of a deficiency of warning ought to be taken from the pro. 90,000l, they would see it continually in- ceedings previous to the repeal of the creasing.

Orders in Council, not to hold out hopes Mr. Canning wished to restate part of which might only end in disappointment. the opinions delivered by him on the pre- | He wished to know from ihe noble loru ceding evening, which had been miscon. what was the real situation of this country (VOL. XXIV.)


with respect to America? He bad listened | ciation, or that the necessity of peace was attentively to the noble lord's speech of so urgent, that it became the duty of the last night; but if any person this morning House to interfere. Now, if the first ashad asked him whether we were at war sumption were true, it would not be safe with America, or whether there was a ne- or constitutional to address the throne to gociation with that power, or whether the seek for peace; the Address ought to be war or the negociation predominated, he for the removal of ministers. On the could not have given him a satisfactory other hand, if ministers were as ready as answer,

they stated themselves, to enter into a ne. Lord Castlereagh conceived the state gociation, the ground of an Address must ment he made on the former evening, with be, that they mistook the situation of the respect to our situation with America, country, and did not see the necessity of could not have been misunderstood; it was making peace, even if they could, and neither more nor less than a state of un. that, therefore, the House must interpose. qualified warfare. As to a counter decla. He did not think the country was in that ration, it would have been improper to situation; and, however mitigated the issue it until an answer was returned by form of Address might be, if they interAmerica to the repeal of the Orders in fered at all with the known prerogative of Council, and to the proposition which had the crown, it would be telling the enemy been made to her.

that the distresses of the country called The Amendment was then negatived,

for peace. He, therefore, could not conand the Report brought up. On the ques.

sent to deviate from the ordinary system rion, That it be now read,

of the constitution, not having that in.

| formation which the cabinet ministers Mr. Ponsonby rose, and explained his alone possessed. reasons for pursuing the line he had done on Mr. Whitbread went over the arguments the former evening. If he had been in the which he had before advanced in support House in 1793, he would have voted for of his Address; and in reference to his asMr. Fox's motion to send an ambassador sertion that a spirit existed in this country, to Paris, to prevent the breaking out of personally hostile to the French emperor, the war; and for this reason, because the he instanced a pamphlet which was pubwhole question was, whether the govern. lished by authority, during lord Sidmouth's ment of France, as then constituted, was administration, and sent to the different fit to be treated with; and as he was of clergymen throughout England, to be opinion, that one independent state should read in their respective churches, filled not interfere with the government of ano- with the grossest falsehoods, relative to ther, he, of course, conceived that a treaty Buonaparté; and he inferred that this might be concluded with the provisional spirit had not subsided, as one of the paracouncil which then ruled in France; and graphs in the Speech from the throne, at he would have confined himself to this the conclusion of the last session, seemed opinion, that it was more easy to treat for to speak language somewhat similar. the prevention of war than for peace. His Mr. Canning defended the passage in 'hon. friend had stated, that there were the Speech of the Lords Commissioners al. - persons who entertained an opinion, that luded co by the hon. gentleman; and then

no peace could be made with the present went over nearly the same grounds, on the emperor of France. Now, if his hon. subject of peace with France, as he had friend could shew him that such an idea before done. was cherished by any of his Majesty's Mr. Bathurst defended the administra. ministers, he pledged himself to vote with lion of lord Sidmouth, and denied, pehim for an Address to-morrow ; because remptorily, as far as his recollection perhe thought the French emperor might be mitted him, the authorised publication of treated with as well as the head of any any such pamphlet as that mentioned by other government. His hon. friend had the hon. gentleman. said, that the Address only proposed to the Mr. Whitbread said, it was shewn to him Prince Regent to examine whether a by the clergyman of a church in Bed. peace could be made on proper terms. fordshire; and the person who wrote it, This certainly was a mitigated character (Mr. Cobbett) afterwards declared, that it of the measure ; but still it implied one of was circulated throughout the country by these two things either that the minis. order of government. ters were not willing to enter into a nego! The Chancellor of the Exchequer wished

to know, if he could see the publication The Earl of Hardwicke trusted, though alluded to?

| he was aware it was irregular, that after Mr. Whitbrcad said he had a copy of it, what had fallen from the right rev. preand the right hon. gentleman should have late, he should be permitted to trouble it in a few hours.

their lordships with a few words. He reMr. Canning begged to put a question gretted that the learned prelate was not in to ministers, namely, at what time it was the House, when the Petition from Cams their intention to bring forward the sub. bridge against the Roman Catholic Claims ject of the renewal of the East India Com- was prepared by the illustrious person pany's Charter. This was a question of who was chancellor of the University; very general importance, and it was pe- when he bad felt it his duty to offer some culiarly desirable to those interested, that observations to their lordsbips, which lie it should be known, whether it was or was was as ready to repeat in the presence of not to be agitated previous to the Christ. the right rev. prelate, as in his absence. mas recess.

In the first place, it was impossible for Lord Castlercagh said, it certainly was bim to avoid stating, that considering the not the intention of government to bring great public importance of the subject of forward the question alluded to before the petition, sufficient notice had not been Christmas. But, being a question of such given to admit of the attendance of any importance, if government could come to considerable number of the non-resident an arrangement with the East India Com.members. For all questions of a local pany during the recess, it was their inten- | vature, on which the resident members tion to bring forward the discussion at the were certainly well qualified to decide, earliest possible period after the recess. the notice described by the right rev. preThe Report was then agreed to.

late as the usual notice, and which had

probably been given upon this occasion, HOUSE OF LORDS.

was perfectly sufficient; but whenever a

question relating to matters of state policy Thursday, December 3.,

was brought forward, it would be more PETITION AGAINST THE CATHOLIC consistent with fairness and candour to CLAIMS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF Camo give that degree of notice which would BRIDGE.) The Bishop of Bristol request. admit of the attendance of the non-resied the indulgence of the House whilst he dent members of the senate, if they should said a few words relative to what had think fit to give their opinions upon the fallen from a noble earl (Hardwicke) on a subject; but he could not help saying, former day, relative to the Petition from that the seldomer political questions were the Unirersity of Cambridge against the brought before the senate of the UniverCatholic Claims, he (the bishop of Bristol) sity, the better. With respect to what the not having been in the House on the day right rev. prelate had said on the subject alluded to. The right reverend prelate of motives, the noble earl observed, that proceeded to state, that it was not usual in what he had said was entirely of a gene. the University to give more than three ral nature, and not applied to the conduct days' notice of any measure intended to of any individual. The usage of the place be brought forward ; but in this instance, did not admit of questions being discussed, it being a measure of importance, six days' or debated, before they were put to the notice was given, a longer notice than he vote; and, therefore, he could not help ever remembered in the University. He feeling that many persons might give their stated this to prove that the proceeding votes upon general grounds, without that was not unfairly carried through, as al. knowledge and understanding of the quesleged by the noble earl; the fact being, tion, which must in all cases render the that the greater number of those who decision more satisfactory to themselves as voted in the minority came from London conscientious individuals, and at the same in consequence of the notice that had been time give more weight to the opinions of given. With respect to the insinuation as a great public body. to the motives of those who formed the The Bishop of Bristol repeated, that the majority, that they were looking either to notice given was unusually long. preferment or translation, he must leave it The Marquis of Lansdowne contended to the noble earl himself to consider, whe- that the notice was not sufficient, and ob. ther a mere difference of opinion called served that he himself, although only a for such a charge.

day's journey from London, had not notice

of the intended proceeding in time to be, and that his conceptions were equally well · present at the University on the day ap. calculated for the success of his own enpointed for its consideration.

prizes, as they were adapted to circumvent Lord Holland observed, that the Peti. the enterprizes of the enemy. When bis tion did not express the sense of the Uni- plan was formed for the reduction of Baversity; the non-resident members not dajoz, of Ciudad Rodrigo, and Almeida, having had sufficient notice.

he had then determined upon raising the

siege of Cadiz, and thereby compelling VOTE OF THANKS TO THE MARQUIS OP the French to evacuate Andalusia. My WELLINGTON-VICTORY OF SALAMANCA: lords, these objects were the first in lord Earl Bathurst rose, and addressed the Wellington's consideration, and for imporHouse to the following purport: My lords, tant reasons which pressed themselves in rising to address this House upon a sub. most forcibly upon his mind. From the ject of Thanks to our gallant and distin- | very beginning of the campaign his opera. guished general who gained the victory of tions pointed io the situation of the enemy Salamanca, I ain confident there can be no in the south, and particularly to the prin. no' difference of opinion amongst your cipal army under Soult, as the capture of Jordships, with respect to the motion I the invader's battering artillery at Ciudad mean to propose. But before I submit Rodrigo rendered it impracticable to unthis proposition, your lordships will, I trust, dertake any siege of consequence; or, at permit me to make a few observations that season of the year, to advance into upon the principles of military policy and Portugal with any considerable force. In motives which induced the marquis of carrying on the siege of Cadiz, the goWellington to pursue those measures which vernment of Spain had long been confined eventually brought forth a victory, not within its walls, its power was become only productive of fame to the commander, considerably restricted, its reputation but of additional glory to the national among the people had been somewhat decharacter. In doing this I shall advance 1 graded, and its influence upon the Spanish nothing of speculation, but confine my-| dependencies materially lessened. To self to facts contained in documents al. free the government from this confineready before your lordships and the pub. ment, and thereby to give new life to the lic. When lord Wellingion had planned energies of the Spanish nation, was one the siege and reduction of Badajoz, his object of our general's forecast, and led great mind suggested ulterior objects, to the measures which he afterwards purwhich would ultimately affect the success sued. For this purpose, after he had most of our cause in the peninsula. My lords, ably contrived the mode of assault, which I am not disposed, at this time, to allude succeeded even beyond his own expeclain any manner to the mode of conducting tions, whereby Badajoz was taken, he had the campaign, further than to the ability in the first instance determined upon with wbich the noble marquis has, at all marching into the province of Andalusia, times, and in all situations, employed the and oblige the evacuation of that province resources committed to his care. No ge by the French, which was another object neral, my lords, was ever more careful of for which he concerted his plans. At the troops entrusted to his command - no this period it occurred to him, that the general ever more cautiously avoided the possession of Andalusia was more imporsacrifice of lives, when the object to be tant than that of the other provinces. The attained was not equal to the expenditure people had been for some time subject to of so much blood. This disposition marks the power of the enemy, and had gradually the career of his military success, and has become less hostile to their presence, and been particularly manifested in the course some danger existed of their forgetting of this campaigo. From the documents I their connection with their legitiinate gopossess, and not those only which were vernment. To drive the French from the transmitted after the effect was produced, possession of such a province, would be but those which were written when the more conducive to the promotion of the plan was conceived, the extent of his ge- | Spanish cause than to enter Castile. In nius, and the wisdom of his undertakings Castile the enemy's army were differently are most strongly designated and incon. situated : if they had troops stationed in a trovertibly proved. They likewise shew village, that village was obliged to be how much superior he was to those able strongly fortified: and if the distance generals against whom he had to contend, from one village to another was five or

six miles, such was the disposition of the approached the Douro, and the English Spanish people in that province, tbat the were advanced to the Guerena, I can. French were under the necessity of form: not at this time refrain from noticing ing redoubts, for the purpose of prevents that disposition which has peculiarly ing their communication being intercepted. distinguished the character of lord Wel. These were lord Wellington's first inten- lington. Lord Wellington had a fa. tions, and these were the measures he pur-vourable opportunity of giving battle to posed to pursue; and although circum. Marmont, and he was confident the issue stances occurred which led him to change would have been successful; but he de. his plans, yet the object of them continued | clined that opportunity, because he knew the same. General Marmont having come however brilliant the achievement, it would with an army from the north, and ad. cost more lives than would be compenvanced upon the Agueda, soon called sated by the object of victory. Let any forth the attention of our general, and one reflect on the different means which other circumstances having intervened, he he used for two days, to circumvent all was at length determined to change his the schemes of the French general. The intended course, and march into Castile. policy that each was pursuing became Marmont, in the mean time, used every distinctly different, on account of the efendeavour, but in vain, to relieve the for- fect they endeavoured to produce. Mar. tress of Almeida, and at length posted mont was anxious to bring the English himself strongly upon the bridge of Al. to a general engagement, upon ground marez, by which means he endeavoured, not actually unfavourable. Lord Wel. not only to act in opposition to lord Wellington, on the other hand, wished to avoid lington, but to effect a communication an engagement, unless he could commence with the army of Soult. To your lord. lit under favourable circumstances.- The sbips is well known the promptitude and noble earl then took a view of the operaintrepidity with which the French were re. tions of the contending armies immediately moved from that position, and the commu. previous to the battle of Salamanca, and nications cut off between the army of Por- particularly adverted to the skill and gal. tugal and the army under Soult in the lantry displayed by sir Thomas Graham southern provinces. Indeed, my lords, in executing one of the orders of his illussuch were the skill and management of trious chief--an achievement which was the noble marquis during this period of performed within sight of the hostile the campaign, that no words which I can armies. The object of gaining that post use would be adequate to represent their furnished another striking proof of the value. It afterwards happened that a cor. uniform unwillingness of our illustrious respondence between the French generals commander to commit the general safety was intercepted, and the papers fell into of his armies, or unnecessarily to risque our hands. From these letters we were the lives of his soldiers. His lordship made acquainted with their sentiments on then noticed the circumstances of Mar. this subject; and perhaps no greater eulo. mont's receiving reinforcements from the gium could possibly bebestowed upon lord northern army, and panegyrised the able Wellington than was contained in their retreat of the British commander, in conobservations. From these it appeared that sequence, without loss, and in such a way, no movement of the enemy could disap. as enabled the allied force in that quarter point his plans or controvert bis projects; to form a junction. The manner in which while on their part no movement was lord Wellington passed the Tormes, and concerted but it was anticipated-no ex. afterwards drew up in front of Marmont, pectation was raised but it ended in disap. who was extending his left to cut off his pointment—no fear was entertained but it opponent from communicating with Sa. became realized. In one of these inter- lamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo, was a brilcepted letters it is said, “ he must read our liant and admirable military manauvre. correspondence, or he must dive into our In this situation it was not lord Wellinghearts, for no sooner do we form a design ton's intention to engage; and it was than be knows it, and forms measures to Marmont's policy to drive him to that defeat it.” Nothing, my lords, could measure. Lord Wellington cautiously equal the wisdom which marked all lord watched the operations which were at. Wellington's movements previous to the tempted to intercept him on one side, and battle of Salamanca. If we turn our ato force bim to battle on the other, and at teption to his manoeuvres after Marmont the same time he was not remiss in wait

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